Temporal Neocortex

Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) often show ictal and interictal propagation of epileptiform EEG activity to the ipsilateral temporal neocortex, the ipsilateral frontal lobe or the contralateral hippocampus, although structural MRI only shows unilateral involvement of the hippocampal formation.  

Initially, AM's recollection was supported by the classic autobiographical memory network, including atrophied tissue in hippocampus and temporal neocortex.  

It is widely held that long-term memory gradually develops in the temporal neocortex after initial memory encoding into the hippocampus. However, little is known as to whether and where long-term memory can be newly created in the human temporal neocortex. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we detected brain activity in the temporal neocortex that was developed approximately 8 weeks after study of unfamiliar pictorial paired associates. The greater activity during retrieval of older memory developed in the temporal neocortex provides direct evidence of formation of temporal neocortical representation for stable long-term memory..  

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a neurodegenerative disease of the frontal and temporal neocortex.  

In a rare set of monozygotic twins discordant for Alzheimer's disease (AD), significantly reduced levels of DNA methylation were observed in temporal neocortex neuronal nuclei of the AD twin.  

RESULTS: VBM and region-of-interest analyses revealed selective foci of accelerated rGM loss exclusively in men, involving the temporal neocortex, prefrontal cortex, and medial temporal region.  

Using a complementary DNAs microarray representing 4096 human genes, we analyzed differential gene expression in the anterior temporal neocortex (ATN) of IE patients relative to control patients who had an operation to relieve head trauma-related intracranial pressure.  

In this study, we generated a new phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43 antibody and examined AD brain sections from temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and temporal neocortex, by immunohistochemistry. The A2 antibody clearly and intensely detected granular structures distributed over the hippocampus, subiculum, parahippocampus and temporal neocortex.  

Patients with TLE excision, but not pre-surgical patients, reported significantly fewer actions per script in comparison to controls, suggesting that the temporal neocortex is more involved than mesial temporal structures in recall of this type of information.  

Levels of lipid peroxidation as well as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the piriform and entorhinal cortices, temporal neocortex, thalamus, and hippocampus in rats of both sexes, at 24 h after SE onset were determined. Levels of lipid peroxidation in all brain regions examined, the SOD activities in the piriform and entorhinal cortices, and temporal neocortex as well as the GSH-Px activities in the piriform and entorhinal cortices, and thalamus were significantly higher in rats with SE in comparison to the values of mentioned biochemical parameters in rats of the control groups. Lipid peroxidation level in the temporal neocortex as well as the GSH-Px activity in the hippocampus in male rats were significantly higher in comparison to the values registered in females.  

Voxelwise analyses showed significant (p<0.05, corrected) negative correlations in the right prefrontal cortex and left cerebellum, and positive correlations (indicating lack of GM loss) in the medial temporal region, cingulate gyrus, insula and temporal neocortex.  

However, FLISA only occurred when the ictal EEG discharge spread to the ipsilateral temporal neocortex or frontal operculum.  

Percentages of cortical contacts pairs responding to PuM stimulation (CEPs response rate) ranged from 80% in temporal neocortex, temporoparietal (TP) junction, insula, and frontoparietal opercular cortex to 34% in mesial temporal regions. Reciprocally, PuM-evoked potentials (PEPs) response rates were 14% after cortical stimulation in insula and frontoparietal opercular cortex, 67% in the TP junction, 76% in temporal neocortex, and 80% in mesial temporal regions.  

We aimed to investigate Synaptotagmin I expression in the anterior temporal neocortex of epilepsy patients, and to explore the possible role of Synaptotagmin I in refractory epilepsy.  

In the present work we have used stereological and correlative light and electron microscopy to show that men have a significantly higher synaptic density than women in all cortical layers of the temporal neocortex.  

There are, however, a number of other more selective procedures for removal of the mesial temporal lobe structures (amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus) that spare much of the lateral temporal neocortex.  

Our aim was to investigate nestin expression in the temporal neocortex of patients with intractable epilepsy (IE), and then to discuss the possible role of nestin in IE. Tissue samples from the temporal neocortex of 32 patients who had surgery for IE were used to detect nestin expression by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence. We compared these tissues with 12 histologically normal temporal neocortex from intracranial hypertension patients who had decompression procedures. In this study, we found some nestin positive cells in the normal temporal neocortex, but in the intractable epilepsy, they were upregulated, increasing with length of course and seizure frequency.  

The expression of N-WASP in the anterior temporal neocortex was detected using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting; Arp2/3 expression was detected by western blotting.  

These findings are also in accord with the existence of two distinct systems of evaluation, the first implicating an automatic processing represented in occipito-temporal neocortex and the other a more controlled processing represented in PFC..  

CONCLUSION: Intracellular and membrane-associated Abeta, especially Abeta(42) in the temporal neocortex, may be more closely related to AD symptoms than other measured Abeta species..  

METHODS: To investigate the role of AQP1 in pathophysiology of IE, we studied the expression of AQP1 in surgical samples of the anterior temporal neocortex of patients with IE and the age-matched controls samples.  

INTRODUCTION: Ear plugging (placing fingers in or covering the ears) is a clinical seizure semiology that has been described as a response to an unformed, auditory hallucination localized to the superior temporal neocortex.  

Adjacent sections of the medial temporal neocortex (Brodmann's area 22) of 5 male AD patients aged 60-88 years (Braak V-VI) and 5 age-matched male non-demented control subjects were i) stained with a modified Bielschowsky silver method in order to reveal NFTs and 'ghost' tangles, ii) single-stained with anti-APP, and iii) double-labeled with anti-APP and AT8.  

In patients, 0 degrees deviation produced increased activation in amygdala and areas of temporal neocortex.  

Neocortical areas also may be involved, suggested by the presence of visual and auditory hallucinations, complex ideation during many religious experiences, and the large expanse of temporal neocortex.  

In the nLBTP group, palpha-synuclein positive neurite pathology such as threads and dots occurs in all layers of the temporal neocortex.  

Pyramidal neurons of layers III and V of the adjacent temporal neocortex (area 35) were retrogradely marked with the tracer and analyzed. The AD case did not exhibit any retrogradely labeled neurons in the temporal neocortex.  

epileptogenic foci: in the amygdalohippocampus complex or temporal neocortex.  

The functional disintegration in patients exceeded the reduced activation, and included the contralateral temporal neocortex, and in subjects with right MTLE also the right orbitofrontal cortex.  

The alpha and beta ERD linked to the increased cognitive load was present moreover in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and surprisingly also the temporal neocortex. CONCLUSIONS: Particularly the temporal neocortex was activated by the increased cognitive load.  

Here, we examined by MethyLight PCR the DNA methylation status at 50 loci, encompassing primarily 5' CpG islands of genes related to CNS growth and development, in temporal neocortex of 125 subjects ranging in age from 17 weeks of gestation to 104 years old.  

Our aim was to investigate TDAG51 expression in the anterior temporal neocortex of patients with intractable epilepsy (IE), and then to discuss the possible role of TDAG51 in IE. Tissue samples from the anterior temporal neocortex of 33 patients who had surgery for IE were used to detect TDAG51 expression by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting.  

The most striking finding besides the tau pathology was the presence of concomitant neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and neurites immunoreactive for the transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) in the dentate gyrus and temporal neocortex, similar to those found in FTLD-U.  

To address this issue, temporal neocortex of 27 AD and 21 non-demented control brains was examined to assess mRNA levels of APP isoforms (total APP, APP containing the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain [ APP-KPI] and APP770) and APP metabolic enzymatic partners (the APP cleaving enzymes beta-secretase [ BACE] and presenilin-1 [ PS-1], and putative clearance molecules, low-density lipoprotein receptor protein [ LRP] and apolipoprotein E [ apoE]).  

In our study, fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot were used to test the levels of HSPBAP1 mRNA and protein in surgical samples of the anterior temporal neocortex of patients with intractable epilepsy (IE) and normal controls samples. HSPBAP1 mRNA was abnormally expressed in the anterior temporal neocortex of patients with IE. The expression of HSPBAP1 mRNA and protein in the anterior temporal neocortex from patients with IE may play a role in the development of epileptic seizures in patients with cell loss in this brain region.  

This study supports the view that fv-FTD patients undergo a breakdown of generative processes which relies regardless of the remoteness on the left orbitofrontal cortex and temporal neocortex to gain access to AM..  

The N350 is proposed to index a second state of interactive, recurrent, and feedback processing in occipital and ventral temporal neocortex supporting higher-order cognitive abilities and phenomenological awareness with objects..  

The time of the maximum value did not associate with specific brain regions, except that a nocturnal peak was not measured from temporal neocortex.  

In two patients, resection encompassed anterolateral and inferior temporal neocortex but spared the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices, amygdala and hippocampus.  

Statistical analysis associated cognitive deficits with tau-immunoreactive pathology that is significantly more prominent in frontal and parietal cortices and the basal ganglia than temporal neocortex and the hippocampus.  

The effects of the genotype at the SCN1A IVS5N+5 G-->A polymorphism on SCN1A splice-variant proportions and the consequences of increased expression of splice modifiers were investigated both in human temporal neocortex tissue and in a cellular minigene expression system.  

We compared plasma levels of Abeta40 and Abeta42 obtained during life with biochemical and pathologic levels in frontal and temporal neocortex in 25 individuals (17 AD, 3 control, and 5 non-AD dementia) who died a median of 1 year after blood collection.  

CONCLUSIONS: MTA in MCI is associated with hippocampal gray matter hypoperfusion while WMHs is associated with gray matter hypoperfusion in areas of the insula and temporal neocortex.  

Later, left temporal lobectomy revealed focal cortical dysplasia in the lateral temporal neocortex and gliosis plus neuronal loss in the hippocampus.  

We studied the expression of NKCC (putative NKCC1) and KCC2 in human normal temporal neocortex by Western blot analysis and in normal and epileptic regions of the subiculum and the hippocampus proper using immunocytochemistry.  

In younger cohorts, NFTs are usually restricted to hippocampal formation, whereas clinical signs of dementia appear when temporal neocortex is involved.  

The perception of the auditory sensation referred to one ear is not a unique lateralizing sign for the contralateral temporal neocortex.  

During both spontaneous and provoked dreamy state, the electrical discharge was localized within mesial temporal lobe structures, without involvement of the temporal neocortex. Early spread of the discharge to the temporal neocortex appeared to prevent the occurrence of the dreamy state.  

Significant differences between the two tasks appeared in several frontal areas--in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices (BA 9, 45, 11), and in the temporal neocortex (BA 21). In the temporal neocortex only, the oscillatory, but not the evoked, activity was recorded in the self-paced movement.  

Tonic GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents were present in pyramidal cells and interneurons in layer V-VI of temporal neocortex and granule cells in the dentate gyrus.  

Tissue specimens from temporal neocortex and hippocampus were stained with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E).  

In AD stages I-II and in PD stage 4, the pathological process makes inroads into the anteromedial temporal mesocortex, entorhinal allocortex, and Ammon's horn; thereafter, in AD stages III-IV and in PD stage 5, it proceeds into the adjoining high order association areas of the basal temporal neocortex.  

FTD leads to neurodegeneration in the frontal and temporal neocortex and usually encompasses both sides of the frontal and anterior temporal lobes.  

To determine whether nitrogen monoxide (nitric oxide; NO) synthase (NOS) and NADPH diaphorase (NDP) co-containing cerebrocortical neurons (NOSN) neurons are affected in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with and without associated intake of drugs of abuse, we examined the temporal neocortex of 24 individuals: 12 HIV-1 positive (including 3 drug users, 9 non-drug users) and 12 HIV-1 negative (including 6 drug users, and 6 non-drug users).  

Notably, these proteins were more abundant in the temporal neocortex than in the hippocampus, the difference in abundance of the 65-kDa product being particularly pronounced.  

Elevated mRNA levels of caspases-7 and 8 measured by a quantitative PCR method were observed in the AD temporal neocortex as compared to the control brains.  

We report here that an antibody to phospho-SAPK/JNK (p-SAPK/JNK) reacts with several types of lesions including granular bodies in limbic areas; NFTs in limbic cortex and temporal neocortex; occasional neuritic plaques in temporal neocortex; and select axons in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and inferior temporal cortex.  

We find that small calbindin (+) cortical interneurons are induced to high levels of NADPHd/nNOS reactivity early in AD and abound in areas with emerging neurofibrillary pathology, that is, in entorhinal cortex in the beginning of the limbic stage of Braak, in hippocampal CA1 in the mature limbic stage and in temporal neocortex in the late limbic stage.  

We describe this approach by extracting membrane vesicles from human hippocampus or temporal neocortex and from mammalian cell lines stably expressing glutamate or neuronal nicotinic receptors.  

Glucose metabolism PET scan during the fourth episode of aphasia revealed intense hypermetabolism in the left temporal neocortex.  

Here we show that Na+ and K+ voltage-gated channels, together with other molecules involved in the localization of ion channels, are distributed asymmetrically in the AIS of pyramidal cells situated in the human temporal neocortex.  

The changes in density of inhibitory parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons were quantitatively studied by immunohistochemistry in a series of human neocortical samples comprising the spectrum of malformations of cortical development (MCD) encountered in epilepsy surgery and the non-malformed hippocampal sclerosis-temporal neocortex in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons was significantly decreased in non-malformed hippocampal sclerosis-temporal neocortex (n = 73, 80.5% of control values). This study provides evidence for reduction of inhibitory parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons in the epileptic neocortex affected by MCD as well as in morphologically unaffected epileptic temporal neocortex, thus representing a possible mechanism for their epileptogenicity..  

Because the entorhinal cortex (EC) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of the MTLE and usually discloses no detectable or little cell loss, resected EC and each corresponding lateral temporal neocortex (LTC) of MTLE patients were used as the source of disease-associated and control RNAs, respectively.  

Hippocampal sclerosis is often associated with macroscopic or microscopic dysplasia in the temporal neocortex (TN).  

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of the resection of hippocampus and temporal neocortex on postsurgical seizure and memory outcomes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients.  

We find that when cell membranes, isolated from the temporal neocortex of patients afflicted with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), are injected into frog oocytes they acquire GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-receptors) that display a marked rundown during repetitive applications of GABA.  

Relative differences in neuronal density and size in FCD cases between the superficial (layer I and II) and deep cortical laminae (layer V and VI) were similar to that observed in other pathologies including mild MCD, temporal neocortex adjacent to hippocampal sclerosis as well as in a non-epilepsy surgical control group.  

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing neurons and axon terminals were examined in the rat somatosensory and temporal neocortex, in the CA3/a-c areas of Ammon's horn and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.  

Thirty-one of these electrodes were inserted through the temporal neocortex following craniotomy and placement of subdural grids, whereas 10 were placed through burr holes.  

In controls NFT were confined to the entorhinal cortex whereas in drug users they were also found in the subiculum, temporal neocortex, nucleus basalis of Meynert and the locus coeruleus.  

There was mild neuronal dropout in the frontal, parietal, and temporal neocortex.  

Regions of significant GM loss over the 18-month follow-up period common to both converters and non-converters included the temporal neocortex, parahippocampal cortex, orbitofrontal and inferior parietal areas, and the left thalamus.  

A low-grade tumor was suspected, given a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study demonstrating enlargement of the left amygdala, anterior hippocampus, and adjacent mesial temporal neocortex, with modest gadolinium enhancement, and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan showing increased metabolism within that region.  

BDNF protein levels in temporal neocortex of the AD brains were reduced by 33% compared to control brains, whereas levels were unchanged in frontal and cerebellar cortex.  

Autobiographical event memory ("episodic") was associated with combined atrophy in bilateral MTL and anterior lateral temporal neocortex, more pronounced on the right.  

RESULTS: Individuals with schizophrenia had distributed grey matter deficit predominantly involving the fronto-temporal neocortex, medial temporal lobe, insula, thalamus and cerebellum, whereas those with bipolar disorder had no significant regions of grey matter abnormality.  

METHODS: Human epileptic temporal neocortex was obtained during neurosurgery, and control tissue was obtained at autopsy from subjects without known neurologic diseases.  

In this study, we measured NR3A transcript levels in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and inferior temporal neocortex in the brains of people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and a comparison group.  

The study of semantic dementia, where there is lobar atrophy of the temporal lobe, has shown that the temporal neocortex has an important function in semantic memory.  

Moreover, the GABA(A) receptors of pyramidal neurons in temporal neocortex slices from the same six epileptic patients exhibited a stronger run-down than the receptors of rat pyramidal neurons.  

Memory performance was also significantly correlated with gray matter volumes of the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and several regions of temporal neocortex.  

In the full group of patients, a significant decreased BP was detected ipsilateral to the epileptogenic zone in the hippocampus, temporal pole, insula, and temporal neocortex.  

METHODS: Cytoarchitectonics and cell proliferation were examined in the cerebellum, hippocampal formation and temporal neocortex of preterm infants who lived for several weeks or months.  

The results are interpreted as reflecting sensitivity of this region of temporal neocortex to auditory object features, as predicted by neurophysiological and anatomical models implicating an anteroventral functional stream in object processing.  

1) Stimulating electrodes were inserted in the entorhinal cortex and temporal neocortex and evoked unit responses were recorded in between them, in the intervening rhinal cortices.  

In this study, we detected misfolded and aggregated alpha-synuclein in a Triton X-100 insoluble fraction as well as a high molecular weight product by gel electrophoresis of temporal neocortex from DLB patients but not from controls.  

Four patients had preresection intracranial EEG monitoring, which suggested an epileptogenic zone in the posterior temporal and inferior parietal area in two, in the temporal lobe in one, and was inconclusive in the remaining one, who showed late epileptiform activity in the temporal neocortex.  

LVV hemorphin-6 and total hemorphin levels were elevated in AD temporal neocortex but not in hippocampus, occipital lobe, or frontal lobe.  

One view is that memories are held briefly within a medial temporal store ("hippocampal complex") before being "consolidated" or reorganised within temporal neocortex and/or networks more widely distributed within the cerebral cortex.  

Nondysplastic temporal neocortex was obtained from a 2-year-old boy with intractable epilepsy and medial temporal lobe ganglioglioma.  

Therefore, the results demonstrate that there are neural responses to intelligible speech along the length of the left lateral temporal neocortex, although the precise processing roles of the anterior and posterior regions cannot be determined from this study..  

Long-term amnesia is a slowly developing form of anterograde amnesia accompanied by retrograde amnesia of variable severity (Kapur, 1996; 1997) often associated with damage to the anterior temporal neocortex and epileptic seizures. Her injury caused bilateral anterior temporal neocortex damage that was more extensive on the left and right-sided damage to the perirhinal and orbitofrontal cortices. Her long-term amnesia may have been caused by anterior temporal neocortex damage, possibly in association with her epileptic seizures.  

Components of this network include specialized memory storage sites within temporal neocortex that interact with medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortical areas during face memory encoding and retrieval.  

To learn the cause of this phenomenon, we examined the temporal neocortex of 13 fire fatalities and 9 fatalities unrelated to fire.  

MATERIAL: Blocks of frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal neocortex and cerebellar cortex from 11 cases of vCJD.  

METHODS: Single voxel MRS was carried out in the hippocampus and lateral temporal neocortex of both hemispheres in 13 patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) and 16 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE). RESULTS: Consistent with previous studies, the NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratio was abnormally low in the hippocampus ipsilateral to the focus (p < 0.0001), and there were lower values in both patient groups in the ipsilateral temporal neocortex (p < 0.0001).  

Disrupted cortical lamination, dystrophic and maloriented neurons, and balloon cells characterized the CD found in the temporal neocortex.  

Intense KCNQ5 immunoreactivity was found to be widely distributed throughout the temporal neocortex and the hippocampal formation.  

Volumetric analysis of hippocampus and temporal neocortex was performed using computer-aided stereology (MEASURE program, Patrick Barta, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, USA).  

Subsequent quantification by BrdU immunohistochemistry revealed a significant postischemic increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, subventricular zone of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, and temporal neocortex.  

The ischemic insult significantly increased the number of proliferating cells in the hippocampus and temporal neocortex, where the majority BrdU-labeled cells expressed markers for microglia (Iba1, CD68, and Ham56) or astrocytes (S-100beta and glial fibrillary acidic protein [ GFAP]).  

Nonetheless, an effect may be seen when a hippocampal lesion is made in monkeys with some IT damage, as in this experiment, as well as by the general observation that large lesions of the temporal lobes produce larger perceptuo-mnemonic impairments than lesions confined to the hippocampus or temporal neocortex in monkeys and man..  

Temporal lobectomy is an effective treatment of complex partial and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures arising in the mesial structures or lateral temporal neocortex.  

BACKGROUND: Activation of central serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors, found in high density in brainstem raphe, hippocampus, and temporal neocortex, exerts an anticonvulsant effect in various experimental seizure models.  

RESULTS: A first network of neural structures was identified within the right anterior temporal regions (amygdala, temporal pole, hippocampus, temporal neocortex).  

Consistent with established histopathological data, structural imaging studies comparing patients with early probable AD to healthy aged subjects have shown that the most specific and sensitive features of AD at this stage are hippocampal and entorhinal cortex atrophy, especially when combined with a reduced volume of the temporal neocortex. Nevertheless, comparing the initial MRI data of at-risk subjects who convert to AD at follow-up to those of nonconverters suggests that a reduced association temporal neocortex volume combined with hippocampal or anterior cingulate cortex atrophy may be the best predictor of progression to AD.  

The most frequent neuropathologic abnormalities were cortical dysplasia (CD) of the temporal neocortex (14 of 22) and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) (12 of the 15 children with available hippocampal tissue).  

To examine how specifically this pathology is associated with dementia in MND, we performed ubiquitin immunohistochemistry on sections of hippocampus, prefrontal and temporal neocortex from 29 cases of MND, 10 with dementia and 19 with no clinical history of cognitive impairment.  

Neurons with marked immunoreaction of 8-hydroxyguanosine in the cytoplasm were widely distributed in the hippocampal region and temporal neocortex.  

We describe here the organization pattern of the synaptic network formed by the temporal neocortex, areas 36 and 35 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC) and the entorhinal cortex (EC), in the in vitro isolated guinea-pig brain. Stimulation of the temporal neocortex induced monosynaptic and polysynaptic potentials in areas 35 and 36, respectively.  

Significant differences could be found between ASIs during postictal psychosis and interictal state SPECT scan over the lateral temporal neocortex region (P = 0.017).  

RESULTS: Direct correlations were detected between the hippocampal grey matter density and rCBF values in voxel clusters located bilaterally in the temporal neocortex, in the left medial temporal region, and in the left posterior cingulate cortex during the memory task in the Alzheimer's disease group (p < 0.001).  

Compared with 22 age-matched healthy controls, patients had highly significant gray matter loss predominantly affecting the hippocampal region and cingulate gyri (posterior and subcallosal part of the anterior), and extending into the temporal neocortex.  

In the present study, we investigated the concentration of CS, heparan sulfate (HS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in the hippocampus and temporal neocortex as well as RPTP zeta/beta expression in the hippocampus of patients with MTLE. No differences were found in the concentration of CS, HS, or HA in the temporal neocortex of epileptic patients when compared to control values.  

Membranes isolated from the temporal neocortex of a patient, operated for intractable epilepsy, were injected into oocytes and, within a few hours, the oocyte membrane acquired functional neurotransmitter receptors to gamma-aminobutyric acid, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, kainate, and glycine. These receptors were also expressed in the plasma membrane of oocytes injected with mRNA extracted from the temporal neocortex of the same patient.  

The temporal neocortex and hippocampus were relatively spared in DG, in contrast to Alzheimer disease.  

Enzymatic activity increased by 63% in the temporal neocortex (P =.007) and 13% in the frontal neocortex (P =.003) in brains with AD, but not in the cerebellar cortex. Activity in the temporal neocortex increased with the duration of AD (P =.008) but did not correlate with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measures of insoluble Abeta in brains with AD.  

BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies suggest that whereas the left temporal neocortex plays a crucial role in all tasks involving lexical-semantic processing, some regions of the left prefrontal convexity are selectively recruited during verb processing.  

SISCOM abnormalities were found more frequently in the posterior temporal neocortex.  

The analysis of spread patterns revealed two types of waves: fully propagated waves spreading from CA1 all the way to the temporal neocortex and abortive waves that ceased earlier.  

The results suggest that chandelier terminals in layers II and III of the human entorhinal cortex and temporal neocortex might be particularly susceptible to plastic changes..  

Semantic dementia is a degenerative disorder of temporal neocortex characterised by loss of word and object concepts.  

CONCLUSION: The expression of GAP-43 increases in infarction of temporal neocortex and batroxobin promotes the expression of GAP-43 and ameliorates the pathological changes in infarction of temporal neocortex..  

However, the subgroup analysis disclosed that, in the less severe subgroup, all significant correlations (P < 0.005, uncorrected) were restricted to the parahippocampal gyrus and retrosplenial cortex, in accordance with both the distribution of changes in tau in early Alzheimer's disease and the known involvement of this network in normal and impaired memory function, while in the more severe subgroup they mainly involved the left temporal neocortex, which is known to be implicated in semantic memory.  

This slowing was dependent on the spread of ictal discharge within the ipsilateral temporal lobe (related to the investigated basal ganglia structures); alternatively, the slowing occurred in association with the regional spread of ictal activity from the mesiotemporal region to the temporal neocortex contralaterally to the investigated basal ganglia.  

A 29-year-old male with medial temporal lobe epilepsy(MTLE) was revealed to have "occult" focal cortical dysplasia(FCD) in the lateral temporal neocortex.  

As semantic dementia is associated with progressive atrophy to temporal neocortex, with early asymmetric sparing of the hippocampus, this neuropsychological pattern suggests that the hippocampal complex plays a role in the acquisition and retrieval of recent memories, but is not necessary for the recall of older episodic events.  

Fluorescent retrograde tracers, Fast Blue (FB) or Diamidino Yellow (DiY), were injected into the SOC and the pattern of labeled cells was determined in temporal neocortex.  

Because all the removals included lateral and inferior temporal neocortex together with amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus and varying amounts of hippocampus, a combined-lesion effect could not be ruled out.  

Here we describe calbindin neurones in temporal neocortex from 18 severely demented patients with neuropathologically confirmed AD and 13 age and post-mortem delay matched, neurologically normal controls.  

A focal area of medial prefrontal glucose hypometabolism was defined in the aggressive children as compared with the nonaggressive pediatric group with SPM, whereas ROI comparison of these groups confirmed prefrontal hypometabolism and also showed glucose hypometabolism of the temporal neocortex in the aggressive children.  

Neuropathology studies show that patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease typically have lesions of the entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus (Hip), and temporal neocortex. Among those who declined, the baseline EC predicted longitudinal memory and temporal neocortex metabolic reductions. Among those subjects who declined, apolipoprotein E E4 carriers showed marked longitudinal temporal neocortex reductions.  

In all 3 patients with lateral temporal lesions, the activation was initially confined to temporal neocortex immediately adjacent to the epileptogenic lesion.  

In the ML and LM subtypes, medial structures and the anterior temporal neocortex are co-activated at the onset of seizures. We analyzed the functional coupling between 3 regions of the temporal lobe: the anterior temporal neocortex, the amygdala, and the anterior hippocampus. A rapid "tonic" discharge is observed over the temporal neocortex at the onset of seizure.  

We report a series of nine children with multiple daily seizures since infancy who underwent functional hemispherectomy that included en bloc resection of the hippocampus and the temporal neocortex.  

There was an overall increase in right/left asymmetry with age, which was most pronounced in the frontal and temporal neocortex. The most significant correlations between AI and age decade were found in the prefrontal (R=0.35, P=0.001) and superior temporal neocortex (R=0.43, P<0.001).  

The studies converge on the importance of the right temporal neocortex and other right-hemisphere structures in the processing of both perceived and imagined nonverbal music.  

The results supported the hypotheses: 1) entorhinal cortex MRglu and hippocampal volume were most accurate in classifying NL and MCI; 2) both imaging modalities identified the temporal neocortex as best separating MCI and AD, whereas widespread changes accurately classified NL and AD; 3) In most between group comparisons regional MRglu measures were diagnostically superior to volume measures.  

Subtle MRI abnormalities of ipsilateral temporal neocortex were seen in all children and 60% of adolescents studied with FLAIR images.  

PURPOSE: Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) is a surgical technique effective for the treatment of medial temporal lobe epilepsy, which selectively removes the epileptogenic hippocampus and amygdala but spares the temporal neocortex.  

A region of T2 hyperintensity was observed in left temporal neocortex in infarction group and batroxobin group 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after infarction.  

Four of five patients with NTLE had NE depletion in temporal neocortex while eight of nine patients with MTLE had high concentrations of NE (chi-square P<0.01).  

Semantic dementia is a recently documented syndrome associated with non-Alzheimer degenerative pathology of the polar and inferolateral temporal neocortex, with relative sparing (at least in the early stages) of the hippocampal complex.  

The absence of activation consistently observed bilaterally in dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, in connection with right-sided cortical frontal lobe structures and right-sided lateral temporal neocortex in unconscious perception, supports the importance of these structures for the awareness of visual stimuli.  

An abundance of alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive Lewy neurites were found in the brainstem pigmented nuclei, hippocampus, and temporal neocortex.  

AIM AND METHODS: Repeated tetanus (60 Hz, 0.4-0.6 mA, 2 s) were delivered into the right and the left dorsal hippocampus (HPC), or into the right and the left medial temporal neocortex (MTNC) respectively to establish chronic temporal lobe epilepsy model in rats.  

In the temporal neocortex D2 mRNA-positive cells were detected in the subplate and cortical plate. They all but disappeared from the hippocampal areas by mid gestation, but in the temporal neocortex occasional cells were seen even at term.  

Histological analysis indicated that in addition to cutting some of the subcortical temporal lobe efferent pathways, the surgical procedures had cut the cholinergic afferents to the temporal neocortex, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus.  

Their dipole locations did not appear in the affected hippocampus, but in the adjacent temporal neocortex.  

FTD is characterised by profound character change and altered social conduct, and executive deficits, reflecting focal degeneration of the frontal and temporal neocortex.  

Anatomical studies in monkeys, and functional imaging and lesion studies in humans, suggest that, within the primate medial temporal neocortex, the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) is particularly involved in spatial tasks. Our results show that the PHC is a critical component for spatial memory in humans and suggest that (i) extrahippocampal spatial memory functions of the medial temporal lobe may not be equally distributed in the medial temporal neocortex, but may be largely confined to the PHC, and (ii) damage to connections between cortices involved in spatial cognition and rostral regions of the temporal lobe is unlikely to account for the observed spatial memory deficits with PHC lesions..  

Nineteen neuronal populations were recorded with extracellular microelectrodes from the left temporal neocortex of 11 awake patients, and 18 from the right in 9 patients during anterior temporal lobectomy for complex partial seizures under local anesthesia.  

In addition, NTLE patients demonstrated seizure onset in anterolateral temporal neocortex on electroencephalography (EEG).  

The predictive value of positron emission tomography with (18)fluorodeoxyglucose was considerably improved by the multivariate analysis (F(4,15) = 7.21; P =.002), which correctly predicted the 2 -year prognosis in 100% of the patients using 4 regions: the temporal pole, the medial temporal region, the anterior part of the lateral temporal neocortex, and the basofrontal region.  

The medial temporal structures were those more commonly involved, although seizures were observed also in cases where they were spared by tumors located exclusively in the temporal neocortex.  

In the first of 4 phases of beta-amyloidosis, diffuse non-neuritic plaques are deposited in the basal temporal neocortex. In the third phase, Abeta-deposits emerge in the molecular layer of the fascia dentata, and band-like Abeta-deposits occur in the subpial portion of the molecular layer of both the entorhinal region and the temporal neocortex. Parallel to the evolution of beta-amyloidosis as represented by the 4 phases, neuritic plaques gradually make their appearance in the temporal neocortex, entorhinal region, CA1, the molecular layer of the fascia dentata, and CA4.  

To determine the potential utility of a rodent model of unilaterally induced cognitive deficits, the present experiment evaluated spatial cognition in adult rats after either left or right hemisphere lesioning of temporal neocortex and underlying hippocampal regions.  

occipital, parietal and frontal lobes) and temporal neocortex (i.e. temporal lobe) were present in stem amniotes, and these antecedent regions gave rise to dorsal cortex and dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR), respectively, in living reptiles; (2) the stem amniote antecedent of mammalian superior neocortex gave rise to dorsal cortex in the reptilian lineage, while the stem amniote antecedent of mammal claustrum, endopiriform region and/or basolateral/basomedial amygdala gave rise to DVR in reptiles, with mammalian temporal neocortex being a newly evolved structure with no reptilian homologue. The latter hypothesis has the merit of being more consistent with some current homeobox gene data, but it has the disadvantages of positing that mammalian temporal neocortex arose de novo, and of assuming that the high similarity between DVR and temporal neocortex in the organization of thalamic sensory input and corticostriatal projections and in the topology of sensory areas is coincidental. If one assumes that the antecedent of superior and temporal neocortex in stem amniotes was one continuous field that histologically resembled dorsal cortex in living reptiles, the first hypothesis provides basis for a parsimonious account of the origin of superior and temporal neocortex and their considerable resemblance to dorsal cortex and DVR in reptiles, as well as to Wulst and DVR in birds..  

METHODS: Spatial distribution of L* (L* map) was extracted from electrocorticograms (n = 52) recorded during presurgical assessment via subdural 64-contact grid electrodes covering lesions in either frontal, parietal, or temporal neocortex in 15 patients.  

The characteristic cognitive profiles reflect the distribution of pathology within each syndrome and support the putative role of the inferolateral temporal neocortex in semantic memory, the medial temporal lobe structures of the hippocampal complex in episodic memory, and the frontal lobes in executive function..  

The aim of the present study was to determine quantitatively GluR subunit combinations in the human temporal neocortex by double-labeling immunocyto- chemical experiments.  

They were particularly prevalent in the mesial basal temporal neocortex.  

During surgical intervention in medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, diagnosed with either mesial temporal lobe sclerosis (MTS)- or tumor (T)-associated TLE, biopsies were taken from the anterior temporal neocortex and the hippocampal region.  

The volumes of the hippocampal formation and, as a control for generalized atrophy, parahippocampal gyrus and temporal neocortex were computed from gapless coronal slices taken perpendicular to the long axis of the hippocampus.  

The present study describes detailed guidelines for the parcellation of the temporal neocortex. It parcels the entire temporal neocortex into 16 subregions: temporal pole, heschl's gyrus, planum temporale, planum polare, superior temporal gyrus (rostral and caudal), middle temporal gyrus (rostral, intermediate, and caudal), inferior temporal gyrus (rostral, intermediate, and caudal), occipitotemporal gyrus (rostral and caudal), and parahippocampal gyrus (rostral and caudal). The reliability study showed that the temporal neocortex could be parceled successfully and reliably; intraclass correlation coefficient for each subregion ranged from 0.62 to 0.99.  

RESULTS: Significant abnormalities of absolute FMZ-Vd were found after partial volume effect correction in 5 of 10 patients: unilateral decrease in the amygdala ipsilateral to the EEG focus (1), unilateral hippocampal decreases and bilateral temporal and extratemporal neocortical decreases (2), unilateral increase in the temporal neocortex together with extratemporal neocortical increases (1), and bilateral posterior hippocampal increases together with temporal neocortical increases (1).  

RESULTS: When seizure activity was still not visually identifiable on the scalp, the method demonstrated in all scalp seizures a source in the temporal neocortex corresponding clearly to the region of seizure activity in intracerebral recordings.  

The data are consistent with a dual processing theory whereby motor responses made directly to visual stimuli are guided by a dedicated system in the superior parietal and premotor cortices, while responses to remembered stimuli depend on perceptual processing and may thus crucially involve processing within the temporal neocortex..  

Therefore, we investigated CYP19 mRNA expression in fresh human frontal and hippocampal tissues and compared them to the expression in temporal neocortex tissues. In hippocampal tissue specimens CYP19 expression (1.41+/-0.18 AU; n = 24) was lower than in temporal neocortex specimens, but the difference did not reach statistical significance.  

According to cognitive conjunction analysis, the set of activations common to both tasks included the intraparietal sulcus, ventral precentral sulcus, supplementary motor area, frontal eye fields, thalamus, cerebellum, left temporal neocortex, and right insula.  

We compare, within the same tissue, two frequently used sterereological methods for determining the numerical density of synapses per unit volume, using as an example the estimation of the number of types of synapses by layers in the neuropil of the adult human temporal neocortex.  

Immunoreactivity of GS was most prominent in astrocytes from temporal neocortex of patients with AD, suggesting a relationship between astrocyte reactions and increased GS levels in CSF.  

Mu- and delta-opioid receptors have been found to be increased in temporal neocortex overlying mesial temporal epileptic foci, but with different patterns of increase.  

Due to limited knowledge of the distribution of the cortical projections of the PIN, the connections between the temporal neocortex and the PIN were investigated by means of axonal transport of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin or Mini-ruby. The present results demonstrate a distinct and selective projection of the PIN to several areas of the temporal neocortex, which may activate inter- and intra-areal cortical circuits during processing of auditory stimuli..  

Sites where stimulation elicited errors in both naming and reading were more variable in location than sites devoted to only one function, extended farther anteriorly along the temporal neocortex, and may correspond with a semantic lexicon.  

We found that other cortical areas, such as the frontocentral region and the temporal neocortex, can contribute to the genesis of ictal bradyarrhythmia.  

We conclude that the human medial temporal neocortex carries spatial memory functions independent of the hippocampal formation and distinct from spatial short-term memory..  

Across surgical approaches, the risk for decline in visual confrontation naming was associated with a later age of seizure onset and more extensive resection of lateral temporal neocortex..  

Branches of the capsular division innervated the remaining parts of the frontal, parietal and temporal neocortex.  

The spatio-temporal distribution of epileptiform activity was investigated in slices from human temporal neocortex resected during epilepsy surgery.  

Analysis of a seizure originating from mesial temporal structures is compared with a seizure originating from lateral temporal neocortex; both complex partial seizures were recorded with intracranial electrodes that combine subdural grid arrays and depth electrodes.  

Its presence was significantly related to the presence of hypometabolism in the lateral temporal neocortex (p=0.0009). Logistic regression of the asymmetry indices for all measured cerebral regions confirmed a strong association between IRSA and decreased metabolism of the posterior lateral temporal neocortex only (p=0.009).  

PURPOSE: Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we examined the temporal neocortex and the underlying white matter in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in control subjects.  

This study revealed that LB densities in the cortex, especially in the temporal neocortex, correlated significantly with the cognitive impairment in PD independent of or in addition to Alzheimer-type pathology..  

A similar set of m2-immunoreactive interstitial cells was also detected in the human lateral temporal neocortex obtained at surgery.  

METHODS: Tissue samples from 22 patients with various classifications of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were plated to form separate astrocyte cultures from three regions; the hippocampus, parahippocampus, and anterolateral temporal neocortex.  

In the left dominant subjects, left-hemisphere injection had a consistently greater effect on rCBF than right-hemisphere injection in the anterior (p < 0.005) and posterior (p < 0.01) temporal neocortex.  

We have examined the pattern of immunostaining for the high-affinity GABA transporter GAT-1 in the human temporal neocortex.  

The converse pattern has been shown in patients with semantic dementia, who have focal atrophy of the inferolateral temporal neocortex, but relative sparing of the hippocampal complex (Graham & Hodges, 1997).  

We have examined the distribution of double bouquet cell axons, immunocytochemically stained for the calcium-binding proteins calretinin and calbindin D-28k in the human temporal neocortex, in relation to bundles of myelinated axons (originating from pyramidal cells) and the colocalization of these calcium-binding proteins.  

With more prominent dementia, atrophy extended to the parahippocampal gyrus and the temporal neocortex..  

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