Superior Temporal Cortex

While much is known about the pooled output in these systems, as in the medial superior temporal cortex of monkeys or in the lobula plate of the insect visual system, the motion tuning of the elements that provide the input has yet received little attention.  

The affinity and temporal course of functional fields in middle and posterior superior temporal cortex for the categorization of complex sounds was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded simultaneously. The P2 response to P was also independent of training, and its estimated source was more anterior in left superior temporal cortex.  

In experiment 1, 7-month-olds but not 4-month-olds showed increased responses in left and right superior temporal cortex to the human voice when compared to nonvocal sounds, suggesting that voice-sensitive brain systems emerge between 4 and 7 months of age.  

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 subjects we examined a reciprocal circuit consisting of superior temporal cortex, amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus that may underlie affective prosodic comprehension. Results showed that increased saliency of emotion-specific acoustic cues was associated with increased activation in superior temporal cortex [ planum temporale (PT), posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and posterior superior middle gyrus (pMTG)] and amygdala, whereas decreased saliency of acoustic cues was associated with increased inferior frontal activity and temporo-frontal connectivity.  

Many functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies propose the (posterior) superior temporal cortex (STC) as the key structure for integrating meaningful multisensory information. However, a still unanswered question is how superior temporal cortex encodes content-based associations, especially in light of inconsistent results from studies comparing brain activation to semantically matching (congruent) versus nonmatching (incongruent) multisensory inputs. Interestingly, several smaller clusters distributed over superior temporal cortex within that network, adapted stronger to congruent than to incongruent audiovisual repetitions, indicating sensitivity to content congruency.  

In addition, functional connectivity analyses indicated that the value signal in VMPFC might integrate inputs from networks, including the anterior insula and posterior superior temporal cortex, that are thought to be involved in social cognition..  

Task-related activation covered large regions of the left and right superior temporal cortex, inferior parietal lobe, precuneous, cingulate, middle frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus.  

Studies of spoken and signed language processing reliably show involvement of the posterior superior temporal cortex. In this study we directly compared the extent to which activation in posterior superior temporal cortex is modulated by linguistic knowledge irrespective of differences in language form. The interaction of group and condition revealed activation in the superior temporal cortex, bilaterally, focused in the posterior superior temporal gyri (pSTG, BA 42/22).  

The patients with schizophrenia showed increased cortical activity and interconnectivity in the medial frontal and inferior parietal cortex in the initial stage of emotional processing.There was increased activity in the superior temporal cortex and greater connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex in the sustained stage.  

Two further significant activations were revealed comparing females in the luteal phase with males; for the females in the left inferior frontal and for the males in the left superior temporal cortex.  

Using parametrically varied levels of stimulus asynchrony in combination with BOLD fMRI, we identified two anatomically distinct subregions of multisensory superior temporal cortex (mSTC) that showed qualitatively distinct BOLD activation patterns.  

Robust associations were observed between PTSD and smaller cortical volumes in the parahippocampal gyrus, superior temporal cortex, lateral orbital frontal cortex, and pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus.  

rCBF was decreased in the bilateral medial frontal cortices and left superior temporal cortex.  

However, for both linear and quadratic load response activity, FH participants showed greater activation in lateral occipital cortex, superior temporal cortex, and superior parietal cortex.  

Delta-9-THC and CBD had opposite effects on activation relative to placebo in the striatum during verbal recall, in the hippocampus during the response inhibition task, in the amygdala when subjects viewed fearful faces, in the superior temporal cortex when subjects listened to speech, and in the occipital cortex during visual processing.  

In this positron emission tomography functional imaging study, we explored relationships between language comprehension performance after aphasic stroke and the functional connectivity of a key speech-processing region in left anterolateral superior temporal cortex. We compared the organization of left anterolateral superior temporal cortex functional connections during narrative speech comprehension in normal subjects with left anterolateral superior temporal cortex connectivity in a group of chronic aphasic stroke patients. We then evaluated the language deficits associated with altered left anterolateral superior temporal cortex connectivity in aphasic stroke. During normal narrative speech comprehension, left anterolateral superior temporal cortex displayed positive functional connections with left anterior basal temporal cortex, left inferior frontal gyrus and homotopic cortex in right anterolateral superior temporal cortex. We observed that deficits in auditory single word and sentence comprehension correlated both with the degree of disruption of left-right anterolateral superior temporal cortical connectivity and with local activation in the anterolateral superior temporal cortex. These results demonstrate that functional connectivity between anterolateral superior temporal cortex and right anterior superior temporal cortex is a marker of receptive language outcome after aphasic stroke, and illustrate that language system organization after focal brain lesions may be marked by complex signatures of altered local and pathway-level function..  

Before LFS, test stimulation produced activation in bilateral primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1,S2), insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), superior temporal cortex (STG), prefrontal cortex and right inferior parietal lobule (IPL).  

Ex-political detainees with THI had thinner prefrontotemporal cortices than those without THI exposure (P < .001 by the statistical difference brain map) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal and bilateral superior temporal cortices, controlling for age, handedness, and number of trauma/torture events (left superior frontal cortex [ SFC], P = .006; left middle frontal cortex, P = .01; left superior temporal cortex [ STC], P = .007; right STC, P = .01).  

Subsequent neural activation was observed in the right superior temporal cortex, as well as in the right inferior parietal and the right inferior frontal cortex.  

While VBM analysis showed overlap of brain structural deficits mostly in prefrontal areas, the disorganised subsyndrome showed stronger deficits in medial temporal and cerebellar regions, the paranoid/hallucinatory subsyndrome showed additional effects in the superior temporal cortex, and the negative subsyndrome showed stronger deficits in the thalamus.  

We compared cerebral post-mortem samples (granular frontal cortex BA9, middle frontal cortex BA46, superior temporal cortex BA22, entorhinal cortex BA28, sensoric cortex BA1-3, hippocampus (CA4), mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus) from 10 schizophrenia patients to 13 normal subjects investigating gene expression of DAAO in the gray and white matter of both hemispheres of the above-mentioned brain regions by in situ-hybridization.  

The bilateral superior temporal cortex responds preferentially to videos with a human present, regardless of training experience.  

In younger and older individuals, overt speech production was associated with the activation of a widespread articulo-phonological network, including the primary motor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the cingulate motor areas, and the posterior superior temporal cortex, similar in the /a/ and /pataka/ condition. Irrespective of the experimental condition, significantly greater activation was found in the bilateral posterior superior temporal cortex, the posterior temporal plane, and the transverse temporal gyri in younger compared to older individuals.  

Severity of hypoperfusion of superior temporal cortex was the only variable that independently and significantly contributed to severity of stimulus-centered neglect.  

Patients with schizophrenia also differed from healthy control subjects in the activation of several brain regions, showing impaired superior temporal cortex activation during encoding and greater dorsal PFC activation during retrieval.  

RESULTS: Early-onset first-episode psychosis was associated with local bilateral cortical thinning and volume deficits in both the gyri and sulci of the superior temporal cortex and the inferior, middle, medial, and superior prefrontal cortex.  

When contrasted with ASL verbs, pantomimes selectively engaged inferior and superior parietal regions in hearing non-signers, but right superior temporal cortex in deaf signers.  

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies have further identified the superior temporal cortex as a main locus of the semantic effect. The present data indicate involvement of the middle superior temporal cortex in semantic processing from approximately 300 ms onwards, regardless of input modality..  

Compared to real words, production of pseudowords produced greater activation in much of the speech production network, including bilateral inferior frontal cortex, precentral gyri and supplementary motor areas and left superior temporal cortex and anterior insula.  

Conclusion: These results support the potential of rTMS as a new therapeutic tool for the treatment of chronic tinnitus, by demonstrating a significant reduction of tinnitus complaints over a period of at least 6 months and significant reduction of neural activity in the inferior temporal cortex, despite the stimulation applied on the superior temporal cortex..  

Decreased GMC in the superior temporal cortex was also found in people with major depressive disorder.  

For morphosyntactic violations, this sMMN effect has been localized in the left superior temporal cortex.  

In implant supported fixed denture group, main activations were found in prefrontal cortex, primary sensory and motor cortex, Broca's area, premotor cortex, superior temporal cortex, insular, basal ganglion, thalamus and hippocampus.  

From approximately 240 to 450 ms, novel words produced activity that was left-lateralized in frontal and temporal lobe regions, including anterior and inferior temporal, temporal pole, and pars opercularis, as well as bilaterally in posterior superior temporal cortex.  

Healthy control subjects activated the superior temporal cortex (Brodmann area [ BA] 22) bilaterally, the precentral gyrus (BA 9) on the left, and the precentral gyrus (BA 6) and cerebellum bilaterally.  

Morphological complexity was accompanied by stronger and longer-lasting activation of the left superior temporal cortex from 200 ms onwards.  

We present results showing that the modulation of auditory cortex is most likely mediated by feedback from heteromodal areas in the superior temporal cortex, but direct influences from visual cortex are not excluded.  

They evoked a transient peak at 100 ms (N100m) followed by longer-lasting activation peaking around 400 ms (N400m) in the left and right superior temporal cortex.  

(2) Leftward structural asymmetries in the posterior superior temporal cortex, including the planum temporale (PT), were observed in both groups.  

Smaller left superior temporal cortex at baseline was associated with worse semantic memory at baseline, while smaller left temporal white and gray matter volumes were associated with greater semantic memory decline.  

Conversely, neural activity in the left temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral middle-superior temporal cortex was inversely correlated with task difficulty.  

Furthermore, we found positive correlations between the severity of the motor deficit (as assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale - UPDRS score) and brain activity, particularly during GenA(MBO), in the pre- and post-central gyri bilaterally, left frontal operculum, left supplementary motor area (SMA) and right superior temporal cortex.  

The study investigates to what extent the posterior superior temporal cortex is involved in processing complex sentences. Using functional MRI, we show that hierarchically structured sentences activate the superior temporal cortex bilaterally to greater extent than sentences with a linear structure. As earlier studies using similar syntactic structures in semantic-free grammars did not show activation in the superior temporal cortex but instead only in the prefrontal cortex, we conclude that the role of the posterior superior temporal cortex is to integrate lexical-semantic and syntactic information during sentence comprehension..  

Advances in understanding its origin support a core deficit in phonological processing characterized by difficulties in segmenting spoken words into their minimally discernable speech segments (speech sounds, or phonemes) and underactivation of left superior temporal cortex. Our data reveal that adult dyslexic readers underactivate superior temporal cortex for the integration of letters and speech sounds.  

We examined age-related morphological alterations in 2 types of pyramidal neurons contributing to working memory circuits in the macaque prefrontal cortex (PFC): neurons in the superior temporal cortex forming "long" projections to the PFC and "local" projection neurons within the PFC.  

This time course further suggests that the cerebellum might promote neural changes in superior temporal cortex, which was selectively activated during the later phase of prism exposure and could mediate the effects of prism adaptation on cognitive spatial representations..  

Neurons in monkey medial superior temporal cortex selectively respond to the patterned visual motion in optic flow that simulates observer self-movement.  

Correlations between 2 seed points, centered on peaks of thickness difference within the right frontal cortex, and all other points across the cortex showed greater specificity of significant correlations among musicians, with fewer and more discrete areas correlating with the frontal seeds, including the superior temporal cortex.  

In the first place, we found that the left superior temporal cortex, including auditory regions, was strongly activated in the brains of deaf compared with hearing participants when processing silently spoken (speechread) word lists. One inference is that oral actions that are speechlike may have preferential access to 'auditory speech' parts of the left superior temporal cortex in deaf people.  

We used fMRI and a continuous recognition memory paradigm with short lags to examine repetition effects in the posterior and anterior regions of the superior temporal cortex.  

Brain regions that are implicated in social cognition, including parts of prefrontal, parietal and superior temporal cortex, undergo the most pronounced and prolonged change.  

Both communicative aspects of interjections elicited significant bilateral blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes within superior temporal cortex.  

Here we aimed to explore further this matter and investigate whether the effects of tDCS applied over the superior temporal cortex differs between males and females during a facial expression go-no-go task.  

Consistent with previous findings, we report a significant increase in response latencies when naming categorically related objects within blocks, an effect associated with increased perfusion fMRI signal bilaterally in the hippocampus and in the left middle to posterior superior temporal cortex.  

The ERF source analyses found no source distribution differences between the pitch-related Ndm (the magnetic counterpart of the Nd) and location-related Ndm in the superior temporal cortex (STC), where the main sources of the Ndm effects are thought to be located.  

The most consistent reduction revealed in chronic patients is in the superior temporal cortex, and in first-episode/high-risk individuals, in frontal brain regions.  

27 (2007) 4120-4131], was localized by dipole modeling to polysensory superior temporal cortex.  

Preliminary neuropsychological work has suggested a role for the ventrolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VLPFC/VMPFC) and the superior temporal cortex (STC).  

Especially the superior temporal cortex (STC) and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) have been investigated with respect to their particular involvement in language comprehension.  

The superior temporal cortex (STC) and inferior frontal cortex (IFC) are active during pre-attentive change detection.  

Perception of all types of gestures engaged the right pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), and bilaterally in the posterior superior temporal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, occipitotemporal regions and visual cortices.  

Semantic processing was characterized by activation in left-hemispheric regions of the inferior frontal and superior temporal cortex and by an electrophysiological N400 effect after 240 ms with consistent left anterior source localization.  

This pattern of results is discussed in the light of recent theoretical models of semantic memory, and suggests that a dysfunction of the right superior temporal cortex may contribute to early semantic deficits, characterised by the loss of specific features of concepts in AD..  

Speechreading elicited greater activation in the left mid-superior temporal cortex than BSL, whereas BSL processing generated greater activation at the temporo-parieto-occipital junction in both hemispheres.  

Specific activations for the integration of a word were observed in the left superior temporal cortex.  

In contrast to earlier findings, activation in left middle and posterior portions of superior temporal cortex, including regions within the lateral sulcus and the superior and middle temporal gyri, was greater for deaf than hearing participants. Deaf participants showed a positive correlation between speechreading skill and activation in the middle/posterior superior temporal cortex.  

Painful gastric distension is processed in a network consisting of brainstem, thalamus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, (lateral) orbitofrontal and prefrontal cortex, superior temporal cortex and cerebellum.  

Foci were placed on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the superior temporal cortex (STC) and activation factors ranging between -25% and +25% were simulated. Our findings show that intersubject anatomical differences can cause the minimum sample size to increase between 10 and 42% for posterior cingulate Cortex and between 40 and 80% for superior temporal cortex. Detection sensitivity was higher for hypo-activation than for hyper-activation situations and higher for superior temporal cortex than for posterior cingulate cortex..  

Neuroimaging revealed increased activity in bilateral superior temporal cortex during shifted feedback, indicative of neurons coding mismatches between expected and actual auditory signals, as well as right prefrontal and Rolandic cortical activity. Structural equation modeling revealed increased influence of bilateral auditory cortical areas on right frontal areas during shifted speech, indicating that projections from auditory error cells in posterior superior temporal cortex to motor correction cells in right frontal cortex mediate auditory feedback control of speech..  

There are anatomical correlates to self-talk, with neural activity in a number of brain areas related to the occurrence of both overt and subvocal self-talk, particularly in Broca's region in the left frontal cortex, and Wernicke's region in the left posterior superior temporal cortex.  

The medial temporal and medial superior temporal cortex (MT/MST) is involved in the processing of visual motion, and fMRI experiments indicate that there is greater activation when subjects view static images that imply motion than when they view images that do not imply motion at all.  

In addition, as predicted, dissociation correlated positively with activity in the left medial prefrontal and right superior temporal cortices, and negatively with the left superior temporal cortex.  

Activity decreased, with repeated exposures, in a subset of these areas mostly in the left hemisphere, including premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal cortex, and cerebellum. The changes most likely reflect more efficient representation of the articulation patterns of these novel words in two connected systems, one involved in the perception of pseudoword stimuli (in the left superior temporal cortex) and one for processing the output of speech (in the left frontal cortex).  

This modulation consists of reduced influences of emotional prosody in patients with lesions in right ventral prefrontal lobe or right superior temporal cortex.  

PPI processes in the prefrontal, frontal and superior temporal cortex were functionally distinct from sensorimotor gating..  

= 50.2 +/- 4.8) and control subjects performed equally well in a visual speechreading task but deaf patients activated the left posterior superior temporal cortex more than controls. To the contrary, cross-modal activation in the left posterior superior temporal cortex of deaf patients decreased with deafness duration.  

Our results suggest that the earliest brain processes of semantic context integration can occur at approximately 100 msec after the onset of spoken words in the left inferior frontal and superior temporal cortex..  

Employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we show that intuitive compared to explicit judgments in a semantic coherence judgment task are associated with increased neural activity in heteromodal association areas in bilateral inferior parietal and right superior temporal cortex.  

In contrast, the two groups showed a similar degree of left-right differences in early speech-related regions of the superior temporal cortex.  

In contrast, MCI patients activated left supplementary motor area, left premotor and superior temporal cortex.  

The results suggest that the same general region of the superior temporal cortex gives rise to both LAN and N400 with bilateral reactivity to semantic manipulation and a left hemisphere effect to syntactic manipulation.  

Attenuation of activation by priming during the first 3 words and increase of activation to semantic or phonological mismatch in the list-final word provided converging evidence: The superior temporal cortex bilaterally was involved in both analysis of sound form and meaning but the role of each hemisphere varied over time.  

The following regions of interest (ROIs) were compared between apathetic and nonapathetic AD patients and then referenced against aged controls: anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal cortex, middle medial temporal cortex, hippocampus, medial superior temporal cortex, thalamus/hypothalamus and pons.  

The role of superior temporal cortex in speech comprehension is well established, but the complete network of regions involved in understanding language in ecologically valid contexts is less clearly understood.  

A significant hemisphere-by-lexicality interaction confirmed stronger blood oxygenation level-dependent mismatch responses to words than pseudowords in the left but not in the right superior temporal cortex.  

Immunohistochemical staining of GAD 65/67-immunoreactive neurons was performed in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal cortex, hippocampus formation, and mediodorsal thalamus with consecutive determination of neuronal density in 20 brains of patients with mood disorders (P) and 19 controls (C). ANOVA revealed significant differences among the groups (C, BD, MDD) in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, superior temporal cortex, and hippocampus. Post hoc tests demonstrated higher neuronal densities in unipolar patients compared with bipolar patients and controls in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, superior temporal cortex, and hippocampus. In mood disorder patients, dose equivalents of antidepressants given prior to death correlated positively with the neuronal density in superior temporal cortex and hippocampus.  

However, motor imagery of the affected limb recruited additional cerebral resources in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and superior temporal cortex.  

In patients with schizophrenia, a lack of deactivation of the superior temporal cortex was found compared to both healthy controls and patients with depression. However, superior temporal cortex dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia may be regarded as schizophrenia-specific finding in terms of psychiatric diagnosis specificity..  

This study provides evidence that the level of impairment in the naming process reflects the distribution of tissue dysfunction in particular regions of the left anterior, inferior and posterior middle/superior temporal cortex, posterior inferior frontal and inferior parietal cortex.  

However, it also had connections with limbic cortex, including retrosplenial and caudal cingulate cortex as well as auditory processing regions in the superior temporal cortex. It had connections with high-order visual processing regions in the inferotemporal cortex and posterior parietal cortex, higher-order auditory and polymodal processing regions in the superior temporal cortex.  

Tasks requiring the perception of agency activate the posterior superior temporal cortex (pSTC), particularly in the right hemisphere.  

Here we show that stop consonants, as the most transient constituents of speech, are sufficient to involve speech perception circuits in the human superior temporal cortex. Left anterolateral superior temporal cortex showed a stronger response in blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to intelligible consonantal bursts compared with incomprehensible control sounds matched for spectrotemporal complexity.  

The perfusion contrast revealed CBF increases in multiple visual pathway areas and frontal areas, and CBF decreases in ventromedial frontal cortex and superior temporal cortex during movie viewing compared to resting states.  

Genes influenced individual differences in left and right superior occipitofrontal fascicle (heritability up to 0.79 and 0.77), corpus callosum (0.82, 0.80), optic radiation (0.69, 0.79), corticospinal tract (0.78, 0.79), medial frontal cortex (0.78, 0.83), superior frontal cortex (0.76, 0.80), superior temporal cortex (0.80, 0.77), left occipital cortex (0.85), left postcentral cortex (0.83), left posterior cingulate cortex (0.83), right parahippocampal cortex (0.69), and amygdala (0.80, 0.55).  

While in patients a decrease in activation was observed in the right cerebellar area VIIIA, the activation of the right anterior cingulate, the right superior temporal cortex, and the bilateral frontal eye fields was increased.  

During attention-related processes, even when the performance between patients and controls was comparable, there was a recognizable emergence of cerebral dysfunctions with hypoactivations in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), in the superior temporal cortex and in the thalamus.  

There are several regions in the left hemisphere that show greater activation to one's own name, including middle frontal cortex, middle and superior temporal cortex, and cuneus.  

In this position paper, we discuss a neural architecture comprising three major cortical systems: the inferior frontal cortex (including Broca's area), the rostral part of the posterior parietal cortex, and the superior temporal cortex.  

Hyperlexia has been associated with hyperactivation of the left superior temporal cortex; we conclude that the orthographic route is a probable mechanism for the development of hyperlexia..  

In this study, we examined and compared brain tissue from a frequently observed NFT abundant area, the superior temporal cortex (ST), and a comparatively much NFT sparser area, the calcarine cortex (COC), in ten AD and ten normal adult control brain samples.  

The left superior temporal cortex, which supports linguistic functions, has consistently been reported to activate during auditory-verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia patients.  

The controls showed greater activation in the left amygdala and left orbito-frontal cortex, while the HFA/AS group showed greater activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus and superior temporal cortex.  

Smooth pursuit (SP)-related neurons in the dorsal-medial part of medial superior temporal cortex (MSTd) carry extraretinal signals that may play a role in maintenance of SP once eye velocity matches target velocity.  

DRB protein was also reduced approximately 35% in the superior temporal cortex of MCI subjects, and DRB and SYP levels in the superior temporal cortex correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination and Braak scores.  

The bilateral superior temporal cortex was activated during the comprehension of three languages. We observed significantly greater activation in the pars opercularis of the left IFG, the right cerebellum, and the right superior temporal cortex during the English than Japanese task; activation in these regions did not differ significantly between Korean and Japanese. Differential activation of the pars opercularis of the left IFG and the right cerebellum likely reflects syntactic distance and differential activation in the right superior temporal cortex may reflect the prosodic distance between English from Korean and Japanese.  

Speech perception most strongly activated superior temporal cortex.  

Using event-related fMRI, we could demonstrate that both tasks share a common cluster of activated brain regions during conflict resolution (pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), superior parietal lobule (SPL), and cuneus) but also show task-specific activation patterns (left superior temporal cortex in the motion-based, and the left fusiform gyrus in the location-based Simon task).  

A parametric analysis showed that, as perceived strength of familiarity increased activity in the perirhinal cortex, insula and left superior temporal cortex declined linearly whereas activity in the left dorsomedial thalamus, left ventrolateral and anteromedial frontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left parietal neocortex increased linearly.  

We mapped the receptive fields of 49 cells from primary visual cortex and 19 cells from medial superior temporal cortex in two awake monkeys. The receptive field structures we obtained lasted a mean time of 32.7 ms in primary visual cortex and 38.4 ms in medial superior temporal cortex, showing no statistical difference. In primary visual cortex, 100% of cells had conformed the receptive field structure at 65 ms pre-spike, whereas in medial superior temporal cortex it occurred at 150 ms.  

The results suggest a specific role for each of the following brain structures: the anterior part of the right superior temporal cortex, the right inferior frontal cortex and anterior insula, the left anterior prefrontal cortex, the lateral cerebellum, and the anterior cingulate.  

The latency with which words were recognized corresponded to that of an MMN source in the left superior temporal cortex.  

RESULTS: MEG revealed sequential activation of occipital and occipito-temporal areas (latencies 130-250 and 170-350 ms, respectively) followed by activity in superior temporal cortex (230-640 ms).  

This anatomical distinction may help reconcile our recent finding that spatial neglect is associated with damage to the superior temporal cortex and insula, while others have identified the IPL and TPJ.  

Both attention to location and attention to pitch produced enhanced activity (in comparison with activation caused by the same sounds when attention was focused on the pictures) in widespread areas of the superior temporal cortex.  

Using voxel-based morphometry, we are able to show that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered to the superior temporal cortex causes macroscopic cortical changes in gray matter (GM) in the auditory cortex as early as within 5 days of continuous intervention.  

Relative to the random order presentation condition, static images presented in the coherent order generated stronger activation in the right middle temporal cortex, the right posterior superior temporal cortex, and the right inferior postcentral gyrus.  

A distributed linear inverse solution and statistical analysis thereof revealed activations within superior temporal cortex and prefrontal cortex bilaterally that were common for both conditions, as well as regions within the right temporoparietal cortices that were selective for the "where" condition.  

The main result was that the superior temporal cortex showed activations contralateral to the side where sound was expected to be present.  

Lesion studies in human and monkey, electrical and transcranial magnetic stimulation, as well as functional imaging results have revealed the superior temporal cortex, insula and the temporo-parietal junction to be substantial parts of the multisensory (vestibular) system as well as to be affected in spatial neglect.  

RESULTS: Relative to healthy comparison subjects, opiate-dependent subjects exhibited decreased gray matter density in bilateral prefrontal cortex [ Brodmann areas (BA) 8, 9, 10, 11, and 47], bilateral insula (BA 13), bilateral superior temporal cortex (BA 21 and 38), left fusiform cortex (BA 37), and right uncus (BA 28).  

In contrast, the detection of real acoustic deviants correlated positively with induced GBA at approximately 42 Hz between 200 and 300 ms over left superior temporal cortex and negatively with evoked gamma responses at approximately 41 Hz between 220 and 240 ms over occipital areas.  

Stimulus modality-specific contributions come from the inferior temporal and superior parietal cortex for the visual and from the superior temporal cortex for the auditory modality.  

In fixed-effects and random-effects analyses, vowel sequences elicited more activation than did nonspeech noise in the anterior superior temporal cortex (aST) bilaterally.  

The left superior temporal cortex shows greater responsiveness to speech than to non-speech sounds according to previous neuroimaging studies, suggesting that this brain region has a special role in speech processing.  

The main findings were: (i) a temporo-parieto-frontal network was activated during the whole duration of the stream in all conditions and modulated by attention; (ii) the left superior temporal cortex was the only region showing different activations for pitch and spatial variations.  

It also forms an interconnected circuit with specific cortical areas in the rostral superior temporal cortex, posterior parahippocampal cortex, and retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortex.  

In addition, when the stroke spared the left temporal cortex, good performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was also correlated with the left posterior superior temporal cortex (Wernicke's area). In addition, they highlight the importance of the right anterior superior temporal cortex where the response was dissociated from that in the left posterior temporal lobe..  

Boutons from prefrontal axons synapsing in the middle layers of superior temporal cortex were significantly larger than boutons synapsing in layer I.  

The superior temporal cortex (BA22) and cingulate cortices (BA24/32, 23/31) of subjects with SZ demonstrated more profound alterations of gene expression than other brain regions compared to controls [ Katsel, P., Davis, K.L., Gorman, J.M., Haroutunian, V., in press.  

The theory was applied to measuring 3D spatial complexity in the apical and basal dendritic trees of two functionally distinct types of macaque monkey neocortical pyramidal neurons: long corticocortical projection neurons from superior temporal cortex to area 46 of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and local projection neurons within area 46 of the PFC.  

Differential multisensory responses were temporally and spatially consistent across individuals, with onset at approximately 50 ms and superposition within areas of the posterior superior temporal cortex that have traditionally been considered auditory in their function.  

Using suppression subtractive hybridization to isolate differentially expressed genes in superior temporal cortex (BA22), we detected one prominent sequence with reduced expression in schizophrenia and represented in at least nine clones.  

We describe the psychophysical features of vocal amusia in a professional tango singer caused by an infarction mainly involving the superior temporal cortex of the right hemisphere.  

We measured the concentration of two presynaptic proteins, synaptophysin and syntaxin 1, and also postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95), in superior temporal cortex from 42 AD and 160 normal brains, and determined the APOE genotypes. APOE influences the concentration of synaptic proteins in normal superior temporal cortex and may thereby affect the response to injury, and the risk and outcome of a range of neurologic diseases..  

This surface-based analysis revealed patterns of visuo-oculomotor activity across much of the cerebral cortex, including activations in the posterior parietal cortex, superior temporal cortex and frontal lobe.  

The control stimuli showed no significant differences except that the duration effect in the superior temporal cortex also applied to the non-speech replicas.  

Under identical data filtering conditions, the superior temporal cortex (BA22) of schizophrenia subjects showed the maximal number of altered transcripts (approximately 1200) compared to controls. Anterior and posterior cingulate cortices (BA23/31, 24/32) and the hippocampus followed the superior temporal cortex with two-times lower numbers of altered transcripts.  

Patients showed damaged or maldeveloped tissue, principally right-sided, including white matter from the level of the anterior cingulate cortex caudally to the level of the posterior cingulate and laterally to the posterior superior temporal cortex.  

Direct comparison of these 2 conditions revealed significantly different involvement of bilateral superior and anterior prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 8 and 10, respectively), right superior temporal cortex (BA 38/21), and left cerebellum.  

RESULTS: Patients had reduced pursuit-related activation in several known extraretinal motion processing areas including frontal and supplemental eye fields, medial superior temporal cortex, and anterior cingulate.  

DEVELOPMENT: The cerebrocerebellar connections act as a vehicle for the afferent information from the sensory-motor cortex, prefrontal cortex, the frontal regions responsible for (expressive) language, parietal cortex, superior colliculus and superior temporal cortex, returning efferences to similar areas that are responsible for attention, visuospatial perception, memory and the regulation of executive and emotional functions.  

Quantitative measures of continuous variables for prefrontal, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, superior temporal cortex, or a combination of these were analyzed from published and unpublished studies by 56 research groups.  

In this in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) study, we examined four informative synaptic protein transcripts: vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2, complexin I, and complexin II, in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DPFC), superior temporal cortex (STC), and hippocampal formation, in 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 18 controls.  

In the fMRI results, we found reduced activity in the dorsal and ventral left inferior frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate, and left superior temporal cortex for related versus unrelated conditions (i.e., the repetition suppression effect).  

We also found that the interference effect was specific to the stimulus content in each condition, affecting judgements of gaze shifts (not static eye positions) with TMS over the right superior temporal cortex, and judgements of fearful expressions (not happy expressions) with TMS over the right somatosensory cortex.  

Most importantly, the results suggest a functional segregation of the right superior temporal cortex for the processing of different voice parameters, whereby (1) voice pitch is processed in regions close and anterior to Heschl's Gyrus, (2) voice spectral information is processed in posterior parts of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and areas surrounding the planum parietale (PP) bilaterally, and (3) information about prototypicality is predominately processed in anterior parts of the right STG.  

Saturable radioligand binding of [ (3)H]L-689,560 to the glycine site on this subunit of the NMDA receptor was undertaken in superior temporal cortex of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and matched control subjects. The finding of an increase NMDA receptor density in schizophrenia is consistent with the previous reports, with a possible compensatory response to glutamatergic deficits in superior temporal cortex in schizophrenia.  

During speech comprehension the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal cortex is involved in perceptual analysis of the speech signal, whereas the basal language area in the inferior temporal cortex mediates access to word meaning. We used positron emission tomography to investigate semantic processing within inferior temporal cortex in control subjects and after infarction involving the superior temporal cortex.  

In human brain tissue from 160 people aged 24-102 years, post-mortem delay had little effect on synaptic protein levels in superior temporal cortex, but was associated with a decline in PSD-95 and syntaxin in mid-frontal cortex after 24 h.  

Group differences in volumetric asymmetry were predicted a priori in language-related regions in inferior lateral frontal (Broca's area) and posterior superior temporal cortex.  

Other regions of interest, such as the left orbitofrontal cortex, the left superior temporal cortex, and the left precuneus/posterior cingulate revealed significant group differences only between patients and nonrelated healthy subjects.  

Mini-Mental Status Examination scores correlated with TrkA levels in anterior cingulate, superior frontal, and superior temporal cortex.  

Comparison of homotypic brain regions showed statistically significant asymmetry in the V3' data in the superior temporal cortex (p = .03 for both).  

However, the effects of unilateral lesions in the superior temporal cortex suggest that the spatial information mediated by lateralized sounds is distributed asymmetrically across the hemispheres.  

superior temporal cortex, including the planum temporale, was activated bilaterally in response to both types of gesture in all groups, irrespective of hearing status.  

Analysis of single-subject data and group data aligned on the basis of individual cortical anatomy revealed that letters and speech sounds are integrated in heteromodal superior temporal cortex.  

Previously, we have shown that the irrelevant speech effect (ISE) was associated with a relative decrease of regional blood flow in cortical regions subserving the verbal working memory, in particular the superior temporal cortex.  

Differential increases of neural activity were found in mesial superior parietal and right premotor cortex during 3PP (relative to 1PP), whereas differential increases during 1PP (relative to 3PP) were found in mesial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and superior temporal cortex bilaterally.  

In subjects of both groups, classical language areas were found to be activated, including posterior Broca's area, the anterior insula, premotor cortex, and the posterior parts of the superior temporal cortex.  

Such a neural network was found in the right posterior superior temporal cortex, right premotor cortex, left ventral premotor cortex, cerebellar vermis, and medial frontal gyrus. The right posterior superior temporal cortex and right premotor cortex were also activated by different modality sensory cues in the absence of movements.  

The resulting software is applied to the analysis of a high-resolution (0.098 microm x 0.098 microm x 0.081 microm) image of an entire pyramidal neuron from layer III of the superior temporal cortex in rhesus macaque monkey.  

The results demonstrate that the right superior temporal cortex, the insula and subcortically putamen and caudate nucleus are the neural structures damaged significantly more often in patients with spatial neglect..  

The comparison of influx phase vs elimination phase revealed activations in the anterior cingulate and right prefrontal cortex, relevant deactivations were found in the left superior temporal cortex including Wernicke's area.  

In the region-of-interest analysis, alfentanil increased the BP of [ (11)C]FLB 457 in the medial frontal cortex (P=0.0027), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (P=0.027) superior temporal cortex (P=0.028), and medial thalamus (P=0.003) These results were confirmed in a voxel-based analysis, which further revealed an opioid-induced increase in [ (11)C]FLB 457 BP in the anterior cingulate cortex (P<0.001).  

Two large cortical fields exhibited consistent activation in each contrast: the anterior part of the inferior lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the posterior part of the superior temporal cortex (STP).  

In both imaging modalities, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right parietal cortex showed an associative novelty response, whereas the right superior temporal cortex showed an associative familiarity response.  

The shape-sensitive regions can be used to constrain the warping of monkey to human cortex and suggest a large expansion of lateral parietal and superior temporal cortex in humans compared with monkeys..  

We suggest that the default state areas may participate in the processing of social relations in concert with regions previously identified as critical for social cognition that were also activated by our stimuli, including the inferior frontal cortex, the superior temporal cortex, and the fusiform gyrus..  

Activity in this region was not significant in MS patients, but there was a large region of activity in superior temporal cortex.  

The left posterior superior temporal cortex (Wernicke's area) responded to the acoustic complexity of the stimuli but was additionally sensitive to auditory search and speech comprehension.  

Hyperlexic reading is therefore associated with hyperactivation of the left superior temporal cortex, much in the same way as developmental dyslexia is associated with hypoactivation of this area..  

Source analysis (single-dipole models and minimum-norm current estimates) indicated grammaticality dependent differential activation of the left superior temporal cortex suggesting that this brain structure may play an important role in such automatic grammar processing..  

There was a positive correlation between the extent of the temporal delay and activation in the right posterior superior temporal cortex (pSTS) and a negative correlation in the left putamen.  

Length effects were observed in two spatially and temporally distinct cortical activations: (1) in the occipital cortex at about 100 msec by the strength of activation, regardless of the lexical status of the stimuli, and (2) in the left superior temporal cortex between 200 and 600 msec by the duration of activation, with words showing a smaller effect than nonwords.  

The data support the view of a dual mode of space representation in the posterior parietal and the superior temporal cortex..  

On the basis of a meta-analysis of imaging studies on syntax, it is argued that the left posterior inferior frontal cortex is involved in binding syntactic frames together, whereas the left superior temporal cortex is involved in retrieval of the syntactic frames stored in memory.  

Thus, it may be that a spatial auditory deficit, such as that observed here in right-brain-damaged patients, only co-occurs with spatial neglect if the right superior temporal cortex is lesioned..  

In contrast, the sustained negative current during the presentation of S1 originating from superior temporal cortex was more pronounced for the memory task, probably reflecting enhanced attention allocation and foreground-background discrimination.  

The main MMN generators are located in the superior temporal cortex, but their number, precise location, and temporal sequence of activation remain unclear.  

We addressed both issues, in superior temporal cortex, in 12 subjects with schizophrenia and 14 controls.  

We analyzed how such changes affect a specific subpopulation of cortical neurons forming long corticocortical projections from the superior temporal cortex to prefrontal area 46.  

Attention to either speech message was associated with enhanced activity in the superior temporal cortex of the language-dominant left hemisphere, as well as in the superior and middle temporal cortex of the right hemisphere suggesting enhanced processing of prosodic features in the attended speech.  

RESULTS: N-acetylaspartate was significantly decreased below controls in superior temporal cortex in schizophrenia (p <.01) and bipolar disorder (p <.01), but no deficits were found in frontal cortex. N-acetylaspartylglutamate was significantly decreased only in superior temporal cortex in schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with evidence of superior temporal cortex abnormalities in schizophrenia.  

We examined the roles of inferior frontal and superior temporal cortex in processing these aspects of auditory speech and nonspeech signals.  

Manual bisection activated the extrastriate, superior parietal, and premotor cortex bilaterally, while bisection judgments activated the right inferior parietal cortex, anterior cingulate, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and extrastriate and superior temporal cortex bilaterally.  

Within this network, there was greater activity during imitation, compared with observation of emotions, in premotor areas including the inferior frontal cortex, as well as in the superior temporal cortex, insula, and amygdala.  

Dorsal medial superior temporal cortex (MSTd)'s population response encodes heading direction from optic flow seen during fixation or pursuit.  

The most affected areas were the entorhinal cortex, TF-TH and the superior temporal cortex, where odds ratios for focal Abeta deposits ranged from 3.5 to 4.6..  

Moreover, spongiform changes were moderate in the superior temporal cortex and the occipital cortex.  

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