In fact, serotonergic terminals have been reported to make synaptic contacts with both substantia nigra dopamine-containing neurons and their terminal areas such as the striatum, the globus pallidus and the subthalamus.  

Neuropathological study revealed, in addition to AGD, increased intensity and extent of lesion in three groups of regions, striatum, pallidus/subthalamus and selected nuclei of the brain stem, correlating with neurological impairment. Together the present observations suggest (i) early PSP-like lesions in the striatum, followed by the globus pallidus/subthalamus and selected nuclei of the brain stem; (ii) early involvement of neurons and astrocytes, but late appearance of tufted astrocytres; and (iii) oxidative damage of glial acidic protein in the striatum..  

Improving night-time motor control by overnight treatment with levodopa, transdermal or long-acting dopamine agonists, or bilateral subthalamus stimulation, can improve sleep continuity.  

The red nucleus, subthalamus, ventral thalamus and pineal gland were also eventually involved.  

We describe a patient with nonketotic hyperglycemia-induced hemiballism, whose responsible lesion (ie, the subthalamus) was demonstrated by MR imaging..  

As well as the typical neuropathological findings of ALS (marked upper and lower motor neuron loss), post-mortem examination showed prominent neuronal loss and gliosis in the subthalamus, and in the internal globus pallidus, substantia nigra pars compacta, and red nucleus.  

OBJECTIVE: In an effort to understand cell activity patterns and sensorimotor integration in Parkinson's disease, we have explored the expression of the Fos protein in the subthalamus after sensory (nociceptive) stimulation of hemiparkinsonian Sprague-Dawley rats [ 6-hydroxydopamine [ 6OHDA]-lesioned]. Fos is a marker for neuronal activity in most areas of the brain and the subthalamus is a major driving force of the basal ganglia and target for surgical intervention in parkinsonian patients. RESULTS: In the cases that had saline injections combined with mechanical stimulation or with no stimulation, as well as those that had 6OHDA lesions combined with no stimulation, there were no Fos+ cells in the subthalamus. However, in the cases that had 6OHDA-lesions combined with mechanical stimulation, there were many Fos+ cells within the subthalamus of both sides, particularly on the ipsilateral side. DISCUSSION: Our results indicate that after an increase in sensory (nociceptive) activity, via mechanical stimulation, there is an induction of Fos expression in the subthalamus of 6OHDA-lesioned cases.  

RESULTS: Most of the electrode tips are located inside the subthalamus or immediately ventrally to it. Of the active contacts used for chronic stimulation, 96.5% are located in a well-defined anatomical region, which includes subthalamus, zona incerta, and FF. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings seem to suggest that other structures beyond the subthalamus itself play a clinical role in symptoms control after DBS for PD..  

In fact, serotonergic terminals have been reported to make synaptic contacts with dopamine (DA)-containing neurons and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing neurons in the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamus and substantia nigra.  

Neurons from both the rostral subparafascicular nucleus and the subparafascicular area project to the medial prefrontal, insular, ecto- and perirhinal cortex, nucleus of the diagonal band, septum, central and basomedial amygdaloid nuclei, fundus striati, basal forebrain, midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, hypothalamus, subthalamus and the periaqueductal gray.  

For an experiment involving recording in the thalamus/subthalamus areas of a rat brain, a hybrid hardware/software method was utilized to improve the signal-to-noise quality of the recorded signal on each recording channel.  

The pathological examination of his brain showed severe neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, subthalamus, and pallidum.  

zona incerta at the subthalamus or nerve terminals surrounding thalamic neurons).  

Inhibin B can be also used to diagnose and monitor many disturbances of spermatogenesis like different etiology azoospermia, primary testicular failure, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, Kallman's syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, cryptorchidism, precocious puberty and complete or selective loss of subthalamus or pituitary function.  

Anecdotal experience has been gathered with stimulation of cerebellum, centromedian thalamus, subthalamus, caudate, hippocampus, and brainstem.  

The study shows that the pars ventralis is the more primitive element and as a dependency of the subthalamus with tectal connections, it becomes progressively superseeded by the dominance of the pars dorsalis with its cortical connections.  

Significant Adra2c-NN-driven reporter expression in Tg mice established suggests that alpha2C adrenoceptor expression is permissive under Adra2c-NN in central (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, superior colliculus, cerebellum, and brain stem) and peripheral (pancreatic beta-islets) tissues..  

Responsive neurons to TMS of the hand area of motor cortex were located mainly in the lateral and dorsal region of the subthalamus while unresponsive cells had a prevalently medial distribution.  

The lesions were located in the caudate and putamen (n = 6), cortex (n = 6), thalamus and subthalamic area (n = 4), subthalamus (n = 4), putamen (n = 3), caudate (n = 2), and the globus pallidus (n = 2).  

Within this systematics, the prosencephalic midline is divided from caudal to rostral into diencephalic (DD-right and left, subthalamus through suprachiasmatic junction with telencephalon), telencephalic (TT-right and left, suprachiasmatic border of telencephalon midline to hippocampal commissure) and diencephalic-telencephalic (DT-right and left-hippocampal commissure through temporal limb of choroid fissure) segments.  

In rats after 6 h of sleep deprivation beginning at light onset, the number of neurons with NF-kappa Bp65-IR increased significantly in the caudal lateral hypothalamus, specifically the magnocellular lateral hypothalamus adjacent to the subthalamus. Sleep deprivation also significantly increased the number of cells expressing NF-kappa B-dependent beta-galactosidase in the magnocellular lateral hypothalamus, zona incerta dorsal, as well as the adjacent subthalamus in the transgenic mice.  

A large increase of high-affinity Epb binding sites was apparent in the ventral tegmentum/substantia nigra, nucleus tractus solitarii, nucleus accumbens, thalamus/subthalamus, parietal cortex, hypothalamus, and amygdala.  

Deep brain stimulation, although experimental, has been applied to the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, centromedian thalamus, anterior thalamus, subthalamus, hippocampus, and neocortical seizure foci.  

The bulk of labelling, both anterograde and retrograde, was seen in the SN and PpT and, to a lesser extent, within the other nuclei of the basal ganglia (e.g., caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamus, Ep).  

Recent progress in understanding bilirubin binding and neurotoxicity resulting from unbound or "free" unconjugated bilirubin, how bilirubin affects the central nervous system in vivo and in vitro, and the use of new clinical tools in neonates, for example magnetic resonance imaging revealing bilateral lesions in globus pallidus and subthalamus, and abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials with normal inner ear function, may lead to improved detection and prevention of neurologic dysfunction and damage from bilirubin.  

This ability depends on metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid B projections from the external pallidum to subthalamic nucleus and rebound properties of subthalamic cells, as well as on the structure of projections between pallidum and subthalamus.  

Afterwards, 36 patients, operated for DBS in the subthalamus for Parkinson's disease (PD), have been investigated.  

Stimulation of deep brain targets in the thalamus, subthalamus and mesial temporal structures is practical.  

Although use of deep brain stimulation for applications beyond movement disorders will no doubt involve placing the stimulating electrode(s) in regions other than the thalamus, subthalamus, or globus pallidus, the use of vagus nerve stimulation for applications beyond epilepsy-for example, depression and eating disorders-is unlikely to require altering the hardware significantly (although stimulation protocols may differ).  

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamus was without conspicuous effect on the binding of [ (11)C]NPA in vivo.  

However, even these larger responses in the rats with combined intervention were not as large as those recorded at the same time in the subthalamus in the opposite, intact, hemisphere.  

RESULTS: The anatomic target based on computed tomographic imaging data showed electrical activity in the subthalamus in the first pass in 82% of the procedures. The method used for anatomic localization and electrophysiological mapping of the subthalamus was found to be effective in reaching the sensorimotor region of the nucleus. We carried out an accurate determination of the subthalamus location and its volume in the lesioning..  

a direct inhibitory trans-striatal pathway, an indirect excitatory trans-striatal pathway that involves the pallidum and the subthalamus and a direct excitatory trans-subthalamic pathway.  

Chronic stimulation of subthalamus nucleus (STN) is effective in treating severe motor fluctuation and levodopa induced dyskinesia as well as parkinsonian motor symptoms.  

The neurosurgical procedures used, which were guided by combined neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods, resulted in the consistent placement of DBS electrodes in the subthalamus and mesencephalon such that the electrode contacts passed through the STN and dorsally adjacent fields of Forel (FF) and zona incerta (ZI).  

No significant improvement in this behaviour was to be found when transplants were limited to just the subthalamus or, simultaneously, also to the striatum. A significant increase in rotating behaviour induced by apomorphine was observed in the group which received a transplant in just the subthalamus..  

CONCLUSIONS: CO(2) laser-microscopy technique the treatment of tumors near the sella turcica is advantageous: few accidental injuries because of its high-accuracy; less harassment to the hypophysis and subthalamus; less complication; small exposure of operative field; less bleeding and clear operative field; no stimulation of metastasis of carcinoma;and no interference of bioelectric current..  

Furthermore, baclofen reduced the frequency of spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, but had no effect on their amplitude.These results provide evidence for presence of presynaptic GABA(B) receptors that modulate both GABA and glutamate release from afferent terminals in the subthalamus..  

Other therapeutic strategies include oral medications (baclofen, anticholinergics and benzodiazepines), local injections of botulinum toxin, intrathecal baclofen, and surgical lesions or high frequency stimulation of the thalamus, globus pallidus, or subthalamus..  

Compared to vehicle-rats, BMP-7 enhanced glucose utilization in the basal ganglia ipsilateral to stroke and improved LCBF in ipsilateral subthalamus, but decreased LCBF and LCMRglu in contralateral cortical regions..  

Systematic mapping by electrical microstimulation of the thalamus and subthalamus revealed that elevations in rCBF were elicited only from a limited area, which encompassed medial pole of zona incerta, Forel's field, and prerubral zone. We conclude that (1) excitation of intrinsic neurons of functionally restricted region of subthalamus elevates rCBF, (2) these neurons relay signals from the MCVA, which elevate rCBF in response to hypoxia, and (3) the SVA is a functionally important site conveying vasodilator signal from the medulla to the telencephalon..  

The compounds crossed the blood-brain barrier rapidly and accumulated preferentially in regions rich in serotonin uptake sites (e.g., brainstem, subthalamus and thalamus).  

Subcortical visual nuclei, including the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus and intergeniculate leaflet, pretectal area, and superior colliculus, and the subthalamus (zona incerta, fields of Forel) also project to the PHA.  

In humans, a funnel of fibers in the posterior subthalamus named the prelemniscal radiations (Raprl) has been described as an exquisite target to treat tremor in cases of Parkinson's disease.In the present study, a group of 14 patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, with prominent unilateral tremor and rigidity, were implanted with tetrapolar depth brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in Raprl to perform chronic electrical stimulation (ES) for the treatment of patient symptoms.  

Four patients with bilateral deep brain stimulators of the globus pallidus and four patients with bilateral deep brain stimulators of the subthalamus were studied while taking no medication and at 15 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after turning stimulation on. Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus and subthalamus is highly effective in reducing all the cardinal motor features of PD..  

OBJECTIVES: To study the electrophysiological properties of single cells in the subthalamus.  

Experience with surgery of the pallidum and subthalamus is very limited, but results are promising.  

CONCLUSION: Current exploration of the electrophysiology of the basal ganglia and careful analysis of the clinical findings in lesions circumscribed to certain parts of the thalamus, subthalamus and internal globus pallidus in patients with Parkinson's disease, have led to the appearance of paradoxical effects, according to the current basal ganglia model..  

The studies were carried out on the subthalamus of adult guinea pigs.  

In addition, the AH projected to regions which may be related to the emotional and autonomic responses, i.e., such regions in the amygdala, midline thalamus, septum, subthalamus, and midbrain.  

So our 41 cases experienced in pallidal and thalamic nucleolisis and thalamus and subthalamus DBS results suggest that the proposed equipment and methods are the required to assure accuracy and safety for target location..  

Both ablation (pallidotomy, thalamotomy), deep brain stimulation (thalamus, pallidum, subthalamus), and neural transplantation (human, porcine) have been demonstrated to be effective for specific subsets of Parkinson's disease patients.  

Terminal fields were found in several structures, for example the lateral geniculate nucleus, nucleus reticularis thalami, subthalamus, zona incerta, substantia nigra, red nucleus, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, reticular formation, raphe nuclei, pontine nuclei, trigeminal complex, and ventral horn of the spinal cord.  

Underactivity of the external segment of the globus pallidus is thought to contribute to the generation of parkinsonian hypokinetic symptoms in association with striatal dopaminergic dysfunction and overactivity of the subthalamus. In contrast, most patients with progressive supranuclear palsy had significant neurodegeneration of the external pallidum, particularly patients with significant degeneration of both the subthalamus and substantia nigra. These results suggest that the parkinsonian symptoms in progressive supranuclear palsy are caused by the degeneration of the external segment of the globus pallidus because such degeneration would increase thalamic inhibition through the basal ganglia output nuclei, particularly in patients with a loss of excitatory drive from the subthalamus..  

After tracer injections aimed at the red nucleus, retrograde labeling was found in the reticular thalamus, the subthalamus, the nucleus of the posterior commissure, as well as in two retinorecipient nuclei, namely, the ventral lateral and pretectal geniculate nuclei, where labeled cells are especially abundant.  

Rest tremor in PD is associated with increased metabolism in the thalamus, subthalamus, pons, and premotor-cortical network suggesting an increased functional activity of thalamo-motor projections.  

Pallidal neurons receive an excitatory input from the subthalamus, supposed to activate both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The observed reduction of calcium signals might shape pallidal excitability, influencing the physiological balancing between globus pallidus and subthalamus.  

Selective regional neuron loss and gliosis in striatum, cerebral cortex, thalamus, subthalamus and hippocampus are well recognized as neuropathological correlates for the clinical manifestations of HD.  

Other structures such as the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, subthalamus, cerebellar dentate nucleus and brainstem are affected to various extents.  

Various brain areas, including the thalamus, globus pallidus, and subthalamus, have been target sites..  

These results suggest that the anticataleptic action of systemic MK 801 versus haloperidol, is due to the blockade of NMDA receptors in the striatum as well as in striatal output circuits through the subthalamus. These findings suggest that MK 801 has little influence over thalamic excitatory feedback to the cortex, and that hypoactivity of the pallidum may not be a prerequisite for hyperactivity in the subthalamus..  

Glutamatergic afferents from the subthalamus, pedunculopontine nucleus and frontal cortex can modulate the firing activity of dopamine neurons.  

Furthermore, inhibitory postsynaptic potentials evoked by stimulation of the subthalamus in substantia nigra pars compacta neurons was suppressed at five to eight days after middle cerebral artery occlusion.  

The subthalamus has become a promising target for the neurosurgical treatment of parkinsonian symptoms. In contrast, we found that there was substantial cell loss in the subthalamus in progressive supranuclear palsy (45 to 85% neuronal reduction) and that both cell types were equally affected. Extracellular neurofibrillary tangles as well as tau-positive glia were observed in the subthalamus of these cases.  

Further diencephalic projections, however all of them wak, could be traced into the zona incerta, dorsolateral subthalamus, dorsomedial, lateral and supraoptic hypothalamus.  

This review summarizes some current information regarding the cell biology of this neuropeptide and the topography of MCH-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons in several species including mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, dog and monkey; and atlas of MCH-IR neurons in the hypothalamus and subthalamus of the brain of guinea pig is presented.  

The subcortical sites are the subthalamus/hypothalamus (zona incerta, the supramammillary nucleus, lateral, perifornical, dorsal, and anterior nuclei/areas), the thalamus (lateroposterior, laterodorsal, parafascicular, reuniens, paraventricular, central medial, paracentral, central lateral and intermediodorsal nuclei), the amygdala (central, lateral, and medial nuclei), the septal area (bed nucleus of stria terminalis, medial and lateral septum), and the basal forebrain (horizontal/vertical limbs of diagonal band nuclei and lateral preoptic area).  

This paper reviews clinical reports of various movement disorders (dystonia, chorea, ballism and parkinsonism) caused by well defined lesions of the putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, thalamus and subthalamus.  

The participation of GABA as a neurotransmitter in this projection was evaluated by retrograde labeling of cells in the pallidal area from an iontophoretic deposit of Fluor-Gold in the subthalamus combined with in situ hybridization for mRNA of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD).  

It is concluded that the topographical and synaptic organization of the so-called direct (neostriatum to entopeduncular nucleus) and indirect pathways (involving the subthalamus and the globus pallidus) is capable of mediating the inhibition and excitation of output neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus that occur following neostriatal stimulation..  

Pathways connecting the MPAH and subthalamus with the caudal brainstem may help regulate sexual behavior. Experiment 1 showed that bilateral coronal transections of the pontine tegmentum reduce mating and that the combination of a unilateral tegmental cut with a contralateral excitotoxin lesion of either the MPAH (Experiment 2) or subthalamus (Experiment 3) virtually eliminates copulation. Asymmetric bilateral damage appears to eliminate mating through a bilateral effect common to the transection and the lesion--the destruction of connections linking the MPAH and subthalamus with the caudal brainstem.  

In contrast, after 13 d of 10 mg/kg cocaine treatment, challenge with 30 mg/kg cocaine increased rCMRglc in the striatum, globus pallidus, entopeduncular nucleus, subthalamus, substantia nigra pars reticulata, and a few other regions without affecting limbic or mesolimbic regions.  

Combined neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic studies have revealed precise somatotopic organization throughout the basal ganglia system such that the leg, arm, and face areas of the cerebral cortex related to respective topographic areas within the striatum, pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamus.  

Levels of NOS mRNA expression per neuron were considerably higher in the striatum than in the pallidum or subthalamus.  

The causative lesions (hematoma in 7 and infarct in 9), unilateral in 15 patients and bilateral in 1, were located in the posterior two-thirds of the corona radiata, thalamo-capsular and subthalamus regions, or cerebral peduncle.  

MRI, taken at post-operative 14th day, did not detect any abnormal lesion in well-known responsible areas for hemiballismus such as subthalamus, thalamus and basal ganglia.  

The main efferent projections from the globus pallidus are to the subthalamus, to the thalamus, and to the substantia nigra.  

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