The surfaces were divided a priori into lateral, superior and inferior-medial zones, which approximated the CA1, combined CA2, CA3, CA4 subfields and the subiculum, respectively.  

Our results demonstrate that activity in the subiculum is specifically associated with episodic recollection. Overall, recollected items were associated with higher activity in the subiculum than other items.  

Using retrograde tracer injections in the subiculum, we identified a hippocampal population of ENK-expressing projection neurons. The boutons showed cell-type- and layer-specific innervation, i.e., interneurons were the main targets in the alveus, both interneurons and pyramidal cell dendrites were innervated in the other layers, and interneurons were exclusive targets in the subiculum.  

The ventral subiculum (vSub) of the hippocampus, in particular, is proposed to gate information flow within the NAc, a factor that is disrupted in models of schizophrenia.  

This preliminary study suggests that excess CA1 and subicular atrophy is present in cognitively normal individuals predestined to decline to amnestic MCI, while progressive involvement of the CA1 and subiculum, and atrophy spreading to the CA2-3 subfield in amnestic MCI, suggests future diagnosis of AD..  

Clinical manifestations were compatible with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia and included motor neuron symptoms; there was prominent neuronal loss in the frontal and temporal cortex, subiculum, and amygdala.  

We analyzed the innervation by medial and lateral perforant pathway fibers of parvalbumin-expressing neurons in the subiculum. Via a random systematic sampling scheme using a two-channel, sequential-mode confocal laser scanning procedure, we obtained image series at high magnification from the molecular layer of the subiculum. Further computer analysis revealed that approximately 16% of the 3D objects ('boutons') of BDA-labeled fibers was engaged in contacts with parvalbumin-immunostained dendrites in the subiculum. Thus, the medial and lateral subdivisions of the entorhinal cortex similarly tune the firing of principal neurons in the subiculum by way of parvalbumin positive interneurons in their respective terminal zones..  

These kinds of cue change are known to elicit spatial remapping in hippocampal regions, but not the subiculum.  

However, little is known about the characteristics of GABAergic inhibition in the subiculum of these animals. In addition, semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot experiments were performed on subiculum obtained from wild-type (WT) and KO mice. Molecular biology analysis revealed that the tonic GABA(A) receptor subunits alpha5 and delta were underexpressed in the fmr1 KO mouse subiculum compared with WT. Because the subiculum plays a role in both cognitive functions and epileptic disorders, we propose that altered tonic inhibition in this structure contributes to the behavioral deficits and epileptic activity seen in FXS patients.  

Localized analysis of the control and AD subjects only on the coordinates of the population template demonstrates shape changes in the subiculum and the CA1 subfield in AD (P < 0.05).  

These results extend previous descriptions of hippocampal projections to the accessory olfactory bulb by including the ventral subiculum and characterizing the morphology, neurochemistry (double labeling with somatostatin), and distribution of such neurons.  

With antibodies raised against the N-terminal mouse EAAT4 sequence, the highest protein expression levels were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta, ventral tegmental area, paranigral nucleus, habenulo-interpeduncular system, supraoptic nucleus, lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, subiculum, and superficial layers of the superior colliculus.  

These slices permitted recordings from the dentate gyrus, the CA3 and CA1 regions and the subiculum of both the injected and the contralateral non-injected hippocampus. They were initiated in the CA1 and CA3 regions and the subiculum.  

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a Cre-transgenic line that allows reproducible expression of transgenic proteins of choice in a small number of neurons of the adult cortex, hippocampus, striatum, olfactory bulb, subiculum, hypothalamus, superior colliculus and amygdala.  

These lesions caused a reduction in both the slope and intercept of rate-by-speed functions for cells in the hippocampus and postsubiculum. Surprisingly, cells in subiculum showed an opposite effect, so that the excitatory influence of locomotion was enhanced.  

in the perforant path to dentate gyrus, from the dentate gyrus to CA3 area, from CA3 to CA1 area and from CA1 to the subiculum) but potentiation of the efficacy of the perforant input to pyramids of CA1 and CA3 areas and increase in efficacy of associative connections between CA3 neurones.  

In contrast to CA1 pyramidal cells, bursting pyramidal cells in the subiculum showed a Na(+) spike-evoked mAHP that was reduced by apamin, indicating cell-type dependent differences in mAHP mechanisms.  

Results in the study of healthy aging on the hippocampus-amygdala network indicate the anatomical connectivity between the basolateral complex of the amygdala and the subiculum of the hippocampus on the basis of shape compression in healthy elders relative to young adults..  

Anatomical assessment at approximately 7 1/2 months of age was conducted by using design-based stereology to quantify the total cell number in five hippocampal subregions [ granule layer (GL), hilus of the dentate gyrus (DGH), cornu ammonis fields (CA)2/3, CA1, and subiculum (SUB)] [ Fitting, S., Booze, R.M., Hasselrot, U., Mactutus, C.F., 2007a.  

We report that dual immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos and CTb revealed an increase in the percentage of c-Fos-immunopositive basolateral amygdaloid complex-projecting neurons in open-field-exposed rats compared with HA and control rats in the ipsilateral CA1 region of the ventral hippocampus, subiculum and lateral entorhinal cortex.  

Type III Nrg1 is transcribed by a promoter distinct from those for other Nrg1 isoforms and, in the adult brain, is expressed in the medial prefrontal cortex, ventral hippocampus, and ventral subiculum, regions involved in the regulation of sensorimotor gating and short-term memory. Magnetic resonance imaging of type III Nrg1 heterozygous mice revealed hypofunction in the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampal CA1 and subiculum regions.  

Volumes of whole, anterior, and posterior hippocampus and subiculum were compared between groups. Post hoc analysis revealed significantly smaller posterior hippocampi in PTSD (p = .006), with no difference in the volumes of anterior hippocampus or subiculum.  

Prominent Wfs1 expression was seen in the hippocampal CA1 region, parasubiculum, superficial part of the second and third layers of the prefrontal cortex and proisocortical areas, hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system, and central auditory pathway. Wfs1-positive nerve fibers were found in the medial forebrain bundle, reticular part of the substantia nigra, globus pallidus, posterior caudate putamen, lateral lemniscus, alveus, fimbria, dorsal hippocampal commissure, subiculum, and to a lesser extent in the central sublenticular extended amygdala, compact part of substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area.  

CA3 and subiculum are hippocampal formation regions that can initiate seizure activity because each has a substantial intrinsic excitatory connectivity. We conclude that the unidirectional spread of epileptiform activity in area CA1 is the result of an intrinsic axon collateral system where each pyramidal cell has a proportionally larger projection toward subiculum.  

Entorhinal cortex, subiculum, CA1, CA1-CA2 transition zone, CA3-4 and dentate gyrus (CA3&DG) and total hippocampal volume were determined using a manual marking strategy.  

The following thirteen regions were identified by the stepwise discriminant analysis of the z-scores as significantly contributing to the differences between the sham and OBX: amygdala, cingulate cortex, caudate putamen at the level of globus pallidus, caudate putamen-lateral part, dorsal subiculum, dorsal thalamus, hypothalamus, median raphe, somatosensory cortex, substantia nigra, ventral hippocampus, ventral tegmental area and the ventral thalamus.  

Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that the subiculum plays an important role in the maintenance of temporal lobe seizures. In the subiculum of pilocarpine-treated animals, the density of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA-positive cells was reduced in all layers. Though the subiculum of pilocarpine-treated rats showed an increased intensity of GAD65 immunoreactivity, the density of GAD65 containing synaptic terminals in the pyramidal cell layer was decreased indicating an increase in the GAD65 intensity of surviving synaptic terminals. Though cell loss in the subiculum has not been considered as a pathogenic factor in human and experimental TLE, our data suggest that the vulnerability of subicular GABAergic interneurons causes an input-specific disturbance of the subicular inhibitory system..  

We measured cortical thickness and volume in MTL subregions (hippocampal CA fields 1, 2 and 3; dentate gyrus; entorhinal cortex; subiculum; perirhinal cortex; parahippocampal cortex; and fusiform gyrus) using a high-resolution in-plane (0.4x0.4 mm) MRI sequence in 30 cognitively normal volunteers (14 APOE-4 carriers, 16 non-carriers, mean age 57 years). APOE-4 carriers had reduced cortical thickness compared with non-carriers in entorhinal cortex (ERC) and the subiculum (Sub), but not in the main hippocampal body or perirhinal cortex.  

The present study was designed to investigate the influence of the left ventral subiculum (SUB) closely linked to the ENT on the DA responses obtained in the Nacc during LI, using an aversive conditioned olfactory paradigm and in vivo voltammetry in freely moving rats.  

With stimulation protocols and train frequencies used for kindling, the activity strongly spreads ipsilaterally through the hippocampus, DG, subiculum and EC..  

In LBD patients, significant tissue loss amounting to 10-20% was found in the hippocampal subregions corresponding to the anterior portion of the CA1 field on both sides, along the longitudinal midline in the dorsal aspect within the CA2-3 field, and in the subiculum and presubiculum.  

Glutamic acid391 tau truncation was prominent in the entorhinal cortex, whereas D421 truncation was prominent in the subiculum, suggesting that NFTs composed of either D421- or E391-truncated tau may be formed mutually exclusively in these areas.  

This activity is initiated not in the hippocampus but in the subiculum, an output region that projects to the entorhinal cortex.  

The subiculum as a part of the hippocampal formation is the principal target of CA1 pyramidal cell axons and serves as an interface in the information processing between the hippocampus and the neocortex. Our findings on synaptic plasticity in the subiculum indicate that regular firing and bursting cells represent two functional units with distinct physiological roles in processing hippocampal output..  

nNOS-immunoreactive (nNOS-IR) and Nissl-stained neurons were counted in entorhinal cortex, hippocampal CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 subfields, and subiculum. Both the MD and the BD groups had greater number of nNOS-IR neurons/400 microm(2) in CA1 (mean +/- SEM: MD = 9.2 +/- 0.6 and BD = 8.4 +/- 0.6) and subiculum (BD = 6.7 +/- 0.4) when compared to control group (6.6 +/- 0.5) and this was significantly more marked in samples from the right hemisphere.  

Although activity consistent with a bias toward pattern completion was observed in CA1, the subiculum, and the entorhinal and parahippocampal cortices, activity consistent with a strong bias toward pattern separation was observed in, and limited to, the CA3/dentate gyrus.  

those with an intact PN) were assessed in the ventral CA1 and subiculum at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks postinjection. Hippocampal areas and total neuron numbers in the ventral CA1 and subiculum were also determined.  

The neuronal density and apoptosis in CA1 and dentate gyrus of hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, subiculum, and retrosplenial cortex were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA cell death assay.  

The subiculum is the principal target of CA1 pyramidal cells and thus serves as the major relay station for the outgoing hippocampal information. Pyramidal cells in the subiculum can be classified according to their firing properties into burst-spiking and regular-spiking cells. Thus, mGluR-dependent LTP and NMDAR-dependent LTD occur simultaneously at CA1-subiculum synapses and the predominant direction of synaptic plasticity relies on the cell type investigated.  

These include the infralimbic, prelimbic, dorsal agranular insular, and entorhinal cortices, the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus, dorsal tenia tecta, claustrum, lateral septum, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens (core and shell), olfactory tubercle, bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), medial, central, cortical, and basal nuclei of amygdala, and the suprachiasmatic, arcuate, and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. PT distributes less heavily than PV to BST and to the amygdala, but much more densely to the medial prefrontal and entorhinal cortices and to the ventral subiculum of hippocampus.  

In addition, no differences were found in cell densities in hippocampal cornu ammonis subfields (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4), fascia dentata, polymorphic region, subiculum, prosubiculum, and presubiculum.  

We found major involvement of the lateral part of the superior hippocampus mainly corresponding to the CA1 subfield in MCI and AD while increasing age was mainly associated with subiculum atrophy in the healthy population. This study emphasizes the differences between normal aging and AD processes leading to hippocampal atrophy, pointing to a specific AD-related CA1 involvement while subiculum atrophy would represent a normal aging process.  

PPT treatment was similar to E2 in terms of reducing Abeta accumulation in hippocampus, subiculum, and amygdala but comparatively less effective in frontal cortex. In contrast, DPN did not significantly reduce Abeta accumulation in hippocampus and subiculum, was partially effective in frontal cortex, and nearly as effective as E2 in amygdala.  

Also, APPSwDI mice do not have any neuron loss, whereas the APPSwDI/NOS2(-/-) mice have significant neuron loss in the hippocampus and subiculum. These neurons appear to be particularly vulnerable in the APPSwDI/NOS2(-/-) mice as we observe a dramatic reduction in the number of NPY neurons in the hippocampus and subiculum.  

Within the hippocampal formation, labelled neurons were localized in the subiculum, predominantly on the ipsilateral side, with fewer neurons labelled contralaterally.  

We suggest that slow oscillation of the neocortex, which was discovered by Mircea Steriade, temporally coordinates the self-organized oscillations in the neocortex, entorhinal cortex, subiculum and hippocampus.  

This study tested the hypothesis that the flow of contextual information along the disynaptic "ESA" (entorhinal cortex-ventral subiculum-nucleus accumbens) pathway is responsible for context-related modulation of CRs. Rabbits received electrolytic or sham lesions of the ventral subiculum followed by discriminative avoidance conditioning and counterbalanced extinction sessions in the original training context, a novel context, and the original training context with a novel cue.  

A large proportion of hippocampal afferents and efferents are relayed through the subiculum. In order to investigate if and how the subiculum is involved in the generation of epileptic discharges in vivo, subicular and lateral temporal lobe electrical activity were recorded under anesthesia in 11 drug-resistant epilepsy patients undergoing temporal lobectomy. Based on laminar field potential gradient, current source density, multiple unit activity (MUA) and spectral analyses, two types of interictal spikes were distinguished in the subiculum. Interictal spikes were highly synchronized at spatially distinct locations of the subiculum. Our results indicate that multiple spike generator mechanisms exist in the human epileptic subiculum suggesting a complex network interplay between medial and lateral temporal structures during interictal epileptic activity. The observed widespread intra-subicular synchrony may reflect both of its intrinsic and extrinsically triggered activity supporting the hypothesis that subiculum may also play an active role in the distribution of epileptiform activity to other brain regions. Limited data suggest that subiculum might even play a pacemaker role in the generation of paroxysmal discharges..  

We performed patch-clamp recordings from morphologically identified and anatomically mapped pyramidal neurons of the ventral hippocampus to test the hypothesis that bursting neurons are distributed on a gradient from the CA2/CA1 border (proximal) through the subiculum (distal), with more bursting observed at distal locations. We find that the well-defined morphological boundaries between the hippocampal subregions CA1 and subiculum do not correspond to abrupt changes in electrophysiological properties. Rather, we observed that the percentage of bursting neurons is linearly correlated with position in the proximal-distal axis across the CA1 and the subiculum, the percentages of bursting neurons being 10% near the CA1-CA2 border, 24% at the CA1-subiculum border, and higher than 50% in the distal subiculum. Taken together with the known organization of connections from CA3 to CA1 and CA1 to subiculum, our results indicate that bursting neurons are most likely to be connected to regular spiking neurons and vice versa..  

In the efferent pathway of LEnt, more Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L)-labelled en passant and terminal boutons with larger diameters were shown in the hippocampus and subiculum; in the prefrontal, piriform, and perirhinal cortices; and in the amygdaloid complex in experimental mice at the two time points compared with the control after iontophoretical injection of an anterograde tracer PHA-L into the LEnt.  

However, statistical mapping results showed that regional surface contractions were significantly pronounced in late- compared to early-onset depression in the anterior of the subiculum and lateral posterior of the CA1 subfield in the left hemisphere. Significant shape differences were observed bilaterally in anterior CA1-CA3 subfields and the subiculum in patients in relation to comparison subjects.  

Before onset of the sessions, rats received bilateral microinjections of tetrodotoxin (TTX) into the ventral subiculum (VSUB) or dorsal subiculum (DSUB).  

We compared their role in pyramidal cells and a subset of interneurones in the subiculum.  

Real-time PCR revealed no significant downregulation of Kv1.4, Kv1.5, Kv3.1 or Kv3.2 in the subiculum, entorhinal and perirhinal cortex from chronic epileptic rats compared to controls.  

Finally, path integration at a short time scale (which is reset from one place to the next) would be merged in the subiculum with CA3/CA1 "transition cells" [ 22] to provide a robust feedback about current action to the deep layer of the entorhinal cortex in order to predict the recognition of the new animal location..  

Using Nissl-stained tissue sections, we quantified total neurons in five subregions of the rat hippocampus [ granual layer (GL), hilus of the dentate gyrus (DGH), cornu ammonis fields (CA)2/3, CA1, and subiculum (SUB)], and total glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) in two subregions (DGH and SUB).  

Immunohistochemical staining of all three proteins was increased in thalamus, hippocampus, and subiculum, but not frontal cortex.  

Slices prepared from this human tissue generated a spontaneous interictal-like activity that was initiated in the subiculum.  

In postnatal brain, expression was prominent in the cortex, subiculum, parasubiculum, granule neurons of the dentate gyrus, and some brainstem nuclei.  

We also observed higher values of the total neuronal density in the sclerotic subiculum, which is accompanied by a lower density of PV-ir when compared with non-sclerotic epileptic and autopsy hippocampi. These findings suggest that, the apparently normal subiculum from sclerotic patients also shows unexpected changes in the density and proportion of PV-ir neurons..  

The superficial injection shows that there is a sparse GABAergic projection from the subiculum to layer 1 of the GRS, in addition to the dense excitatory connections to layer 3. The role of these dual inhibitory-excitatory pathways - within the subiculum, and in parallel from CA1 and the subiculum - remains to be determined, but may be related to synchronized oscillatory activity in the hippocampal complex and GRS, or to the generation of rhythmic activity within the GRS..  

fMRI visualized a frequency-specific spatial activation pattern of the hippocampus; spatially restricted activation in the dentate gyrus during 5-Hz stimulation, activation of the entire hippocampus and subiculum at 10 Hz and activation of the contralateral hippocampus during 20-Hz stimulation..  

Using in vivo recording and labeling of single cells and retrograde axonal tracing, we demonstrate novel long-range GABAergic projection neurons in the rat hippocampus: (1) somatostatin- and predominantly mGluR1alpha-positive neurons in stratum oriens project to the subiculum, other cortical areas, and the medial septum; (2) neurons in stratum oriens, including somatostatin-negative ones; and (3) trilaminar cells project to the subiculum and/or other cortical areas but not the septum. Finally, a large population of somatostatin-negative GABAergic cells in stratum radiatum project to the molecular layers of the subiculum, presubiculum, retrosplenial cortex, and indusium griseum and fire rhythmically at high rates during theta oscillations but do not increase their firing during ripples. Therefore, rhythmic IPSCs are likely to precede the arrival of excitation in cortical areas (e.g., subiculum) that receive both glutamatergic and GABAergic projections from the CA1 area.  

RESULTS: Patients with AD showed significant deformations in the CA1 region of bilateral hippocampi, as well as the subiculum of the left hippocampus.  

Objective To investigate whether environmental cues associated with different properties of morphine could regulate the extracellular levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the hippocampal ventral subiculum, which play a critical role in the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior induced by environmental cues. Microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography were used to measure the extracelluar level of glutamate and GABA in the ventral subiculum under these environmental cues. Results Exposure to the environmental cues associated with rewarding properties of morphine resulted in a decrease (approximately 11%) of extracellular level of GABA in ventral subiculum, and exposure to the environmental cues associated with aversive properties of morphine resulted in an increase (approximately 230%) of extracellular level of glutamate in ventral subiculum. Conclusion Environmental cues associated with different properties of morphine modulate the release of distinct neurotransmitters in the hippocampal ventral subiculum possibly through different neural circuit..  

GR protein expression measured using Western blot analysis was significantly reduced in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (including the paraventricular nucleus [ PVN]) but not in the pituitary gland, ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsal hippocampus, ventral subiculum, medial prefrontal cortex or amygdala in cocaine self-administering rats.  

In vivo measurements of T(2) in the hippocampus, at the level of the subiculum, were shown to reflect the density of amyloid plaques. Thus T(2) from regions with high amyloid load, such as the subiculum, is particularly well suited for following plaque deposition in young animals, i.e., at the earliest stages of the pathological process..  

The mild loss of spinal anterior horn cells, the appearance of several Bunina bodies and the degeneration of the hippocampal subiculum and temporal cortex were also noted.  

Hippocampal sclerosis (HpScl) is characterized by neuronal loss and gliosis in CA1 and subiculum of the hippocampus, and may be one contributing factor to dementia in old age. Neurofibrillary and ghost tangles in CA1 and the subiculum were scarce and thus insufficient to explain the hippocampal pyramidal cell loss.  

The surge in the CA1 region did not spread back into the CA2 region, but spread through the CA1 region toward the subiculum.  

The possible influence of activity in neighboring brain regions such as the perirhinal cortex, and pre- and para-subiculum on the construction of the hippocampal spatial representation is then discussed..  

In addition, they developed parenchymal amyloid in cortex and subiculum.  

In adults, TRPC4 expression was high throughout the frontal cortex, lateral septum (LS), pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus (HIP), dentate gyrus (DG), and ventral subiculum (vSUB).  

Chemical lesioning of the ventral subiculum impaired the spatial learning performances in rats.  

This was further corroborated by occasional involvement of the parahippocampal white matter and subiculum, other components of this pathway.  

First, the results confirm and extend known intrahippocampal formation inputs to dentate gyrus, subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, and entorhinal area, which are arranged generally along the formation's transverse axis and dominated by the subicular projection-by far the densest established by field CA1 anywhere in the brain.  

The subiculum and the entorhinal cortex (EC) are important structures in processing and transmitting information between the neocortex and the hippocampus. The subiculum potentially receives information from the EC through two routes. In addition to a direct projection from EC to the subiculum, there is an indirect polysynaptic connection. The latter uses a number of possible pathways, which all converge onto the final projection from the hippocampal field CA1 to the subiculum. To activate the two inputs to the subiculum, stimulation electrodes were placed in the stratum oriens/alveus of CA1 and in layer III of the medial EC. The response patterns evoked in the subiculum after electrical stimulation of each of these input pathways separately were compared with the response patterns after simultaneous stimulation of both areas (medial EC + CA1). A comparison of the computed added responses of the two individual stimulations with the measured responses after simultaneous stimulation suggests that both inputs are linearly added in the subiculum with very little nonlinear interactions. This strongly suggests that in the subiculum interaction at a single cell level of the direct and the indirect pathways from the EC is an unlikely scenario..  

Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated widespread granular deposits of alpha-synuclein (alphaSN) in the brains of sheep and goats with natural scrapie, especially in the cornu ammonis and subiculum of the hippocampus; this contrasted with the diffuse and non-granular immunolabelling seen in healthy controls.  

Interestingly, the run-down in oocytes injected with membranes isolated from the MTLE hippocampal subiculum was not affected by LEV. CONCLUSIONS: We report that the antiepileptic LEV strengthens GABA inhibition of neuronal circuits by blocking the receptor run-down in the cortex whilst leaving the run-down of GABAA receptors in the hippocampal subiculum unaltered.  

The resulting images were used to determine the mean diffusivity, FA, and principal fiber orientation for manually segmented hippocampal regions that included the stratum oriens, stratum radiatum, stratum pyramidale (CA1 and CA3), stratum lacunosum-molecular, hilus, molecular layer, granule cell layer, fimbria, and subiculum.  

Compensatory increases were seen bilaterally in the ventromedial thalamus and red nucleus, in the contralateral STN, anterior substantia nigra, subiculum, motor cortex, and in midline cerebellum.  

RESULTS: The neuronal expression of COX-2 in the CA3 subdivision of the hippocampus, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and transentorhinal cortex were consistently observed in both nondemented and AD brains, and COX-2 immunoreactivity correlated with age in nondemented brains.  

While assignment to a specific sub-region is not possible with this method, the surface changes primarily intersect the area of the hippocampus body containing the CA1 region (and adjacent CA2 and distal CA3), subiculum, and the dentate gyrus-hilar region..  

The neuropathology of the cerebral cortex is characterized by most prominent and probably earliest degeneration in the medial side cortex of the temporal pole, border zone between the CA1 and subiculum, ambient gyrus, and amygdala as well as cytoplasmic ubiquitinated inclusion bodies in the dentate gyrus granular neurons and other cortical small neurons.  

CONCLUSIONS: Children with ASD exhibited an alteration of hippocampal shape consistent with inward deformation of the subiculum.  

TIP39 and the PTH2R are abundant in medial prefrontal, insular, and ectorhinal cortices, the lateral septal nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the fundus striati, the amygdala, the ventral subiculum, the hypothalamus, midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, the medial geniculate body, the periaqueductal gray, the ventral tegmental area, the superior and inferior colliculi, the parabrachial nuclei, the locus coeruleus, subcoeruleus and periolivary areas, and the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

Touch was studied in rat temporal cortex where afferent, tracer-labeled entorhinohippocampal fibers in the subiculum were imaged together with possible postsynaptic target neurons immunostained with an antibody against the calcium binding protein, parvalbumin.  

Importantly, this same dose of muscimol did not disrupt cued fear conditioning, nor did it affect latent inhibition when infused into the subiculum.  

The hippocampal formation, including the subiculum and presubiculum, together with the entorhinal cortex (EC) and perirhinal cortex (area 35) contribute numerous axons to the fornix in a topographical manner. The medial fornix originates from cells in the caudal half of the subiculum, the lamina principalis interna of the caudal half of the presubiculum, and from the perirhinal cortex (area 35). The intermediate portion of the fornix (i.e., that part midway between the midline and most lateral parts of the fornix) originates from cells in the rostral half of the subiculum and prosubiculum, the anterior presubiculum (only from the lamina principalis externa), the caudal presubiculum (primarily from lamina principalis interna), the rostral half of CA3, the EC (primarily 28I and 28M), and the perirhinal cortex (area 35).  

Areas CA1 and subiculum constitute major output structures of HF and target many cortical structures including EC. These return projections are also anatomically segregated with distinct regions of CA1 and subiculum projecting to either the LEC or MEC. We have previously demonstrated that the projections from CA1 and subiculum to the EC are capable of sustaining short- and long-term plastic changes. Specifically, field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) responses in LEC are stronger following distal CA1 and proximal subiculum stimulation, compared to either proximal CA1 or distal subiculum stimulation. We also demonstrate that the distal CA1-LEC, proximal CA1-MEC and proximal subiculum-LEC projections are all capable of frequency-dependent plastic effects that shift the response from LTD to LTP.  

NFT density was obtained by counting labeled NFT in cornu ammonis (CA) 1-CA4, subiculum and entorhinal cortex.  

Similar loss of NAAGergic neurons was observed in the subiculum characterized by 71.82% and 77.53% reduction in the stratum oriens and radiatum, respectively, when compared with controls.  

Field and intracellular recordings were made in an in vitro slice preparation to establish whether the antiepileptic drugs topiramate and lamotrigine modulate cholinergic excitation in the rat subiculum. Thus, topiramate and lamotrigine reduce CCh-induced epileptiform synchronization in the rat subiculum but only topiramate is effective in controlling DPPs.  

The dysgranular and agranular regions lying on the orbital and medial surfaces of the frontal lobes were most closely connected with limbic structures including cingulate cortex, amygdala, parahippocampal cortex, subiculum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, medial caudate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens as well as the magnocellular division of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and midline thalamic nuclei, consistent with findings in the rhesus monkey.  

While more widespread cerebral microvascular Abeta pathology was evident in older animals, the evaluation of the Abeta pathology in the 3 months old transgenic animals revealed specific accumulation of microvascular amyloid and markedly elevated numbers of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia restricted to the subiculum.  

Alterations in the balance of NKCC1 and KCC2 activity may determine the switch from hyperpolarizing to depolarizing effects of GABA, reported in the subiculum of epileptic patients with hippocampal sclerosis. We studied the expression of NKCC (putative NKCC1) and KCC2 in human normal temporal neocortex by Western blot analysis and in normal and epileptic regions of the subiculum and the hippocampus proper using immunocytochemistry. In the transition between the subiculum with sclerotic regions of CA1, known to exhibit epileptogenic activity, double immunolabeling of NKCC and KCC2 revealed that approximately 20% of the NKCC-immunoreactive neurons do not express KCC2.  

However, little is known about the distinct functions of the dorsal hippocampus and the dorsal subiculum. To examine the role of the dorsal hippocampus and the dorsal subiculum, Long-Evans rats with excitotoxic lesions (NMDA) of the dorsal hippocampus (DH), the dorsal subiculum (DS), or both (DHDS), and controls were trained on a nonmatching-to-place task. This experiment demonstrated that the dorsal subiculum and the dorsal hippocampus play a crucial role in processing idiothetic information and/or in maintenance of this information in memory..  

We show that: (1) There was a clear correlation between behavioral performance and elevated PKA RIIalpha,beta-ir during the acquisition phase of both training and reversal training in area CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), (2) PKA RIIalpha,beta-ir was similarly enhanced in area CA1 during the acquisition phase of reversal training, but did not correlate with behavioral performance, (3) PKA RIIalpha,beta-ir did not change during training or reversal training in the subiculum (SUB), (4) No changes in PKA RIIalpha,beta protein levels were found using Western blotting, and (5) AMPA receptor phosphorylation at serine 845 (S845p; the PKA site on the glutamate receptor 1 subunit (GluR1)), was enhanced selectively during the acquisition phase of reversal training.  

The subiculum and posterior retrosplenial areas in these mice were transformed into a three-layered hippocampus-like cortex with a compact homogenous pyramidal cell layer.  

Specifically, we made Phaseolus vulgaris-leuccoagglutinin (PHA-L) injections into the medial prefrontal cortex and Fluorogold injections into the hippocampus (CA1/subiculum) and examined termination patterns of anterogradely PHA-L labeled fibers on retrogradely FG labeled cells of nucleus reuniens.  

Here, we demonstrate that genetic deletion of the beta-secretase (BACE1) not only abrogates Abeta generation and blocks amyloid deposition but also prevents neuron loss found in the cerebral cortex and subiculum, brain regions manifesting the most severe amyloidosis in 5XFAD mice.  

The entorhinal cortex (EC) innervates area CA1 and the subiculum directly via the portion of the perforant path, which originates from EC layer III cells referred to as direct cortical input (dCI), and indirectly via the trisynaptic loop through the dentate gyrus and area CA3.  

The in situ data show high expression in thalamic nuclei and regions containing large pyramidal cells like cortex layers 5 and 6 and subiculum.  

The density of NFT in the CA1/subiculum in SD-NFT was much higher than the densities in the other hippocampal regions.  

Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is characterized by selective neuronal loss and gliosis in CA1 and the subiculum and has been associated with several disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin immunoreactive inclusions (FTLD-U), vascular dementia and some tauopathies. Sections were immunostained with antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein, HLA-DR and synaptophysin and immunoreactivity was measured with image analysis in CA1 and the subiculum of each case.  

A tonic current of small amplitude (53.99 +/- 6.48 pA at +40 mV) with the voltage dependency and the pharmacology of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) was detected in virtually all pyramidal cells of the CA1 and subiculum areas.  

Robust GnRHR I immunoreactivity was detected in the cell body as well as along the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the CA2, CA1, and end plate, but was clearly lower in the subiculum of the hippocampus.  

report that slow oscillations of membrane potential occur near-synchronously not only in neocortex but also in entorhinal cortex and subiculum.  

subiculum receives output of hippocampal CA1 neurons and projects glutamatergic synapses onto nucleus accumbens (NAc), the subicular-NAc pathway linking memory and reward system. Here, we recorded the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) within the shell of NAc by stimulating ventral subiculum in anesthetized adult rats.  

Both cellular and neuropil immunoreactivity were restricted to subiculum and Ammons horn. Cellular immunoreactivity was further restricted to pyramidal neurons and showed a hierarchical distribution: the mean percentage of immunoreactive neurons was highest in sector CA3 (64.41%), followed by CA2 (44.09%), CA4 (34.38%), CA1 (10.9%), and the subiculum (2.92%; P<0.001, except CA2-CA4, P>0.05), while it did not differ significantly between groups with different degrees of AD pathology.  

Their distribution was compared immunohistochemically in non-sclerotic and sclerotic hippocampi and localized only in astrocytes, with weaker immunoreactivity for both transporters in areas associated with pronounced neuronal loss, especially in CA1, but no decrease or even an increase in areas with less neuronal loss, like CA2 and the subiculum in the sclerotic group.  

HIA was defined as the angle between the line connecting the lateral margin of the cornu ammonis with the medial superior margin of the subiculum and the line passing through the midline structures.  

In contrast, no differences between groups in c-Fos expression were found in basolateral amygdala, dorsal dentate gyrus, ventral CA, or ventral subiculum.  

We show that (1) training but not habituation induces a decrease in cytosolic CaN activity, (2) the recovery of cytosolic CaN activity is reversal training specific and does not reflect normal restoration of basal levels unrelated to subsequent learning, (3) cytosolic protein levels for the catalytic subunit of CaN (CaNA) are decreased at the early phase of training, but not at the early phase of reversal training, (4) CaNA immunoreactivity in the dorsal hippocampus is enhanced in the CA1 and CA3 area (but not in the dentate gyrus [ DG] or subiculum [ SUB]) only during reversal training.  

Patient NC had damage to the hippocampus (dentate gyrus and the CA1 and CA3 fields) and layer III of the entorhinal cortex, but with relative sparing of the CA2 field and the subiculum.  

Neuronal loss and gliosis in cornu ammonis 1 and the subiculum of the hippocampus are features of hippocampal sclerosis (HpScl), which occurs in many cases of FTLD-U.  

In adult models, the CA1 axons reorganize their projections to subiculum. RESULTS: Retrograde tracing experiments determined a 67% larger dorsoventral extent of retrograde labeling in the CA1 pyramidal region after tracer injections in subiculum. The synaptic reorganization of the CA1 projection to subiculum was noted in the absence of overt neuronal injury in subiculum or CA1.  

Specifically, RE projects strongly to the medial frontal polar, anterior piriform, medial and ventral orbital, anterior cingulate, prelimbic, infralimbic, insular, perirhinal, and entorhinal cortices as well as to CA1, dorsal and ventral subiculum, and parasubiculum of the hippocampus.  

The subiculum has a central position between the hippocampus proper and entorhinal and other cortices, as well as a range of subcortical structures. The functional role of subiculum within the hippocampal formation circuit remains largely unexplored and a theoretical and experimental consensus on its functions has yet to emerge. Presented here is a simple and speculative model of the functions of the subiculum, based partly on anatomical, behavioural and neurophysiological considerations. The model suggests, firstly, that the subiculum acts to amplify hippocampal output, given the prominent bursting behaviour of its neurons and, secondly, that there is a dorso-ventral segregation of function within the subiculum.  

MT-I upregulation was also more significant in Tg-SwDI mice, especially in the subiculum and hippocampus CA1 area.  

Amyloid deposition (and gliosis) begins at 2 months and reaches a very large burden, especially in subiculum and deep cortical layers. Synaptic markers synaptophysin, syntaxin, and postsynaptic density-95 decrease with age in 5XFAD brain, and large pyramidal neurons in cortical layer 5 and subiculum are lost.  

The subiculum has long been considered as a simple bidirectional relay region interposed between the hippocampus and the temporal cortex. A group of 20 researchers participated in an ESF-sponsored meeting in Oxford in September, 2005 focusing on the neurobiology of the subiculum. Each brought a distinct expertise and approach to the anatomy, physiology, psychology, and pathologies of the subiculum.  

The presence of the c-Fos protein has been evidenced in the piriform cortex, subiculum, entorhinal and perirhinal cortices, and parietal and occipital cortices at different stages (Sessions 2, 4, and 6) in the acquisition of a trace conditioning in behaving rabbits. No difference in c-Fos immunostaining was observed between contra- and ipsilateral sides in the subiculum of conditioned animals. c-Fos production decreased significantly across conditioning but presented a noticeable bilateral increase after the reminder session in the piriform, entorhinal, perirhinal, and parietal cortices, but not in the subiculum. Peak production of c-Fos was observed after the 2nd and 7th (reminder) conditioning sessions for the piriform, entorhinal, perirhinal, and parietal cortices, and after the 4th session for the subiculum.  

The association with odour identification was robust for tangles in the entorhinal cortex and CA1/subiculum area of the hippocampus, but not for tangles in other cortical sites.  

One interrupted series of sections through the entire hippocampus was analyzed stereologically to estimate the total number of neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, the CA3/CA2 stratum pyramidale (SP), the CA1 SP, and the SP of the prosubiculum/subiculum of both hemispheres.  

Ventral subiculum (vSUB) lesions enhance corticosterone responses to psychogenic stressors via trans-synaptic influences on paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons.  

We examined the projection from the subiculum to the entorhinal cortex to determine whether it could function to transfer this hippocampally-processed information to the neocortex. Following stimulation in the subiculum we demonstrate a negative-going deflection followed by a positive-going deflection in the entorhinal cortex.  

Cell numbers were estimated in the neuron-containing layers of CA1, CA2-(3), CA4, the dentate gyrus, and subiculum using the optical-fractionator technique.  

In this study, we used in vitro electrophysiology along with immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques to study the subiculum--a limbic structure that gates the information flow from and to the hippocampus--in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats. These electrophysiological data correlated in the epileptic subiculum with (i) reduced levels of mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of the neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter 2; (ii) decreased number of parvalbumin-positive cells; and (iii) increased synaptophysin (a putative marker of sprouting) immunoreactivity. These findings identify an increase in network excitability within the subiculum of pilocarpine-treated, epileptic rats and point at a reduction in inhibition as an underlying mechanism..  

Considering that the hippocampus, subiculum and entorhinal cortex function as an integrated system crucial for memory and cognition, it is of interest to know whether similar SRFPs occur in hippocampal output structures (that is, the subiculum and entorhinal cortex), and if so, to understand the cellular basis of these subicular and entorhinal SRFPs as well as their temporal relation to hippocampal SRFPs. We hypothesize that the SRFPs represent a basal oscillatory activity of the hippocampal-subicular-entorhinal cortices and that the subiculum functions as both a relay and an amplifier, spreading the SRFPs from the hippocampus to the entorhinal cortex..  

This paper summarises the picture of the subiculum presented by Gray and McNaughton [ Gray JA, McNaughton N. This is filtered by earlier elements of the essentially unidirectional hippocampal circuit that essentially block familiar and unimportant information while passing to the subiculum important information. The function of the subiculum is to compare and integrate this goal information and produce output when conflict between incompatible goals is detected.  

This paper summarizes published as well as yet unpublished data on the organization of the subiculum. On the basis of our yet fragmented insights in the intrinsic network, as well as the known organization of major efferents and afferents, we propose that the subiculum is organized as a matrix of columnar modules along the transverse axis showing partial laminar connectivity. This indicates that major functional differences between CA1 and the subiculum are to be expected..  

The subiculum receives the majority of efferent outflow of neural information from the CA1 region of the hippocampus.  

The mammalian subiculum plays a prominent role in inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Lesion and stimulation studies indicate that the hippocampus, acting via output neurons of the ventral subiculum, acts to attenuate stress-induced glucocorticoid release. Lesions of the ventral subiculum enhance glucocorticoid secretion following psychogenic, but not systemic stressors, indicating that the influence of this structure on the HPA system is stressor-specific. Anatomical analyses fail to demonstrate direct interactions of the subiculum with principal stress-effector neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus, consistent with a trans-synaptic mechanism of action. Accordingly, tracing data indicate that glutamatergic ventral subiculum neurons innervate GABAergic neurons in several paraventricular nucleus-projecting neurons in the hypothalamus and basal forebrain, suggesting that inhibition is mediated by glutamate-GABA relays. The subiculum also innervates several limbic forebrain structures that in turn have bisynaptic projections to paraventricular neurons, such as the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and lateral septum, suggesting that the subiculum may have a generalized up-stream influence on limbic stress integration. Finally, recent information suggests that the subiculum may also be stress excitatory under some circumstances, and that there may be substantial strain or individual differences in the net contribution of the subiculum, to stress integration. Overall, the present state of knowledge indicates that the role of the subiculum in stress integration is complex, and likely involves interactions of stress-relevant subicular output with limbic-hypothalamic stress-integrative circuits..  

Each slide demonstrated multiple cells from each of six regions (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4, dentate gyrus, and subiculum).  

The ventral subiculum (vSUB) is an interface between the hippocampal formation and structures in the brain reward circuitry, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC).  

In addition, a large number of NFT showing different developmental stages and different rates of 3R tau- and 4R tau-positive neurons according to the region were found in the hippocampal area, suggesting that regions undergoing earlier NFT formation may show higher ratio of 3R tau-positive neurons to 4R tau-positive neurons, and that NFT formation may begin in the entorhinal and transentorhinal cortices, subsequently progress to the subiculum and CA1, and further to the CA2, amygdala and CA3-4, although progression to the neocortex is limited.  

Head direction cells are described in the presubiculum of the macaque, used as a model of what is likely to be present in humans. The response of head direction cells in the presubiculum was not influenced by the place where the monkey was, by the 'spatial view' observed by the monkey, and also the position of the eyes in the head. The role of the subiculum in the backprojection pathways from the hippocampus to the neocortex in a quantitative model of the recall of memories from the hippocampus is described..  

One such region is the subiculum.  

The principal hippocampal output region for spatial information is area CA1 and the major target of CA1 is the subiculum. Thus, one possible role of the subiculum is to receive, process and transmit information regarding location to areas outside the hippocampus. Anatomical experiments in the rat have shown that the projections from CA1 to subiculum exist in a series of 'nested loops'. Thus, each part of CA1 does not connect with each part of the subiculum. The identity of these target areas depends on the location of the projecting cell within the subiculum, that is, neurons in different loops (and different septo-temporal levels of the subiculum) project to different sites. Principal neurons in subiculum and CA1 are not highly interconnected, suggesting that spatial information within any one of the nested loops is not shared amongst the others. One conclusion from this is that for subicular targets to receive spatial information from the whole environment, area CA1 must have multiple spatial maps, one for each major projection (nested loop) to the subiculum..  

The subiculum has a strategic position in controlling hippocampal activity and is now receiving much experimental attention. We aim to identify the rules that govern the operation of subicular microcircuits in vitro and to relate these to the role of the subiculum in the intact brain..  

VH neurons projecting to both the mPFC and amygdala were predominantly located in the subiculum and CA1 and bifurcated near or at the soma.  

In the CA1 area, but not in the subiculum, perisynaptic alpha5-GABA(A)Rs contributed to slow phasic currents.  

Increased excitability enhances the flow of hippocampal output through the subiculum resulting in support for frontal lobe function and the action mode.  

Pyramidal neurons in the subiculum typically display either bursting or regular-spiking behaviour. Although this classification into two neuronal classes is well described, it is unknown how these two classes of neurons contribute to the integration of input to the subiculum.  

The term "hippocampal formation" is defined as the complex of six structures: gyrus dentatus, hippocampus proprius, subiculum proprium, presubiculum, parasubiculum and area entorhinalis In this work we attempt to present a brief review of knowledge about the hippocampus from the point of view of history, anatomical nomenclature, comparative anatomy and functions (Tab.  

In all cases, there was optimal visualisation of the ponticulus and subiculum.  

The functional role of subiculum within the hippocampal formation circuit remains largely unexplored, and a theoretical and experimental consensus on its functions has yet to emerge. Kelley (2006) provided evidence using pharmacological methods of a possible dissociation of function between dorsal and ventral subiculum in instrumental learning.  

A series of experiments investigating the role of dopamine D-sub-1 receptors in the ventral subiculum (vSUB) and dorsal subiculum (dSUB), 2 subregions of the hippocampal formation, found that D-sub-1 receptor antagonism (3.0 nmol/0.5 mul SCH-23390 bilaterally) in the vSUB impaired instrumental learning and performance, reduced break point in progressive ratio (PR) tests, and produced an intrasession decline in responding during test sessions, but had no effect on spontaneous motor or food-directed behavior.  

Receptor transcripts were most abundant in areas such as the basolateral amygdala, subiculum, deep layers of the cingulate, somatosensory and motor cortices and intralaminar/midline thalamic nuclei.  

Morphological and molecular evidence place the new genus in the Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales), despite its combination of characters that are atypical of that family; Regiocrella is characterized by having perithecia partly immersed in a subiculum, noncapitate asci, unicellular fusiform ascospores and pycnidial-acervular conidiomata.  

A volumetric analysis of subicular damage showed that dorsal hippocampal lesions caused a deficit in the non-matching-to-place only when accompanied by damage to the dorsal subiculum; on the other hand, lesions to the dorsal hippocampus impaired performance in the radial-arm maze regardless of the extent of subicular damage..  

In all cases, there was optimal visualisation of the ponticulus and subiculum.  

The areas of the brain with significant and reproducible changes in the rCBV response were (in descending order of magnitude) infralimbic cortex, hippocampus (subiculum), agranular insular/pyriform cortex, visual cortex, interpeduncular area, nucleus accumbens, cingulate cortex, thalamus, and septum.  

The entorhinal cortex (ERC), subiculum, CA1, CA2 and CA3/4 and dentate were marked. In AD subjects, CA1 and subiculum were smaller than in age-matched controls.  

Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of the mRNAs extracted from the human TLE-associated brain regions revealed an up-regulation of NKCC1 mRNA and a down-regulation of KCC2 mRNA in the hippocampal subiculum, compared with the hippocampus proper or the TL neocortex, suggesting an abnormal transcription of Cl(-) transporters in the TLE subiculum. The GABA currents elicited in oocytes injected with membranes from the subiculum had a more depolarized reversal potential (E(GABA)) compared with the hippocampus proper or the neocortex. The NKCC1 blocker bumetanide or a temperature decrease of 10 degrees C shifted the GABA-current E(GABA) more negative in oocytes injected with membranes from TLE hippocampal subiculum, matching the E(GABA) of TL neocortex-injected oocytes. We conclude that the anomalous expression of both Cl(-) transporters, NKCC1 and KCC2 [ corrected] in TLE hippocampal subiculum probably causes altered Cl(-) transport in the "epileptic" neurons, as revealed in the microtransplanted Xenopus oocytes, and renders GABA aberrantly "exciting," a feature that may contribute to the precipitation of epileptic seizures..  

Deposition of 4-HNE was also recognized in the hippocampus and mesencephalic central gray matter, but not in the subiculum.  

In the CA1 area, but not in the subiculum perisynaptic alpha5-GABAARs contributed to slow phasic currents.  

Preliminary experimental results are presented concerning the effects of addition or removal of environmental boundaries on place cell firing and evidence that boundary vector cells may exist in the subiculum.  

Connectional and comparative studies, including the use of kainic acid excitotoxicity, suggest that the V-shaped layer is comparable to the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampal formation and DM to Ammon's horn and subiculum..  

OBJECTIVE: To test the following hypotheses: smaller hippocampal volumes predict conversion of MCI to AD, whereas larger hippocampal volumes predict cognitive stability and/or improvement; and patients with MCI who convert to AD have greater atrophy in the CA1 hippocampal subfield and subiculum. Patients with MCI-i tend to have larger hippocampal volumes and relative preservation of both the subiculum and CA1..  

Impressive enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity was localized in anterior olfactory nucleus, tenia tecta, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, piriform cortex, lateral and basolateral amygdala, orbital frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens (shell) and associated areas of ventral striatum, entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus granule cells and hilar neurons, hippocampal CA subfields and subiculum.  

The ventral subiculum was activated during retrieval shortly after learning, but the level of activation declined at successive times.  

However, the hippocampal formation is unevenly affected by AD pathology, deposits of plaques and tangles being particularly dense in the CA1 field and subiculum. The hippocampal formation was isolated by manually tracing on 35 coronal slices the outlines of the hippocampus proper and subiculum after registration to a common stereotactic space. In AD patients, significant atrophic changes amounting to tissue loss of 20% or more were found in regions of the hippocampal formation corresponding to the CA1 field and part of the subiculum.  

In vitro autoradiography in rat brain slices indicated selective binding of 18F-nifene to anteroventral thalamic (AVT) nucleus, thalamus, subiculum, striata, cortex and other regions consistent with alpha4beta2 receptor distribution. PET study showed selective maximal uptake in the regions of the anterior medial thalamus, ventro-lateral thalamus, lateral geniculate, cingulate gyrus, temporal cortex including the subiculum.  

The most notable experimental result was a moderate, but significant (P<0.01) increase in [ 3H]-AFDX-384 binding sites in a number of brain regions (including cortex, hippocampus, subiculum, substantia innominata, and thalamus) associated with prior exposure to olanzapine for 90, but not 180 days.  

SPh overlaps with two subdivisions described in the pigeon that have been related to the mammalian dentate gyrus and subiculum.  

Hippocampal sclerosis, predominantly of the subiculum, was a significantly more frequent occurrence in the cases without clinical evidence of motor neuron disease (P<.01).  

capetribulensis is characterized by perithecia immersed within a carbonaceous stroma surrounded by subiculum-like hyphae, asci with large, barrel-shaped amyloid apical apparatus and large dark brown spores.  

The hippocampal projection to the amygdala has been demonstrated to originate in the subiculum and adjacent portion of field CA1 of the Ammon's horn (Sub/CA1) in the rat; however, the topographical organization of this pathway is still understudied.  

The subiculum is the pivotal output region of the hippocampal formation and it is involved in many of the physiological and pathological functions of the limbic system. This theta-frequency resonance of individual subicular pyramidal neurons may participate in the population's theta oscillation and contribute to the functions of the subiculum..  

There were also clusters of Abeta-positive granules associated with astrocytic cytoplasm and processes in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex.  

As the hippocampal formation is topographically organized in stacks of slices (lamellae), synaptic reorganization of CA1 axons projecting to subiculum appears to increase the connectivity between lamellae, providing a mechanism for translamellar synchronization of cellular hyperexcitability, leading to pharmacologically intractable seizures..  

The results showed that in normal conditions, GFAP-positive cells appeared in layer I of all neocortical areas during the first week after birth, i.e., the area cingularis, the area occipitalis, the area parietalis, the area insularis, the area praepiriformis, the area piriformis, the area entorhinalis, and the area subiculum.  

One is ubiquitin-positive intraneuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, and the other a localized neuronal degeneration in the transitional zone between the hippocampal CA1 and subiculum.  

There were no significant differences (P>.05) in the number of NPs between MCI and EAD cerebral cortex, but significant increases were present for NPs in EAD amygdala and subiculum compared with MCI (P<.01). In comparing MCI with EAD, there were significant increases in NFTs in EAD in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and subiculum (P<.01).  

Diffuse, but not dense, amyloid plaque-load in subiculum and cortex was increased by neuronal but not glial ApoE4 in old (15 months) double-transgenic mice, whereas both diffuse and dense plaques formed in thalamus in both genotypes.  

By visualizing immunopositivity for FosB/DeltaFosB-related proteins which accumulate in the nuclei of neurons activated by seizures we found that: (1) 24 h after SE, FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity was absent in medial EC layer III, but abundant in dentate gyrus, hippocampus proper (including CA3) and subiculum; (2) FosB/DeltaFosB levels progressively diminished 3 and 7 d after SE, whereas remaining elevated (p < 0.01) in subiculum; (3) FosB/DeltaFosB levels sharply increased 2 wk after SE (and remained elevated up to 3 wk) in dentate gyrus and in most of the other areas but not in CA3.  

Neurons of sector CA2 were relatively well preserved and the subiculum was intact.  

Neuronal loss with astrocytosis in the subiculum was found in four cases.  

In particular, AChE activity was upregulated in three basal forebrain regions containing cholinergic cell bodies, prelimbic cortex, anterior subiculum, and paraventricular thalamus, but downregulated in lateral septum and reticular thalamus. The increased activity in medial septum and anterior subiculum was linearly correlated with poor performances in a spatial learning task, possibly due to cell stress mechanisms.  

We report that the afferent projections to the subparafascicular nucleus and area include the medial prefrontal, insular, and ectorhinal cortex, the subiculum, the lateral septum, the anterior amygdaloid area, the medial amygdaloid nucleus, the caudal paralaminar area of the thalamus, the lateral preoptic area, the anterior, ventromedial, and posterior hypothalamic nuclei, the dorsal premamillary nucleus, the zona incerta and Forel's fields, the periaqueductal gray, the deep layers of the superior colliculus, cortical layers of the inferior colliculus, the cuneiform nucleus, the medial paralemniscal nucleus, and the parabrachial nuclei.  

This includes an apparent increase in the density of projection to areas that normally receive CA3 outflow such as CA1 and subiculum as well as novel projections beyond the confines of the hippocampus to the pre and parasubiculum and medial and lateral entorhinal cortex.  

The synaptic organization of projections to the subiculum from superficial layers of the lateral and medial entorhinal cortex was analyzed in the rat, using anterograde neuroanatomical tracing followed by electron microscopical quantification. The tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the lateral and medial entorhinal cortex, respectively, and resulting anterograde labeling in the subiculum was studied. The findings indicate that the majority of entorhinal fibers reaching the subiculum exert an excitatory influence primarily onto principal neurons, with a much smaller feed forward inhibitory component. Only a small percentage of entorhinal fibers in the subiculum appears to be inhibitory, largely influencing interneurons..  

T2 in the subiculum of adult APP/PS1 animals was lower than in PS1 mice, which may be related to the very high amyloid and iron loads in this region. T2 in the subiculum could thus serve as an early marker of the amyloid pathology..  

The brain showed frontal and temporal cerebral atrophy; severe neuronal loss and gliosis were observed in the precentral cortex (loss of Betz cells was also evident) and premotor area, and in the medial temporal lobe, including the temporal tip, amygdala, and hippocampal CA1-subiculum border zone.  

Rats with bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of ventral subiculum were exposed to either enriched housing conditions or standard housing for 6 h daily for 10 days.  

As shown previously, infusions of NMDA into the ventral subiculum (vSub) increases the number of spontaneously active DA neurons (population activity), while having no effect on firing rate or average bursting activity.  

Dense projections arose from pyramidal cells in layer III of the subiculum and prosubiculum, and terminated in the medial mammillary nucleus. While there was no evidence of an input from the dentate gyrus or fields CA1-3, a small contribution arose from the presubiculum and entorhinal cortices. The caudal portions of the subiculum and prosubiculum contained the greatest numbers of cells projecting to the mammillary bodies. A light contralateral projection to the medial mammillary nucleus was also observed, although this appeared to arise primarily from the more rostral portions of the subiculum and prosubiculum.  

In contrast, no observable changes were detected in the anterior cingulate, infralimbic or prelimbic cortices, as well as several amygdala nuclei, even though many of these regions receive projections from the subiculum.  

The trilaminar cell had a large projection from the CA1 area to the subiculum and a preferential innervation of interneurons in the CA1 area in addition to pyramidal cell somata and dendrites.  

Specifically, in vivo volumetric MRI and/or post mortem studies of BD have reported abnormalities of gray matter (GM) volume in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampal subiculum and ventral striatum.  

These regions included the ventrolateral septum, the anteroventral subiculum, several preoptic nuclei, the anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), the anterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and the medial subdivision of the medial geniculate body.  

Cells that moderately express alpha2 mRNA were localized to the cerebral cortex layers V and VI, the subiculum, the oriens layer of CA1, the medial septum, the diagonal band complex, the substantia innominata, and the amygdala of both animals.  

In postmortem brains without hypothermia (the normothermic group), the locus of MAP2 immunoreactivity moved from the dendrites to the cell bodies prior to becoming undetectable with increasing postmortem interval, particularly in the CA1-subiculum region. The present study demonstrated that MAP2 disruption is remarkable in the CA1-subiculum region of autopsied brains and that hypothermia reduces the postmortem change of MAP2, as observed in ischemic brain.  

NeuroImage 25, 783--792]; i.e., a lateral zone (LZ) approximating the CA1 subfield, a superior zone (SZ) approximating the combined CA2, CA3, CA4 subfields and the gyrus dentatus (GD), and an inferior-medial zone (IMZ) approximating the subiculum. Neurology 55, 1636--1643.] and suggest that inward deformities of the hippocampal surface in proximity to the CA1 subfield and subiculum can be used to distinguish subjects with very mild DAT from nondemented subjects..  

The induced SPW-Rs have properties that are identical to spontaneously generated SPW-Rs: they originate in CA3, propagate to CA1 and subiculum and require AMPA/kainate receptors.  

To address these questions, we mapped the expression of Arc/Arg 3.1 mRNA, a neuronal activity marker, in memory retention at multiple rostrocaudal levels of the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and lateral and medial entorhinal cortices after a platform search in a water-maze spatial task at 24 h and 1 month compared with swim and naive controls.  

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