Reticular Nucleus

We found that both cerebellar Purkinje cells and inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus neurons have strongly reduced synaptic AMPAR function in stargazer mice.  

At the same time, attention decreases neuronal responses in the adjacent thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN).  

Compared to control, vAChT was lowered (up to 50%) at each time point after trauma, with reductions in olfactory tubercle, basal forebrain, motor cortex, putamen, thalamic and hypothalamic areas and the gigantocellular reticular nucleus. Time-dependent reductions of about 20% of nAChR-density in the thalamus, hypothalamus, olfactory tubercle, gigantocellular reticular nucleus and motor cortex were observed post-TBI at 24 and 72 h.  

In the medulla, WGA was detected in the nucleus of the solitary tract but also in the nucleus ambiguus, the vestibular nucleus, the trigeminal nucleus and in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus.  

We have studied the effect of the lesion of the dopaminergic innervation of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRn) on anxiety and motor behaviour. The lesion of the dopamine innervation was produced by the injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the dorsal part of the thalamic reticular nucleus.  

RESULTS: 1) After injection of PRV, PRV-IR positive cells widely distributed in the spinal cord (cervical, thoracic and lumbar segments), brain stem (nucleus of solitary tract, cuneate nucleus, gigantocellular reticular nucleus, nucleus of spinal tract of trigeminal nerve, nucleus raphe magnus, locus caeruleus, etc), hypothalamus and cerebral cortex in each group.  

We found a large number of retrogradely labeled neurons within regions of the gigantocellularis reticular nucleus (including its pars ventralis and alpha) where most stimulation sites were located.  

The changes induced by chronic pain at descending modulation often affect opioidergic modulation, and were never described for a key facilitatory component of the system, the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt).  

After status epilepticus, Manf mRNA expression was transiently increased in the dentate granule cell layer of hippocampus, thalamic reticular nucleus and in several cortical areas.  

Here we investigate the correlation between the expression of T-channel coding genes (alpha1G, -H, -I), T-type Ca(2+) current, and the T-current-dependent low threshold Ca(2+) spike in three functionally distinct thalamic nuclei (lateral geniculate nucleus; centrolateral nucleus; reticular nucleus) in a rat model of absence epilepsy, the WAG/Rij rats, and a non-epileptic control strain, the ACI rats.  

Here, we report the effects on sleep-wakefulness produced by low-volume microinjections of hypocretin (Hcrt)1 (20-30 nL, 100, 500 and 1000 microm) and carbachol (20-30 nL, 0.1 m) delivered in two areas of the oral pontine tegmentum of free-moving cats with electrodes for chronic sleep recordings: in the dorsal oral pontine tegmentum (DOPT) and in the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO).  

Moreover, mean neuron numbers in the hippocampus (CA1-3) and brain stem (gigantocellular reticular nucleus) in the two transgenic rat strains in the terminal stages of disease were similar, and did not differ significantly from those observed in age-matched non-transgenic controls.  

Combined 5-HT immunofluorescence with axonal tracing revealed that the 5-HT innervation of RS neurons of the middle rhombencephalic reticular nucleus comes mainly from neurons in the isthmic region, but also from neurons located in the pretectum and caudal rhombencephalon.  

We analyzed the expression of mu-opioid (MOR), gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA(B), and NK1 receptors in spinally projecting neurons of major medullary pain control areas of the rat: rostroventromedial medulla (RVM), dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), nucleus of the solitary tract, ventral reticular nucleus, and lateralmost part of the caudal ventrolateral medulla.  

NPR-C immunoreactivity was detected in several regions, including the periaqueductal gray, oculomotor nucleus, red nucleus and trochlear nucleus of the midbrain; the pontine nucleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus, vestibular nucleus, locus coeruleus, trigeminal motor nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, abducens nucleus and facial nucleus of the pons; and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, hypoglossal nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, nucleus ambiguus and inferior olivary nucleus of the medulla oblongata.  

After global cerebral ischemia, delayed cell death is observed in the thalamic reticular nucleus but the mechanisms involved are not well described. The purpose of this study was to identify if Endonuclease G was expressed in the cell nucleus of parvalbumin(+) GABA'ergic neurons in relation to cell death after global cerebral ischemia in the thalamic reticular nucleus. In conclusion, this study has identified that Endonuclease G is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of neurons and expressed with apoptotic-like morphology in the nucleus of astroglia in the thalamic reticular nucleus after global cerebral ischemia..  

Precerebellar neurons of the inferior olive (IO) and lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) migrate tangentially from the rhombic lip toward the floor plate following parallel pathways.  

The reticular nucleus, zona incerta, and lateral habenular nucleus held numerous DAT-ir axons in both species.  

Transmission through the thalamus activates circuits involving the GABAergic neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN).  

thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons and dLGN interneurons).  

The lateral reticular nucleus (LRt) showed fluorescent labeled terminal fibers on day 12 and 14, after tracer injection to contralateral sciatic nerve.  

Following tracer injections into the thalamus, retrogradely labelled neurons were found in the depth of the olfactory tubercle (particularly the hilus of the Callejal islands and the insula magna), in subdivisions of the diagonal band complex, the peripeduncular region and the thalamic reticular nucleus. The only regions projecting to the lateral thalamus appeared to be the thalamic reticular nucleus (RTh) and the dorsal peripeduncular nucleus (PpD).  

Within the thalamocortical circuitry, Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 subunits are highly expressed in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), which is thought to act as a pacemaker at sleep onset and to be involved in slow oscillatory activity (spindle waves) during slow-wave sleep.  

In particular, GABA A receptors containing the alpha3 subunit are expressed predominantly in cortical layer VI and thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) and regulate the activity and firing pattern of neurons in relay nuclei.  

They also showed signs of neurodegeneration in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in the thalamic reticular nucleus, the number of FJ positive neurons in the cerebellum was 55+/-27 (n=4), the number of FJ positive neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus was 22+/-5 (n=4).  

A high density of PTH2R-immunoreactive fibers was found in brain regions of the medulla oblongata including the nucleus of the solitary tract, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and the dorsal reticular nucleus of the medulla.  

The magnocellular reticular nucleus and adjacent lateral paragigantocellular nucleus have been shown to contain a large population of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactive neurons.  

We compared intracellular responses of MGB neurons to electrical stimulation of the AC following bilateral ablation of the inferior colliculi (IC) or thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) in anesthetized guinea pigs.  

The ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO) is a demonstrated site of brainstem REM-sleep generation and maintenance.  

Furthermore, acute treatment with METH and MK-801 stimulated c-Fos expression in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) in mice subjected to the PPT test, although PPI alone had no effect on c-Fos expression.  

Neural features common to both mammals and birds, which thus may be crucially involved in the generation of both higher-level cognitive abilities and higher-level consciousness, include large, multipolar, glutamatergic neurons with extensive and densely spiny dendrites, with extensive interconnectedness as well as inter-regional connections, GABAergic inputs from local interneurons, and connections with thalamic nuclei that are regulated by the thalamic reticular nucleus as well as basal ganglia loops..  

Interposed between the thalamus and cortex, the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus intercepts and regulates communication between the two structures. Recent findings demonstrate that a unique circuitry links the prefrontal cortex with the reticular nucleus and may underlie the process of selective attention to enhance salient stimuli and suppress irrelevant stimuli in behavior. Unlike other cortices, some prefrontal areas issue widespread projections to the reticular nucleus, extending beyond the frontal sector to the sensory sectors of the nucleus, and may influence the flow of sensory information from the thalamus to the cortex. Unlike other thalamic nuclei, the mediodorsal nucleus, which is the principal thalamic nucleus for the prefrontal cortex, has similarly widespread connections with the reticular nucleus. Unlike sensory association cortices, some terminations from prefrontal areas to the reticular nucleus are large, suggesting efficient transfer of information. We propose a model showing that the specialized features of prefrontal pathways in the reticular nucleus may allow selection of relevant information and override distractors, in processes that are deranged in schizophrenia..  

It was recently proposed that their inactivation during paradoxical sleep is due to a tonic GABAergic inhibition arising from neurons located into the dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (DPGi).  

Low frequency gastric distension induced c-Fos expression in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) only, whereas in the high frequency gastric distension c-Fos positive nuclei were found in lateral reticular nucleus and in NTS in addition to some forebrain areas.  

To confirm the indirect connection, biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the auditory-responsive portion of the caudal pontine reticular nucleus, which receives direct input from CRNs. The results confirm that the caudal pontine reticular nucleus also targets the Mot7 and that its terminals are concentrated in the medial subnucleus.  

The amygdalae send impulses to the hypothalamus for activation of the sympathetic nervous system, to the reticular nucleus for increasing reflexes, to the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve for facial expressions of fear, and to the ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus, and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus for activation of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine release.  

In addition to its expression in glia, mGlu3 was distinctively expressed in cells in the GABAergic reticular nucleus of the thalamus. Local infusion of a non-selective mGlu2/3 agonist, LY379268, in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus, significantly reduced GABA release, suggesting that mGlu3 may also play a role in central disinhibition..  

Most dorsal thalamic nuclei send axons to specific areas of the neocortex and to specific sectors of the thalamic reticular nucleus; the neocortex then sends reciprocal connections back to the same thalamic nucleus, directly as well indirectly through a relay in the thalamic reticular nucleus. The present study shows that cells of the hippocampal formation as well as cells in the reuniens nucleus are retrogradely labelled following injections of horseradish peroxidase or fluoro-gold into the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus in the rat. Labelled neurons were seen in the hippocampal formation and nucleus reuniens only after injections made in the rostral thalamic reticular nucleus (1.6-1.8 mm caudal to bregma). In addition, the present study confirmed the presence of afferent connections to the rostral thalamic reticular nucleus from cortical (cingulate, orbital and infralimbic, retrosplenial and frontal), midline thalamic (paraventricular, anteromedial, centromedial and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei) and brainstem structures (substantia nigra pars reticularis, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal grey, superior vestibular and pontine reticular nuclei). These results demonstrate a potential for the thalamo-hippocampal circuitry to influence the functional roles of the thalamic reticular nucleus, and show that thalamo-hippocampal connections resemble the circuitry that links the sensory thalamus and neocortex..  

GABAergic cells of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) can potentially exert strong control over transmission of information through thalamus to the cerebral cortex.  

The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) supplies an important inhibitory input to the dorsal thalamus.  

We determined the prevalence of neurons that retrogradely label with both tracers in the constituent nuclei of the rostromedial medulla, the raphe nuclei, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi, bilaterally), the Gi pars alpha (GiA, bilaterally), and the midline medullary reticular formation.  

From a multidisciplinary study in our laboratory we have compiled numerous findings on the role played by the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO), REM sleep induction and maintenance brainstem structure.  

We investigated in different experimental rat models the potential facilitatory contribution of the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt) descending pathway to the expressions of the sensory spinal neuron sensitization such as increased spontaneous and noxious evoked activities, responsivity to heterotopic afferences stimulation and long lasting afterdischarges (ADs).  

posterodorsal area (PD) and ventral auditory area (VA), in the rat cortex have similar topographies in the projection to the ventral division of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGV), but reverse topographies in the projection to the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN).  

In all species investigated PYY-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies were localized exclusively to the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) of the rostral medulla.  

They were located in the anterodorsal tegmental nucleus, anteroventral tegmental nucleus, nucleus profundus mesencephali, and superficial isthmal reticular nucleus, with axons projecting to the tectum, nucleus isthmi, and spinal cord.  

Most theories, proposed to describe this response modulation have postulated that the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) plays a role in this response modulation. To test this idea, we used multineuron recordings and demonstrate, for the first time, that the responses of single neurons in the reticular nucleus are modulated by the behavior of the animal.  

Within the rostral brainstem we found medial and lateral divisions of the superior raphe nucleus and a widely dispersed group of neurons in the tegmentum, the superior reticular nucleus. In the caudal brainstem we observed the inferior raphe nucleus and the inferior reticular nucleus.  

The cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, which project to cortex, the thalamic reticular nucleus and the amygdala, are implicated in many aspects of attentional function, while the intrinsic neurons of the basal forebrain are implicated in learning and memory.  

MLR excitatory inputs to reticulospinal cells in the middle (MRRN) are larger than those in the posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus (PRRN).  

Recent findings indicate that prefrontal pathways interface with laminar-specific neurochemical classes of inhibitory neurons in sensory cortices, terminate extensively in the frontal and sensory sectors of the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus, and target the inhibitory intercalated masses of the amygdala.  

The thalamic reticular nucleus is a layer of GABAergic neurons that occupy a strategic position between the thalamus and cortex. In contrast, those to the posterior nucleus were complicated and varied considerably among neurons: although almost all contained a single elliptical region near the reticulothalamic border, in most cases, they consisted of additional discontinuous regions or relatively diffuse regions throughout the thickness of the thalamic reticular nucleus. Our results suggest two sources of reticular inputs to the posterior nucleus neurons: one that is relatively topographic from regions near the reticulothalamic border and one that is relatively diffuse and convergent from most or all of the thickness of the thalamic reticular nucleus.  

In contrast, both GABA(B(1a,2)) and GABA(B(1b,2)) receptors efficiently inhibit the release of GABA from thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons onto TCR neurons.  

In addition, Dmbx1 was shown to be expressed at embryonic day 15.5 in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the rostral nucleus of the tractus solitarius, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the reticular nucleus in the brainstem, all of which receive melanocortin signaling, indicating involvement of Dmbx1 in the development of the neural network for the signaling.  

Neuronal responses to auditory stimuli and electrical stimulation were examined in 104 neurones in the auditory sector of thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and nine medial geniculate (MGB) neurones from anaesthetized guinea pigs.  

Throughout the brainstem, abundant codistribution was observed but actual coexistence of the tracer and ChAT was only found in the nucleus of the solitary tract and the inferior reticular nucleus.  

The simplicity of the model was motivated by two questions: (1) Can an LGN model that is driven by a retinal spike train recorded as synaptic ('S') potentials, but does not include a diverse array of ion channels, nor feedback inputs from the cortex, brainstem, and thalamic reticular nucleus, accurately simulate the LGN discharge on a spike-for-spike basis? (2) Are any special synaptic mechanisms, beyond simple summation of currents, necessary to model experimental recordings? We recorded cat relay cell responses to spatially homogeneous small or large spots, with luminance that was rapidly modulated in a pseudo-random fashion.  

Given the current knowledge of the neurophysiology of absence seizures, this specificity of the frontal cortical discharges suggests the hypothesis that absence spells are associated with pathology in a circuit comprising ventromedial frontal cortex, rostral thalamic reticular nucleus, and limbic nuclei of the thalamus.  

The pontine nuclei of the echidna included basilar and reticulotegmental components with similar cyto- and chemarchitectural features to therians and there were magnocellular and subtrigeminal components of the lateral reticular nucleus, also as seen in therians.  

In addition, scattered CTb-Fos double-labelled cells were observed in many other VTA afferent structures, such as claustrum, lateral septum, diagonal band-magnocellular preoptic nucleus, deep mesencephalic nucleus, oral part of pontine reticular nucleus and dorsomedial tegmental area.  

The lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) resides in the rostral medulla and caudal pons, is implicated in cardiovascular regulation and cranial nerve reflexes, and gives rise to mossy fibers in the cerebellum.  

We found highly consistent connections with the reticular nucleus and cerebellum.  

They further indicate that (1) these neurons are non-cholinergic possibly glutamatergic neurons, (2) they directly project to the glycinergic premotoneurons localized in the medullary ventral gigantocellular reticular nucleus (GiV), (3) the main neurotransmitter responsible for their inhibition during waking (W) and slow wave sleep (SWS) is GABA rather than monoamines, (4) they are constantly and tonically excited by glutamate and (5) the GABAergic neurons responsible for their tonic inhibition during W and SWS are localized in the deep mesencephalic reticular nucleus (DPMe). We also showed that the tonic inhibition of locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic and dorsal raphe (DRN) serotonergic neurons during sleep is due to a tonic GABAergic inhibition by neurons localized in the dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (DPGi) and the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG).  

From the perspective of comparative morphology, the distribution of non-monoaminergic neurons in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was investigated using an immunohistochemical method with specific antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC).TH-immunoreactive (IR) neurons (but not AADC-IR) neurons were observed in the olfactory tubercle, preoptic suprachiasmatic nucleus, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray matter, medial longitudinal fasciculus, substantia nigra, and nucleus solitaris.In contrast, AADC-IR (but not TH-IR), small, oval and spindle-shaped neurons were sparsely distributed in the following areas: the hypothalamus from the anterior nucleus to the lateral nucleus, the dorsomedial nucleus, the dorsomedial area of the medial mammillary nucleus and the arcuate nucleus; the midbrain, including the stria medullaris and substantia nigra; and the medulla oblongata, including the dorsal area of the nucleus solitaris and the medullary reticular nucleus.  

In the thalamus, two distinct types of IPSC kinetics are observed: thalamocortical relay neurons in the ventrobasal nucleus (VB) exhibit a fast decaying IPSC, whereas neurons in the adjacent reticular nucleus (RTN) display a long-lasting, slowly decaying IPSC.  

We combined immunocytochemistry and high-resolution ImmunoGold electron microscopy to study cellular and subcellular localization of GABA(A)R alpha1, alpha3, and beta2/beta3 subunits in ventral posterior nucleus (VP) and reticular nucleus (RTN) of control rats and WAG/Rij rats, a genetic model of absence epilepsy.  

Furthermore, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the lateral reticular nucleus (LRT) and the hypoglossal nucleus demonstrated intense EYFP expression whereas other regions of the medulla were devoid of neuronal EYFP labeling (e.g.  

The contribution of neurotransmitters and related receptors, the involvement of thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), and the role of neuronal firing patterns in this process were also examined.  

The mechanisms underlying this imbalance were studied as to the role of two medullary components of the pain modulatory system: the dorsal reticular nucleus and the caudal ventrolateral medulla, which function primarily as pronociceptive and antinociceptive centres, respectively. In the spino-dorsal reticular nucleus loop, the ascending branch is strongly inhibited by spinal GABAergic neurons, which may act as a buffering system of the dorsal reticular nucleus-centred amplifying effect. Normalizing receptor expression in the caudal ventrolateral medulla or controlling noci-evoked activity at the dorsal reticular nucleus or caudal ventrolateral medulla by interfering with neurotransmitter release is now possible by the use of gene therapy, an approach that stands out as a unique tool to manipulate the supraspinal endogenous pain control system..  

At the spinal cord, the analysis was focused on the dorsal horn (laminae I-V) and supraspinally, five major regions of the endogenous pain control system were considered: the caudal ventrolateral medulla (VLM), the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), the ventral reticular nucleus (VRt), the nucleus of the solitary tract (Sol) and the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM).  

In the medulla oblongata, Phox2b-immunoreactive nuclei were present in the dorsal vagal complex, intermediate reticular nucleus, dorsomedial spinal trigeminal nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, catecholaminergic neurons, and retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN).  

Retrogradely labeled neurons in the lateral reticular nucleus tended to locate more laterally and be more condensed into a small compartment in the reeler compared with their normal counterparts.  

The degree of synchrony within the thalamic network seems to be crucial in determining whether normal (spindle) or pathological (spike-wave) oscillations occur, and recent studies show that regulation of excitability in the reticular nucleus leads to dynamical modulation of the state of the thalamic circuit and provide a basis for explaining how a variety of unrelated genetic alterations might lead to the spike-wave phenotype. In addition, given the central role of the reticular nucleus in generating spike-wave discharge, these studies have suggested specific interventions that would prevent seizures while still allowing normal spindle generation to occur.  

The earliest thalamic neurons generated between embryonic days (E) 13 and 15 include those of the reticular nucleus, entirely composed by GABAergic neurons. In the perinatal period, the preponderance of GABAergic neurons was restricted to the reticular nucleus and several GABAergic fibers were still detectable throughout the thalamus.  

Reinoso s group found out that the paramedian ventral area of the oral pontine reticular nucleus is the conductor in the establishment of REM sleep..  

The results showed that PrRP immunoreactive neurons in nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) and ventrolateral reticular nucleus (VLRN) in the proestrus were less than those in the diestrus, the estrus and the metaestrus.  

The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) provides inhibitory innervation to most thalamic relay nuclei and receives excitatory innervation from both cortical and thalamic neurons.  

It was seen heaviest in the pontine nuclei and moderate in the pontine reticulotegmental nucleus; however, it was seen less in the medial solitary nucleus, red nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus, external cuneate nucleus and vestibular nuclear complex.  

RESULTS: Three types of labeled neurons were observed: (1) neurons only retrogradely microfluorosphere-labeled that were mainly located in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, superior vestibular nucleus and parvicellular reticular nucleus on the ipsilateral side of the injection; (2) neurons that were both immunolabeled with CGRP and also retrogradedly labeled with microfluorospheres, indicating that they are CGRP cells projecting to the area of vestibular efferent nucleus, these cells were mainly distributed in the superior vestibular nucleus and dorsal vestibular nucleus, and (3) cells only immunolabeled for CGRP that were scattered extensively in the brainstem.  

For both nuclei, some of the feedback responses were purely disynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) from the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN).  

Considering the lack of interneurons in rodent VB, the NO-mediated actions likely involve an increase in the output of axon terminals of thalamic reticular nucleus neurons.  

Brain projections from the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus: an anterograde and retrograde tracing study in the rat.  

We found that injection into the dorsal reticular nucleus of the caudal medulla ipsilateral to the stimulation site blocked vocal fold movements bilaterally; injections invading major parts of the nucleus ambiguus blocked vocal fold movements exclusively ipsilateral to the injection site; and injections centered on the parvocellular reticular formation bordering the nucleus ambiguus blocked exclusively contralateral vocal fold movements. We conclude from this that the corticobulbar laryngeal control pathway synapses in the ipsilateral dorsal reticular nucleus and then divides into one component running directly to the ipsilateral nucleus ambiguus and a second component crossing to the contralateral nucleus ambiguus after having synapsed in the ipsilateral peri-ambigual reticular formation..  

Microinjections of muscarine (75 microM) or the muscarinic receptor (mAchR) antagonist atropine (1 mM) lateral to the rostral pole of the posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus induced or prevented, respectively, the muscarinic RS neuron response.  

In acute experiments on anaesthetized with urethane normotensive rats we studied effects of modulating the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) of the neurons in the medullary cardiovascular nuclei - nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), paramedian reticular nucleus (PMn), n.ambiguus (AMB), and lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) on the systemic arterial pressure level (SAP).  

CONCLUSIONS: Sleep spindles are generated by the thalamic reticular nucleus in conjunction with specific thalamic nuclei and are modulated by corticothalamic and thalamocortical connections.  

Second, with synaptic transmission blocked in the brain, bilateral pharmacological microstimulation in parts of the anterior (ARRN), middle (MRRN), or posterior (PRRN) rhombencephalic reticular nucleus also initiated symmetrical swimming movements and muscle burst activity.  

NPR-A-immunoreactive perikarya were found in the red nucleus and the oculomotor nucleus in the midbrain, the parabrachial nucleus and the locus coeruleus in the pons, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the hypoglossal nucleus, the cuneate nucleus, the gracile nucleus, the nucleus ambiguus, the lateral reticular nucleus, the reticular formation, and the inferior olivary nucleus in the medulla oblongata.  

PSA-NCAM labelling remained intense and homogeneously distributed along perinatal period, but from P4 it began to decrease selectively, persisting throughout adulthood only in the reticular nucleus, ventral lateral geniculate nucleus and midline and intralaminar nuclei.  

RESULTS: FPCs in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the parvocellular reticular nucleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract were more frequent than the sham-operated rats.  

The thalamic reticular nucleus (nRt) provides a major source of inhibition in the thalamo-cortical circuit and is critically involved in the generation of spindle oscillations.  

The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) can been subdivided into sectors based on thalamic and cortical input.  

This hypothesis was confirmed in experiments showing that morphine's inhibitory effect on maternal responsiveness was blocked by 1.0 and 0.2 nmol CCK injections into the rostral PAG, but not in nearby regions of the mesencephalic reticular nucleus.  

Thalamic interneurons and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons provide inhibitory innervation of thalamocortical cells that significantly influence thalamic gating.  

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the PeF area and hypocretin on the electrophysiological activity of neurons of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO), which is an important structure in the generation and maintenance of rapid eye movement sleep.  

Similarly, GABA(B2) mRNA was not found in the reticular nucleus.  

One mechanism by which morphine alters sleep and wakefulness may be by modulating GABAergic signaling in brain regions regulating arousal, including the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO).  

We used the c-fos expression as a tool to study correlated neuronal activation, induced by bending the inflamed paw of monoarthritic animals, between the spinal dorsal horn and medullary centers belonging to the endogenous pain control system, namely the lateralmost reticular formation of the ventrolateral medulla (VLMlat), the lateral reticular nucleus (LRt), the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), the nucleus tractus solitarius (Sol) and the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM).  

Giant neurones in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) play a crucial role in mediating the mammalian startle response.  

Activation of the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) evoked by the startle pulses was inhibited under PPI conditions.  

This review analyzes current concepts of the structural organization and ultrastructure of the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RNT) and the neurochemical characteristics of its neurons.  

The present study was carried out to analyze the topography of bilateral spinal projections to the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN).  

We observed many double labeled neurons in the parvocellular reticular nucleus, medullary reticular formation, and laminae IV and V of C1.  

Two other precerebellar nuclei, the lateral reticular nucleus and the inferior olive, are present in Large(vls) mice.  

The CaM III mRNAs were less dominant in the medial lemniscus, the inferior colliculus and the pontine reticular nucleus than those of the other CaM gene-specific transcripts.  

Immunohistochemical methods were used to label singly and/or in combination glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, the sole synthesizing enzyme for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid) and phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLN, a synthesizing enzyme for glutamate) in neurons of lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) of thalamus of adult cats.  

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of local injections of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, into the rostral and caudal parts of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), on the generation of spike-and-wave discharges in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS).  

GABA mediates inhibitory effects in neurons of the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO).  

GABAergic neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRt) provide thalamocortical relay neurons with feedback inhibition that influences sensory processing and thalamocortical rhythm generation.  

These axons were especially well-preserved after traversing the reticular nucleus, the location chosen for stimulation of thalamostriatal afferents.  

GABA signaling within the reticular nucleus (Rt) and the ventrobasal complex (VB) of the thalamus is critical to the neurophysiology of absence seizures.  

This study demonstrated that there is a pathway from the zona incerta to the thalamic reticular nucleus. Injections of horseradish peroxidase or Fluorogold were made, using stereotaxic coordinates, into the rostral, intermediate or caudal regions of the thalamic reticular nucleus of adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The results show that the different regions of the thalamic reticular nucleus have distinct patterns of connections with the sectors of the zona incerta. In terms of the relative strength of the connections, injections made into the rostral regions of the thalamic reticular nucleus showed the highest number of labelled cells within the rostral and ventral sectors of the zona incerta; injections made into the intermediate regions of the thalamic reticular nucleus showed labelled cells in the dorsal and ventral sectors; while injections to the caudal regions of the thalamic reticular nucleus showed only a few labelled cells in the caudal sector of the zona incerta.  

The thalamic reticular nucleus is strategically located in the axonal pathways between thalamus and cortex, and reticular cells exert strong, topographic inhibition on thalamic relay cells.  

The inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) intercepts and modulates all corticothalamic and thalamocortical communications.  

The major inhibitory inputs to the thalamocortical (TC) neurons are from the GABAergic neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus.  

In addition, orexin-A produced a small depolarization in 28% of neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN).  

Other vestibular-related areas such as prepostitus hypoglossal nucleus, gigantocellular reticular nucleus and locus coeruleus of normal experimental rats showed functionally activated c-fos expression at P7.  

The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a sheet of GABAergic neurons that project to other TRN neurons and to associated thalamocortical relay nuclei.  

The underlying mechanism is located within the primary startle pathway, presumably at sensory synapses on giant neurons in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC).  

The neuronal composition of the thalamic reticular nucleus was studied in serial sections of the sagittal and frontal projections impregnated with silver nitrate by the Golgi method. The neuronal composition of the reticular nucleus of the human thalamus was wider than has previously been described in animals and humans. The principles of the organization of the reticular nucleus of the human thalamus are described..  

Acting on this vital relay is another thalamic nucleus, the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN).  

We searched the anatomical origin of the cholinergic projection to the GN throughout the hindbrain and forebrain, and we found that the cholinergic fibers originated mainly in the pontine reticular nucleus (PRN).  

In situ hybridization analysis shows that at least four classic cadherins, cadherin 6 (Cad6), cadherin 8 (Cad8), cadherin11 (Cad11) and N-cadherin (Ncad), are expressed in the migratory streams of lateral reticular nucleus and external cuneate nucleus (LRN/ECN) neurons.  

We compared the relative expression of NK1 and GABAB receptors in two spinomedullary pathways targeting an antinociceptive area and a pronociceptive centre, respectively, the lateral part of the caudal ventrolateral medulla (VLMlat) and the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt).  

In the last 15 years a role has been ascribed for the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus as a supraspinal pain modulating area. The medullary dorsal reticular nucleus is reciprocally connected with the spinal dorsal horn, is populated mainly by nociceptive neurons and regulates spinal nociceptive processing. Here we analyze the distribution of brain projections from the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus using the iontophoretic administration of the anterograde tracer biotinylated-dextran amine and the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B. Fibers and terminal boutons labeled from the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus were located predominately in the brainstem, although extending also to the forebrain. The well-known role of the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus in nociception and its pattern of brain projections in rats suggests that the nucleus is possibly implicated in the modulation of: (i) the ascending nociceptive transmission involved in the motivational-affective dimension of pain; (ii) the endogenous supraspinal pain control system centered in the periaqueductal gray matter-rostral ventromedial medulla-spinal cord circuitry; (iii) the motor reactions associated with pain..  

In anesthetized rats, innocuous stomach distension increased arterial blood pressure and heart rate and induced c-Fos immunoreactivity within nucleus tractus solitarii, nucleus ambiguus, ventrolateral medulla and lateral reticular nucleus. Also, c-Fos immunoreactivity was significantly decreased in nucleus tractus solitarii and lateral reticular nucleus. c-Fos immunoreactivity in nucleus tractus solitarii, lateral reticular nucleus and nucleus ambiguus was reduced in comparison to the intact rats.  

Labelled neurons in the tangential migratory streams form contralateral clusters in the external cuneate nucleus (ECN) and lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) in the myelencephalon, and bilateral clusters in the pontine grey nucleus (PGN) and reticulotegmental nucleus (RTN) in the metencephalon.  

The largest number of CTb/Fos double-labeled cells was found in the dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (DPGi). It indeed contained 19% of the CTb/Fos double-labeled neurons, whereas the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) contained 18.3% of these neurons, the lateral paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (LPGi) 15%, the lateral hypothalamic area 9%, the lateral PAG 6.7%, and the rostral PAG 6%.  

Another difference with the cat was that only 26 of the 86 PNs (30%, as compared with 84% in the cat) with projection to the forelimb motor nuclei send ascending collaterals terminating in the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) on the ipsilateral side of the medulla.  

However, in the reticular nucleus, which lacks alpha1-GABA(A) receptors in wild-type mice, postsynaptic alpha3/gamma2/gephyrin clusters were unaffected.  

Synchrony within the thalamocortical system is regulated in part by intranuclear synaptic inhibition within the reticular nucleus (RTN).  

Among the regions displaying the most intense labelling were the olfactory tubercle, lateral septum (LS), caudate putamen (Cpu), central amygdaloid nucleus (Ce), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SO), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), lateral reticular nucleus (LRt) and solitary tract nucleus (NTS).  

In comparison with sham and saline conditions, NGF administration induced significantly stronger Fos immunoreactivity in the mesencephalic periaqueductal grey (PAG), the medullary lateral reticular nucleus (LRN), and superficial layers I and II of cervical spinal dorsal horns C1, C2 and C3.  

These two compounds, when injected via cannulae into the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (NRT), decreased significantly the duration of seizures as compared with saline injections or injections of the CBX inactive derivative glycyrrhizic acid.  

In contrast, dopamine did not alter inhibitory synaptic transmission arising from either dLGN interneurons or thalamic reticular nucleus neurons.  

Results revealed expression of A(2A) receptors in regions of medulla oblongata containing GABAergic neurons, namely in the ventral aspect of the medulla, within the Bötzinger region and caudal to it, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus, midline neurons and the caudal ventrolateral medulla oblongata.  

In the medulla oblongata, labelled cell bodies were numerous in the spinal trigeminal, cuneate and gracilis nuclei whilst rarer in the lateral reticular nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus and raphe nucleus. Dual immunohistochemistry revealed that some Kv3.3-IR neurones in the ventral medullary reticular nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, dorsal horn, ventral horn and central canal region were also immunoreactive for the Kv3.1b subunit.  

The beta3-subunit deficiency causes a failure of intrathalamic reticular nucleus inhibition, leading to abnormally synchronized thalamocortical oscillations.  

Spindles are generally regarded as being generated by intrathalamic circuitry, as decorticated thalamic slices and the isolated thalamic reticular nucleus exhibit spindles.  

The corticothalamic feedback pathway provides excitatory synaptic input to both the thalamic reticular nucleus and the lateral geniculate nucleus. We studied excitatory postsynaptic currents elicited from corticothalamic stimulation in the visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus and the lateral geniculate nucleus to compare the response of these neurons to stimulation of their common input pathway. We found that single thalamic reticular nucleus excitatory postsynaptic currents were significantly sharper than lateral geniculate nucleus responses. The mean thalamic reticular nucleus excitatory postsynaptic current decay constant (tau) was 4.9+/-0.5 ms, while the mean lateral geniculate nucleus excitatory postsynaptic current tau value was 11.8+/-0.8 ms. Presynaptic release dynamics as measured by responses to paired stimuli were conserved between the thalamic reticular nucleus and lateral geniculate nucleus. Lateral geniculate nucleus responses showed proportionately larger facilitation (reaching 842.9 +/- 76.4% of excitatory postsynaptic current 1 amplitude) than thalamic reticular nucleus responses (reaching 223.1 +/- 44.0% of excitatory postsynaptic current 1 amplitude). These data indicate that while the corticothalamic pathway produces excitatory postsynaptic currents in both the thalamic reticular nucleus and lateral geniculate nucleus, other factors uniquely affect the functional integration of the inputs in each nucleus..  

We found that the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, via endogenous neurotransmitter or by agonist, causes long-term reduction of electrical synapse strength between the inhibitory neurons of the rat thalamic reticular nucleus..  

This study aimed to identify G protein subtypes activated by hypocretin in rat pontine reticular nucleus oral part (PnO) and the hypocretin receptor subtype modulating acetylcholine (ACh) release in the PnO.  

Furthermore, there were projections into the reticular formation of the lateral and dorsocaudal medulla and lateral pons, into nucleus gracilis, inferior and medial vestibular nuclei, lateral reticular nucleus, ventral raphe, pontine gray, superior colliculus, PAG and mediodorsal thalamic nucleus.  

In the mesencephalon, immunoreactive perikarya were seen in the mesencephalic reticular formation, reticular nucleus of the isthmus and torus semicircularis.  

Ultrastructural transformations in neurons of the medullary giant-cell reticular nucleus of young rats during exposure to acute emotional and painful stress attest to activation of the protein synthesis system (nucleolar hypertrophy, well-developed elements of the granular endoplasmic reticulum, increased content of free ribosomes and polysomes) in the majority of cells and the appearance of organelle injuries in some these cells..  

Both controls and pilocarpine-treated animals presented neo-Timm staining in the anterodorsal nucleus, laterodorsal nucleus, reticular nucleus, most intralaminar nuclei, nucleus reuniens, and rhomboid nucleus of the thalamus, as well as in the zona incerta.  

We detected strong hybridization signals in cell bodies located in the internal plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb, the interpeduncular nucleus of the midbrain, the ventral and dorsal tegmental nuclei, the median raphe nucleus of the pons, the ventral part of the medullary reticular nucleus, the ventral horn in the spinal cord of both rats and mice, and in a few Purkinje cells of rats, but not of mice. However, in the upper medulla oblongata alpha2 mRNA was expressed in several large neurons of the gigantocellular reticular nucleus and the raphe magnus nucleus of mice, but not of rats.  

Within the thalamus, electrical coupling is observed in the reticular nucleus, which is composed entirely of GABAergic neurons.  

In the diencephalon, the medial habenula was most reactive followed by the reticular nucleus of the thalamus.  

mPPET-1 mRNA was also detected in thalamic reticular nucleus at E16.5, E18.5, and D0.5.  

Different findings indicate that rostral ventrolateral reticular nucleus (RVL) is neuronal substrate of integration and regulation of the cardiovascular functions.  

In other regions, immunoreactive cells are moderately stained (i.e., magnocellular nucleus of the posterior commissure, amygdaloid nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, lateral periaqueductal gray) or weakly stained (i.e., vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, hippocampus, inferior colliculus, reticular nucleus).  

When the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt) was electrolytically lesioned, ACC-induced facilitation of spinal nociception was blocked.  

A possible function is that they may exert distinct corticofugal modulations on thalamic information processing through their parallel connections with the medial geniculate body and thalamic reticular nucleus. In contrast to the similar topography in the projections to the ventral division of the medial geniculate body, collateral projections to the thalamic reticular nucleus terminated in the opposite dorsal and ventral zones of the lateral and middle tiers of the nucleus in each pair of the tonotopically comparable cortical subfields. In addition, the projections of the non-primary cortical subfields further arborized in the medial tier of the thalamic reticular nucleus. On the other hand, corticofugal inhibition via the thalamic reticular nucleus may operate in different parts of the ventral division of the medial geniculate body or different thalamic nuclei.  

We used laser scanning photostimulation through a focused UV laser of caged glutamate in an in vitro slice preparation through the rat's somatosensory thalamus to study topography and connectivity between the thalamic reticular nucleus and ventral posterior lateral nucleus. We were thus able to confirm and extend previous observations based mainly on neuroanatomical pathway tracing techniques: the projections from the thalamic reticular nucleus to the ventral posterior lateral nucleus have precise topography. The reticular zone, which we refer to as a "footprint," within which photostimulation evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in relay cells, was relatively small and oval, with the long axis being parallel to the border between the thalamic reticular nucleus and ventral posterior lateral nucleus.  

Tracer application into the cervical spinal cord, combined with CB immunohistochemistry, resulted in retrogradely labeled cells throughout the brain, five groups of which showed CB immunoreactivity: (1) the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, (2) the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, (3) the raphe nucleus, (4) the middle reticular nucleus and (5) the inferior reticular nucleus.  

Based on morphological and neurochemical similarity of the turtle Enta, caiman Pedd nucleus, the superior reticular nucleus in birds, and the thalamic reticular nucleus in mammals, we suggest that these structures represent a characteristic component which is common to the thalamic organization in amniotes..  

Afferents to the TSc also arose from the rhombencephalic reticular formation, anterior octaval nucleus, isthmic reticular nucleus, perilemniscular nucleus, medial pretoral nucleus, anterior tuberal nucleus, and central posterior thalamic nucleus.  

Immunoreactive cell bodies containing neurokinin B were observed, for example, in the locus coeruleus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the median division of the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the lateral tegmental field, the pericentral nucleus of the inferior colliculus, the internal division of the lateral reticular nucleus, the inferior central nucleus, the periaqueductal gray, the postpyramidal nucleus of the raphe, and in the medial nucleus of the solitary tract.  

Electrical stimulation of the reticular nucleus of the rat thalamus results in activation of c-fos immunoreactivity in nerve cells of the ipsilateral retrosplenial cortex. Conversely, electrical stimulation of the retrosplenial cortex induced c-fos immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral reticular nucleus of the thalamus.  

These include the relatively small size of the thalamic reticular nucleus and the preponderance of calbindin immunoreactive neurons over parvalbumin immunoreactive neurons in the ventral posterior nucleus..  

Asymmetrical increases in the number of Fos-IR cells were also observed in the subcortical region that receives the main cortical projection from the somatosensory cortex, the somatic region of the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (reticular thalamus).  

FOS positive neurons were induced by hypoxia and mainly existed in the nucleus of solitary tract, area postrema, hypoglossal nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus, nucleus raphe pallidus, facial nucleus, trapezoid nucleus, but in the group of hypoxia plus TMP, the level of FOS immunoreactivity decreased remarkably, compared with the group of hypoxia (P<0.05).  

OBJECTIVES: To validate a method for the chronic implantation of micro-cannulae to examine the effect of drug administration to two small brain regions critical to the control of generalised seizures, the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (Rt) and the ventrobasal thalamus (VB), in a genetically epileptic rat model.  

Motor reafference is postulated to be mediated via pallidal projections to the thalamic reticular nucleus, which is known to modulate thalamocortical pathways.  

The NRM appears to be homologous to the mammalian gigantocellular reticular nucleus, and its glycinergic projection is most likely part of a negative feedback loop between medulla and tectum.  

The EEG abnormalities in ADHD were accounted for by the model's neurophysiological parameters as follows: (i) dendritic response times were increased, (ii) intrathalamic activity involving the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) was increased, consistent with enhanced delta-theta activity, and (iii) intracortical activity was increased, consistent with slow wave (<1 Hz) abnormalities.  

Consistent with a global role of DJ-1 in the brain, we found immunoreactivity, for example, in cortical areas, hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, the reticular nucleus of the thalamus, zona incerta, and locus coeruleus.  

Neuronal expression of MCP-1/CCL2 is mainly found in the cerebral cortex, globus pallidus, hippocampus, paraventricular and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamus, substantia nigra, facial nuclei, motor and spinal trigeminal nuclei, and gigantocellular reticular nucleus and in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum.  

These chemosensitive neurons are located in the caudal ventrolateral medulla in a medial region, closest to the pyramidal tract, and a lateral region, beneath the lateral reticular nucleus.  

There was labeling in DMV, locus coeruleus, inferior olive, lateral reticular nucleus, and caudalis spinal trigemius.  

The proposed pathways for a component motor efference copy from both the cerebellum and basal ganglia converge on the thalamus and modulate thalamocortical projections via the thalamic reticular nucleus.  

GABAergic projection from thalamic reticular nucleus to thalamic nucleus submedius in the medial thalamus of the rat was studied by using immunohistochemistry for GABA, retrograde labeling with Fluoro-Gold combined with immunohistochemistry for GABA, and anterograde labeling with biotinylated dextranamine. Immunohistochemistry displayed that only GABA immunoreactive terminals were observed in the thalamic nucleus submedius, while GABA immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies were located in the thalamic reticular nucleus and lateral geniculate nucleus. Injection of Fluoro-Gold into the thalamic nucleus submedius resulted in massive retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies in the rostroventral portion of the ipsilateral thalamic reticular nucleus and a few in the contralateral thalamic reticular nucleus, and most of these cell bodies showed GABA immunopositive staining. Many biotinylated dextranamine anterogradely labeled fibers and terminals in the thalamic nucleus submedius were observed after injection of biotinylated dextranamine into the thalamic reticular nucleus.  

The generally predominant injury of the lateral aspect of the thalamus included reticular nucleus and ventral nuclei.  

Fos-ir neurons were found in the nucleus tractus solitarius (Sol), coudoventrolateral (CVL) and rostroventrolateral (RVL) areas, intermediate reticular nucleus (IRt), and lateral paragiganrocellular nucleus (LPGi) of the medulla.  

Additional subtelencephalic cell groups showing prominent labeling included the thalamic reticular nucleus and ventral lateral geniculate nucleus of the diencephalon, the nucleus pretectalis, subpretectalis and spiriformis lateralis of the pretectum, and the magnocellular isthmic nucleus of the optic lobe.  

Four nuclei in the reticular formation of the brain stem demonstrated strong positive labeling: the mesencephalic reticular nucleus, magnocellular reticular nucleus, paragigantocellular reticular nucleus, and gigantocellular reticular nucleus.  

In halothane-anesthetized rats, neurons stereotaxically located in the region of the medullary lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) and responsive to urinary bladder distension (UBD) were characterized using extracellular electrodes.  

Both the CTbeta and PRV injections also resulted in labeling of neurons in all four vestibular nuclei, the prepositus hypoglossi, the reticular formation, the inferior olivary nucleus, the medullary raphe nuclei, the spinal and principal trigeminal nuclei, the facial nucleus, and the lateral reticular nucleus.  

IL-1beta expression was also found in the nuclei of afferent nervous pathways of the superior laryngeal nerve, such as the nucleus tractus solitarius, nucleus ambiguus, lateral reticular nucleus, magnocellular reticular nucleus and paragigantocellular reticular nucleus..  

The nuclei of the dorsal thalamus and reticular nucleus in humans were found to contain separated NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-positive neurons. Thus, NADPH-d-positive cells of the dorsal thalamus, reticular nucleus, and internal capsule were evolutionarily more ancient and less structurally complex cells..  

When tracer was injected into the lateral portion of the caudal superior colliculus, extensive lateral labelling was observed in the contralateral parvocellular reticular nucleus and the contralateral dorsal medullary reticular nucleus, two areas involved in reflex blinking.  

In the rats of hypoxia group, the level of nNOS immunoreactivity was enhanced remarkably in the lateral reticular nucleus, nucleus of trapezoid, hypoglossal nucleus and the facial nucleus compared with the control group (P<0.05).  

As compared with the distributions of p47Phox, gp91Phox in mouse, some differences in the rat brain were observed in the hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, reticular nucleus, and basal ganglia.  

In acute experiments on anaesthetized with urethane normotensive rats, we studied the influence of modulation of neuronal NO-synthase (nNOS) activity on the effects of GABA injected in the populations of cardiovascular neurons within the nucleus of tractus solitarius (NTS), n.ambiguus (AMB), paramedian reticular nucleus (PMn) and lateral reticular nucleus (LRN).  

After comparison with experimental models in cats, it is proposed that the section of the cortico-neocerebellum tract of the extra-pyramidal system disinhibits the spino-archeocerebellum tract, enabling a motor stimulation of the arm by the lateral reticular nucleus, which harmonises central respiratory and locomotor rhythms.  

In particular, during our study we observed a consistent involvement of the lateral geniculate body, the lateral posterior, ventral anterior, ventral lateral, ventral posterior lateral, and ventral posterior medial thalamic nuclei as well as the extraterritorial reticular nucleus.  

In addition, ATF3-positive cell nuclei were found in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and medial geniculate nuclear complex (MGN), from which most regenerating axons originate.  

Since P15, neurodegeneration was observed additionally in midline, ventral and caudal thalamic nuclei (visual and auditory thalamic nuclei), in the lateral posterior and in the reticular nucleus.  

The projection to the facial nucleus arises from nearby reticular neurons, whereas projections to the vestibular nucleus arise from the lateral reticular nucleus.  

This impairment was accompanied by, and correlated with, decreases in expression of zif-286 in the infralimbic cortex and of parvalbumin in the dorsal reticular nucleus of the thalamus.  

A quantitative assessment of somal and neuropil NADPH-diaphorase staining was made by an image analyzer in a selected area of each reticular nucleus of the rabbit medulla.  

In the thalamus, c-fos mRNA expression was detected in the midline nuclei and in the reticular nucleus but not in the dorsomedial nucleus.  

In addition, strong hybridization signals were localized in various nuclei: main and accessory olfactory bulb, compact part of the substantia nigra, pontine gray matter, tegmental reticular nucleus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, trigeminal motor nucleus, locus coeruleus, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, raphe nuclei, facial nucleus, ambiguus nucleus, dorsal motor vagal nucleus, and inferior olivary nucleus.  

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