Red Nucleus

The main aim of the study was to investigate whether neurones in the ipsilateral red nucleus (NR) affect hindlimb motoneurones.  

In addition, EB cells placed at other dorsal-ventral levels of the midbrain give rise to Nkx6.1(+) red nucleus (RN) neurons, Nkx2.2(+) ventral interneurons and Pax7(+) dorsal neurons at the correct positions.  

The phase values were measured on the corrected phase images in the globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, substantia nigra, red nucleus, thalamus and frontal white matter.  

familiar truth) revealed areas of activation associated with deception in the right MGF, red nucleus, IFG, SMG, SFG (with ACC), DLPFC, and bilateral precuneus.  

The metabolic activity of the nucleus accumbens, the subthalamic nucleus, the corpus amygdaloideum and the red nucleus was normal.  

Benedikt syndrome is a rare but debilitating constellation of symptoms that manifests from infarction of the red nucleus, cerebral peduncle, oculomotor fascicles, and lower oculomotor nucleus.  

Two weeks following SNI, the immunohistochemical results identified that the expression level of TNF-alpha in the red nucleus (RN) of SNI rats was apparently higher than that of sham-operated rats.  

Furthermore, the motor cortex and premotor cortex both project to the red nucleus and to the pontomedullary reticular formation, from which the rubrospinal and reticulospinal tracts arise.  

The central tegmental tract (CTT) is mainly the extrapyramidal tract connecting between the red nucleus and the inferior olivary nucleus.  

The objective of this study was to determine which of the following techniques was most accurate and precise in identifying the location for stimulation in STN deep brain stimulation surgery that is most clinically effective: direct targeting, indirect targeting using the positions of the anterior and posterior commissures, or a technique using the red nucleus (RN) as an internal fiducial marker.  

Initially, infected neurons were observed in the reticular formation, lateral vestibular nucleus, red nucleus and motor cortex (group 1).  

The FA values along the defined fiber tracts were not overall reduced but exhibited a reduction in the anisotropy in the region in the superior cerebellar peduncles projecting towards the red nucleus..  

To analyse the effect of ageing on the projection of the anterior interposed nucleus to the red nucleus, we injected the retrograde tracer fluorogold in the red nucleus of 3-, 6- and 12-month-old mice.  

Imitation was also specifically associated with activity in areas of prefrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, red nucleus, thalamus, hippocampus, and substantia nigra.  

To investigate if the loss of fibers is progressive, we analyzed projections of the trigeminal sensory system to the red nucleus in 3, 6, and 12 month old dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. The retrograde tracer fluorogold was injected in the magnocellular part of the red nucleus, and the number of labeled neurons in the oral part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5O) was counted.  

Morphology of the human parvocellular red nucleus (RNp) was investigated in 14 fetuses aged from 12 to 39 weeks of gestation (WG).  

NPR-C immunoreactivity was detected in several regions, including the periaqueductal gray, oculomotor nucleus, red nucleus and trochlear nucleus of the midbrain; the pontine nucleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus, vestibular nucleus, locus coeruleus, trigeminal motor nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, abducens nucleus and facial nucleus of the pons; and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, hypoglossal nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, nucleus ambiguus and inferior olivary nucleus of the medulla oblongata.  

After retrograde tracing with fast blue (FB), fewer FB-labeled neurons were found in the motor cortex, the red nucleus, and the lateral vestibular nucleus of the hyt/hyt mouse.  

To study the regional and cellular distribution of xeroderma pigmentosum group A and B (XPA and XPB) proteins, two nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, in the mammalian brain we used immunohistochemistry and triple fluorescent immunostaining combined with confocal microscope scanning in brain slices of adult rat brain, including the cerebral cortex, striatum, substantia nigra compacta, ventral tegmental area, red nucleus, hippocampus, and cerebellum.  

The most numerous infected neurons were in anterior horns, motor trigeminal nuclei, and brainstem reticular formation; fewer neurons in the red nucleus, lateral cerebellar nucleus, other cranial nerve nuclei, motor cortex, hypothalamus, and thalamus were infected.  

The present study describes in primates the effects of a spinal cord injury on the number and size of the neurons in the magnocellular part of the red nucleus (RNm), the origin of the rubrospinal tract, and evaluates whether a neutralization of Nogo-A reduces the lesioned-induced degenerative processes observed in RNm.  

In anaesthetised rats with neuromuscular blockade, a tungsten microelectrode was located in the region of the red nucleus (RN) by combining stereotaxis with recording of antidromic potentials evoked from the contralateral spinal cord.  

Significant associations were seen between the pallidus and the crus cerebri, between the crus cerebri and the red nucleus, between the crus cerebri and the dentate nucleus, and between the red nucleus and the dentate nucleus on the T2-W and DW images (P < 0.004). The crus cerebri, red nucleus, and dentate nucleus were involved concurrently with the corpus callosum more frequently in hepatic encephalopathy grades 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: Concurrent involvement of the globus pallidus-crus cerebri-red nucleus-dentate nucleus axis was the main MR pattern in end-stage hepatic encephalopathy, which connected with various areas of the brain.  

The results showed that immunoreactive-like IL-1 beta protein was significantly elevated in the red nucleus (RN) 2 weeks after SNI.  

The cortical representations of the forelimbs were found to project to the whole of the rostrocaudal extent of the red nucleus (RN).  

OBJECTIVE: To report the results of attempted bilateral red nucleus (RN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the palliative treatment of visual problems associated with oculopalatal tremor (OPT). BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that OPT results from a defect in the Guillain-Mollaret triangle, a circuit that includes connections with the dentate nucleus, the contralateral red nucleus, and the inferior olive.  

As a result of the mistargeting and misplacement of the electrodes during surgery in 2 patients with PD, we have characterized the neuronal firing in the red nucleus (RN) and observed the effects of stimulation of this nucleus.  

In this study, we looked at the involvement of the interpositus and the red nucleus in extinction. Moreover, this detrimental effect was completely removed when inactivation of the interpositus was paired with electrical stimulation of the red nucleus.  

In relation to this, a few studies in the literature have drawn attention to the possible role of the upper brainstem, diencephalon, red nucleus, and cerebellum in the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome (RLS).  

RESULTS: The common areas activated by the five-shu-points of the Liver Channel were homolateral Brodmann area (BA) 34, BA 47, red nucleus, contralateral BA 19, BA 30, BA 39, the superior parietal lobule, cerebellum decline, and bilateral BA 3 and culmen.  

The red nucleus, subthalamus, ventral thalamus and pineal gland were also eventually involved.  

However, the basal ganglia may also affect brainstem areas involved in movement control such as the red nucleus. The red nucleus receives input from the cerebellum and projects to motor neurons and premotor neurons in the contralateral brainstem and spinal cord. Are there pathways that allow output from the basal ganglia to influence processing in the red nucleus? This study uses the bidirectional tracer, WGA-HRP, to demonstrate that regions of the cat red nucleus receive input from the basal ganglia as well as from the cerebellum. Output from the entopeduncular nucleus, the feline equivalent of the internal segment of the globus pallidus, provides a modest direct input to the red nucleus as well as a more substantial indirect input via projections to the zona incerta and the fields of Forel. Regions of the red nucleus with input from the basal ganglia also receive input from the cerebellar dentate nucleus and lateral regions of interpositus. The regions of the red nucleus receiving basal gangliar input project to the contralateral facial nucleus and upper segments of the cervical spinal cord. Therefore, the red nucleus provides a junction where output from the basal ganglia can interact with output of the cerebellum for movement control of the head and face.  

In addition, LTBP-3 mRNA is also abundant in the choroid plexus, globus pallidus, anterior and reticular thalamic nuclei, mamillary body, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pontine nuclei, some brainstem sensory nuclei, and reticular formation, while LTBP-4 is more abundant in the hippocampus and the parabrachial nuclei.  

In addition, significant age-related iron accumulation occurred in the putamen, red nucleus, and frontal white matter, but no gender-related differences in iron levels were detected.  

We studied projections from the interstitial system of the spinal trigeminal tract (InSy-S5T) to the red nucleus of the mouse with retrograde tracers (fluorogold and latex microbeads impregnated with rhodamine and fluorescein). Injections in the magnocellular part of the red nucleus caused labeling of cells in the rostral, intermediate, and caudal paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5), dorsal paramarginal nucleus (PaMD), insular trigemeo-lateral cuneate nucleus (I5CuL), and the trigeminal extension of the parvocellular reticular formation (5RPC). Injections restricted to the parvocellular red nucleus did not label the nuclei of the InSy-S5T. This projection from the InSy-S5T to the red nucleus may mediate modulation of the facial muscles by pain and other sensory information..  

Unilateral injections of rAAV5-GFP into the red nucleus (RN) or motor cortex of normal rats produced GFP-positive fibers in the appropriate descending tracts extending to the lumbar spinal cord.  

As well as the typical neuropathological findings of ALS (marked upper and lower motor neuron loss), post-mortem examination showed prominent neuronal loss and gliosis in the subthalamus, and in the internal globus pallidus, substantia nigra pars compacta, and red nucleus.  

red nucleus hyperechogenicity and brainstem raphe (BR) hypoechogenicity were more prevalent in RLS than in controls (both p<0.001) and correlated with reported periodic limb movements and depression, respectively (both p<0.001).  

The planning phase of the internally initiated condition, when contrasted with the externally triggered condition, was associated with enhanced activity in frontal regions (mesial premotor cortex/rostral cingulate zone, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), parietal regions (precuneus, inferior parietal cortex, encroaching onto V5/MT), insula, contralateral anterior putamen and midbrain (bilateral red nucleus/subthalamic nucleus).  

We statistically analyzed the relative signal intensities of the globus pallidus, putamen, substantia nigra, caudate nucleus, red nucleus, and thalamus for correlation with age.  

Additional significant changes were noted in the ventral pallidum, superior colliculus, dentate gyrus (increases), and red nucleus (decreases).  

First, we found overactivity in the midbrain, which was at the level of the substantia nigra and extended to the pedunculopontine nucleus, red nucleus and subthalamic nucleus.  

Brain stem lesions involved the following: tectum (n = 5), tegmentum (n = 4), red nucleus (n = 3) of the midbrain, vestibular nucleus (n = 6), and a focal tegmental lesion involving the superior olivary nucleus (n = 6) and abducens nucleus (n = 4) of the pons and vestibular nucleus (n = 4) and inferior olivary nucleus (n = 1) of the medulla.  

Pre and post-op coordinates of anterior (AC) and posterior commissures (PC), as well as the boundaries of red nucleus (RN) were compared.  

Toluene intoxication proved to kill projection neurons and interneurons in the sensorimotor cortex, ventrolateral thalamic nucleus, caudate nucleus, pallidum, red nucleus, and inferior olivary complex.  

The results demonstrated that a strong positive yellow-green signal was observed in 99-100% cells of K562 cell line, only the red nucleus was detected in NB4 cell line and normal controls.  

The post-implantation MRI confirmed that the electrode contacts used for stimulation were inserted in RAPRL, a group of fibers located between the red nucleus and subthalamic nucleus, above the substantia nigra, medially to the zona incerta and below the thalamus.  

In eight cases of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) were numerous in the substantia nigra (SN), red nucleus (RN), locus caeruleus (LC), pontine nuclei (PN), and inferior olivary nucleus (ION) and abnormally enlarged neurons (EN) in the ION, LC and PN.  

We study whether the red nucleus (RN) lesion can modify rhythmic jaw movements.  

18F-fluoro-2-desoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography scanning (FDG-PET) showed hypometabolism in the red nucleus, external globus pallidus and precuneus while FP-CIT-SPECT imaging revealed mild and progressive loss of striatal dopaminergic terminals.  

The activation of the inferior olive and red nucleus and accompanying extratriangular structures might be related to the isolated tongue tremor..  

The regions evaluated included the motor cortex (MC), putamen (PUT), globus pallidus (GP), caudate nucleus (CN), substantia nigra (SN), and red nucleus (RN).  

A secondary analysis was performed to account for the changes in regional cerebral blood flow at six regions of interest (thalamus, red nucleus, insula, periaqueductal gray, retrosplenial cingular gyri, and the inferior temporal region).  

INTRODUCTION: In a previous study using streamlined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) axonal tracking at 1.5 T, we found that the main afferents to the human red nucleus arise from the sensorimotor and prefrontal cortices. RESULTS: Trajectories were constantly tracked between the red nucleus and the ipsilateral prefrontal, pericentral, temporal and occipital cortices, and the ipsilateral lentiform and contralateral dentate nuclei. CONCLUSION: The red nucleus receives extensive projections from the cerebral cortex and has dense subcortical connections to the striopallidal system..  

After the LPS injection, Bcl-2 positive cells were distributed widely in the brain, such as in the cortex (primary and secondary motor cortex, somatosensory cortex), hypothalamic parenchyma surrounding the third ventricle, diagonal band, hippocampus, septum and the red nucleus of the midbrain.  

Degenerating swollen neurons were found in the ventral horns of the spinal cord and also in the mesencephalic red nucleus, which has not been described before.  

RESULTS: At G140, CTB labelled cells were found within and around nuclei in the reticular formation of the medulla and pons, within the vestibular nucleus, raphe complex, red nucleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

RESULTS: When smaller isotropic voxels were used, the FA was greater in areas with crossing fibers, including the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the thalamus, and the red nucleus; the FA was not significantly different in areas without crossing fibers, such as the corpus callosum, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and the corticospinal tract at the level of the centrum semiovale (P>.05).  

Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry revealed increased activity in the red nucleus.  

This infusion technique, however, causes substantial parenchymal damage around the red nucleus and is limited by occlusion of the infusion pumps. METHODS: Following a cervical spinal cord injury, the viral vectors were injected into the vicinity of the injured red nucleus. The extent of parenchymal damage around the red nucleus was assessed, as was the immunoreactivity to BDNF and cellular transfection patterns. BDNF immunoreactivity around the red nucleus indicated that the BDNF transgene was expressed.  

Compensatory increases were seen bilaterally in the ventromedial thalamus and red nucleus, in the contralateral STN, anterior substantia nigra, subiculum, motor cortex, and in midline cerebellum.  

Regions of interest included the left and right cerebellum, red nucleus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and frontal white matter.  

It was seen heaviest in the pontine nuclei and moderate in the pontine reticulotegmental nucleus; however, it was seen less in the medial solitary nucleus, red nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus, external cuneate nucleus and vestibular nuclear complex.  

Anterograde tracing of the left corticorubral fibers revealed that the animals with transplants and neurotrophins (BDNF or NT-3) increased the extent of the traced fibers crossing to the right red nucleus (RN), of which the axons are spared by a right cervical overhemisection lesion.  

The white matter area between the red nucleus and the subthalamic nucleus was targeted on the T2-weighted MR-CT fused image.  

Administration of BMSCs significantly increased the axonal restructuring on the de-afferented red nucleus and the denervated spinal motoneurons (p<0.05).  

RESULTS: Compared to normal controls, the JME group showed a significant rCBF reduction in bilateral thalami, red nucleus, midbrain, pons, left hippocampus, and in the cerebelli (FDR corrected p < 0.01) whereas rCBF increase in the left superior frontal gyrus (uncorrected p < 0.001 but FDR corrected p > 0.05).  

During the symptomatic stages there was prominent formation of multinucleated giant cells through fusion of microglial cells in the spinal cord, brainstem, and red nucleus of the midbrain.  

We compared the projections from the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex to the red nucleus in control and mdx mice using retrograde tracers. Injection of 200 nL 2% fluorogold into the red nucleus caused labeling in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, the principal sensory nucleus and the oral, interpolar, and caudal subnuclei of the spinal trigeminal nucleus in both control and mdx mice.  

In the cervical spinal cord the number of corticospinal axons originating from the uninjured cortex that innervated the contralateral cervical cord was five times that of controls, and in the red nucleus the number of contralaterally projecting axons was four times control values.  

NPR-A-immunoreactive perikarya were found in the red nucleus and the oculomotor nucleus in the midbrain, the parabrachial nucleus and the locus coeruleus in the pons, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the hypoglossal nucleus, the cuneate nucleus, the gracile nucleus, the nucleus ambiguus, the lateral reticular nucleus, the reticular formation, and the inferior olivary nucleus in the medulla oblongata. Extensive networks of immunoreactive fibers were apparent in the red nucleus, the oculomotor nucleus, the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, and the parabrachial nucleus.  

During task performance, we recorded multi-single units and local field potentials (LFPs) simultaneously from the rats' olfactory cortex (specifically, the posterior piriform cortex) and from cortical and subcortical motor sites (the caudal forepaw M1, and the magnocellular red nucleus, respectively).  

Signal intensity measurements were obtained from 15 anatomic regions (substantia nigra pars compacta [ SNPC], substantia nigra pars reticulate [ SNPR], red nucleus, dentate nucleus, cerebellum, pons, globus pallidus, putamen, caudate nucleus, thalamus, internal capsule posterior horn, forceps major, forceps minor, and genu and splenium of corpus callosum) and MTR was calculated. A significant decrease of MTR was also found in the SNPR (p = 0.006), red nucleus (p = 0.037), and pons (p = 0.046). Even in the first year of diagnosis, significant reduction of MTR is found in substantia nigra, red nucleus, and pons compared with that of the control group..  

Structures of the motor system, including cranial nerve motor nuclei, precerebellar nuclei, the substantia nigra, and the red nucleus were clearly labeled.  

We also detected the myelin sheath fibers around the lesions and the size of the axotomized red nucleus. Compared with the control group, HAECs can promote the regeneration and sprouting of the axons, improve the hindlimb motor function of the rats (BBB score: cells-graft group 9.0 +/- 0.89 vs PBS group 3.7 +/- 1.03, P < 0.01), and inhibit the atrophy of axotomized red nucleus [ cells-graft group (526.47 +/- 148.42) microm(2) vs PBS group (473.69 +/- 164.73) microm(2), P < 0.01].  

The activity of the revealed regions, including bilateral insula, right inferior frontal gyrus, medial thalamus, and red nucleus, further correlated with the individual ratings of mood: the worse the mood, the higher the activity.  

In addition, a functional test of TTX diffusion around the BC indicated that the inactivation did not affect other known parts of eyeblink circuits, such as the cerebellar interposed nuclei, the middle cerebellar peduncle or the contralateral red nucleus.  

We studied modulation of the activities of the red nucleus (RN) neurons under to electrical stimulation of the orofacial motor cortex (OfM) in urethane-anesthetized rats.  

Moreover, inhibition of LP by CsA significantly correlates with a decrease in the demyelination process at the epicenter of the lesion, a significant survival of neurons in the red nucleus and enhanced motor recovery in animals submitted to a severe SC contusion.  

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the morphology, cytoarchitecture, and lumbosacral spinal cord projections of the red nucleus (RN) in cattle.  

The red nucleus somata have the largest percentage of the somata occupied by mitochondria (12%). Mitochondria size is related to somata size; the largest mitochondria are found in the red nucleus neurons and the smallest mitochondria are found in the IF neurons.  

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies in apes and monkeys have shown that the red nucleus receives projections from the sensorimotor and premotor cortices, whereas other experiments carried out with injured human brains have found corticorubral projections issuing from associative areas. Therefore, we reassessed in vivo the human anatomical projections from the cerebral cortex to the red nucleus using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) axonal tracking. CONCLUSION: The human red nucleus receives its main afferences from the sensorimotor and prefrontal cortices..  

A modified red nucleus and mustache method was applied. RESULTS: Modified red nucleus method using Surgiplan, and EBAL and BAGM electronic brain map atlas matched the target loci of 12 mm, -3 mm, -4 mm on an X-, Y-, and Z-coordinate system with zero at the mid-commissural point.  

c1502/QP-C mRNA was localized at high levels in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus (anterodorsal nucleus, parafacicularis nucleus), tegmentum (red nucleus), cerebellum (Purkinje and granule cells), and pons (pontine nucleus, reticulotegmental nucleus, trapezoid body, vestibular nucleus).  

In a series of studies on the morphological and morphometric estimation of mitochondria in Alzheimer's disease, by electron microscopy we noticed substantial morphological and morphometric changes in the neurons of the hippocampus, the acoustic cortex, the frontal cortex, the cerebellar cortex, the climbing fibers, the thalamus, the globus pallidus, the red nucleus and the locus coeruleus. The ultrastructural study of large number of neurons in the thalamus and the red nucleus revealed that the mitochondrial alterations did not coexist with cytoskeletal pathology and accumulation of amyloid deposits, though they were prominent in neurons, which demonstrated fragmentation of the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus.  

TB, originally injected at the caudal side of injured sites, was traceable in the rostral thoracic spinal cord, red nucleus and sensory motor cortex.  

Some of the structures showing prominent mMOR-1B4-LI include the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, habenular nucleus, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, medium eminence, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, oculomotor nucleus, red nucleus, raphe nuclei, periaqueductal gray, locus coeruleus, trigeminal nucleus, reticular formation, area postrema and Purkinje cell layer and deep nuclei of cerebellum.  

Fatty macrophages were observed from cerebellum to red nucleus through superior cerebellar peduncle.  

The present functional study complements previous pathologic studies, which associated PT with lesions to dentate nucleus, red nucleus, and the inferior olive (Guillain-Mollaret triangle)..  

Moderate levels are seen in the dorsal endopiriform, dorsal tenia tecta, bed nucleus, and the red nucleus.  

The fascicular portion of the nerve courses through the red nucleus and exists in the midbrain just medial to the cerebral peduncle.  

BACKGROUND: An understanding of the relationships between the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line (AC-PC), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and red nucleus (RN) is imperative if these structures are to be used for targeting in deep brain stimulation.  

This imaging technique and behavioral task enabled depiction of the articulo-phonologic network of speech production from the supplementary motor area at the cranial end to the red nucleus at the caudal end.  

We study whether stimulation of the red nucleus (RN) can modulate rhythmical jaw movements in rats anesthetized by urethane.  

Also noted are structures that may have a role in sleep and wake cycles, such as the reticular activating system, the red nucleus, basal ganglia, pineal gland, and the like.  

RESULTS: Activation in the thalamus, the red nucleus, the sulcus lateralis and the parieto-temporal cortex proved that there was a significant difference between true acupuncture and sham acupuncture in the GLM test.  

BACKGROUND: In patients with migraine, functional changes have been described in the red nucleus (RN), substantia nigra (SN) and periaqueductal gray matter (PAG).  

In a previous study, we have shown that electrical and chemical stimulation of the red nucleus (RN) facilitates the jaw-opening reflex (JOR).  

The development of the human magnocellular red nucleus (RNm) was studied in 20 fetuses at 12-39 weeks of gestation (WG). At 12WG, several islands of immature cells of the RNm appeared dorsal to the parvocellular red nucleus (RNp).  

In addition, the untreated PH state was associated with significant activation of the contralateral posterior hypothalamus and contralateral ventral midbrain, which extended over the red nucleus and the substantia nigra.  

CB2 immunoreactivity was also observed in olfactory tubercle, islands of Calleja, cerebral cortex, striatum, thalamic nuclei, hippocampus, amygdala, substantia nigra, periaqueductal gray, paratrochlear nucleus, paralemniscal nucleus, red nucleus, pontine nuclei, inferior colliculus and the parvocellular portion of the medial vestibular nucleus.  

RESULTS: At 3T, the STN was visualized as a small, hypointense, almond-shaped structure in 3 planes located immediately lateral to the anterior edge of the red nucleus, medial to the internal capsule, about 5 mm inferior, 1-2 mm posterior, and 9-12 mm lateral to the midcommissural point.  

In this study, we show that robust sprouting of corticofugal axons occurs in the dorsolateral striatum but not the red nucleus of adult mice after unilateral lesions of the sensorimotor cortex induced either by mechanical removal or by thermocoagulation of pial blood vessels.  

Although the red nucleus has often been suggested as the lesion site responsible for Claude's syndrome, a lesion of the superior cerebellar peduncle just below and medial to the red nucleus could be responsible for this syndrome.  

FK506-treated and FK1706-treated rats demonstrate a significantly greater number of retrogradely labeled neurons in the red nucleus.  

The neurons with strong positive immuno-reaction signals were detected in cerebral cortex, cerebellar Purkinje cells, cerebellar nuclei, pyramidal neurons of hippocampus, caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, claustrum, nuclei in diencephalons, substantia nigra, cranial nerve nuclei, reticular formation in brain stem, pontine nuclei, red nucleus, superior and inferior olivary nucleus, gracile nucleus, cuneate nucleus, also the ventral horn, lateral horn, dorsal horn and the central gray matter in spinal cord.  

Retrograde tracing study showed that true blue chollide could be found in the rostral thoracic spinal cords, red nucleus and sensory-motor cortex.  

In the mesencephalon, the other termination area was found in the red nucleus. The PHA-L-labeled boutons of SVN origin were in close contact with the perikarya and proximal dendrites of the magnocellular part of the red nucleus. Our results indicate that the SVN can modify the activity of the cerebellorubral and corticorubral pathways, exerting inhibitory action on the neurons of the red nucleus..  

It also predicts several features to be experimentally tested, for example the consequences of eliminating inhibitory connections in cortex and red nucleus.  

It has been suggested that this inhibition is mediated by the GABA-ergic nucleo-olivary pathway, but alternative explanations such as activation of an indirect excitatory pathway or a pathway via the red nucleus are possible. Inhibition evoked from either area occurred in the inferior olive and was independent of a red nucleus relay.  

Fibrin promoted the greatest axonal regeneration from reticular neurons, and methylcellulose promoted the greatest regeneration from vestibular and red nucleus neurons.  

We reported previously that increased nitric oxide (NO) production following spinal cord hemisection tends to lead to neurodegeneration in neurons of the nucleus dorsalis (ND) that normally lacks expression of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in opposition to those in the red nucleus (RN) that constitutively expresses nNOS.  

Significant activation was observed in regions consistent with the PAG, nucleus cuneiformis (NCF), ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra, parabrachial nuclei/nucleus ceruleus, and red nucleus bilaterally to both stimuli.  

In addition, there was activation of the ipsilateral ventrolateral midbrain, which extended over the red nucleus and the substantia nigra and bilateral pontomedullary junction.  

METHODS: Normalized intensity on T2-weighted images was obtained in the basal ganglia, thalamus, red nucleus, and dentate nucleus in 47 MS patients and 15 healthy controls.  

Marked loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurons in the dentate nucleus, red nucleus, and spinal cord anterior horns was accompanied by a modest astrocytosis.  

R2' relaxation rates in the patients were decreased in the substantia nigra, red nucleus, and pallidum when compared with the controls.  

Many axons belonged to the supraspinal neurons located in the red nucleus and the brainstem nuclei.  

PrP deposition was less prominent in the red nucleus and tegmentum of the pons and medulla oblongata.  

Behavioral analysis demonstrated a recovery of skilled forelimb function, and anatomical studies revealed neuroplasticity at the level of the red nucleus in animals treated with mAb IN-1, thus demonstrating the efficacy of this treatment even if administered 1 week after stroke..  

Similarly, Nkx2.2 ectopic expression ventrally into tegmentum progenitors is responsible for the formation of serotonergic neurons and hypoplasia of the red nucleus in the midbrain.  

Brain parenchyma, caudate nucleus, putamen, pallidum, and red nucleus volumes and the surface of the mesencephalon were measured and normalized as percentages of the intracranial volume.  

We have investigated the expression of integrin messenger RNAs in red nucleus neurons of adult rats after axotomy and administration of neurotrophic factors.  

Direct observation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is not always possible, and physicians at many centers rely on indirect methods that relate the position of the STN to more easily recognized structures such as the red nucleus (RN).  

The objective of this study was to determine which of the following techniques was most accurate and precise in identifying the location for stimulation in STN deep brain stimulation surgery that is most clinically effective: direct targeting, indirect targeting using the positions of the anterior and posterior commissures, or a technique using the red nucleus (RN) as an internal fiducial marker.  

Moreover, this work describes a descending pathway linking cortical regions with the red nucleus via the hypothalamus thereby providing indirect cortical control of the reptilian rubrospinal system..  

The NFL null mice displayed enzymatic activity alterations in numerous hindbrain regions, mainly the cerebellum, connected regions of the brainstem (red nucleus, vestibular nuclei, and reticular formation), and cranial nerve nuclei. All of the affected regions presented elevated COx activity, except for the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and the magnocellular red nucleus, where enzymatic activity was lower.  

However, electrophysiological studies have suggested that certain longer chain N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor competitive antagonists, such as (R)-CPP are ineffective at subpopulations of NMDA receptors in the red nucleus, superior colliculus, and hippocampus.  

As has also been shown for Slack, Slick is expressed in the olfactory bulb, red nucleus, facial nucleus, pontine nucleus, oculomotor nucleus, substantia nigra, deep cerebellar nuclei, vestibular nucleus, and the thalamus.  

Ultrastructurally, neurons in the injured nucleus were contacted by excitatory synapses of normal appearance, with no sign of glial stripping.  

At 12 weeks after injury, the antegrade axon tracer biotinylated dextran amine was stereotactically injected into the red nucleus to label the injured RST axons.  

indica seeds in pigs affected vestibular and cerebellar nuclei, putamen, and the mesencephalic substantia nigra, oculomotor, and red nucleus; thus, focal symmetrical encephalomalacia is suggested as a better name for the disease..  

CONCLUSION: The hypointense signal intensity located lateral to the red nucleus and dorsolateral to the substantia nigra correlates with the presence of iron and corresponds anatomically to the subthalamic nucleus.  

A high expression of DJ-1 mRNA was detected in neuronal and non-neuronal populations of several structures of the motor system such as the substantia nigra, the red nucleus, the caudate putamen, the globus pallidus, and the deep nuclei of the cerebellum.  

Immunohistochemistry with prion protein (PrP(Sc)), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and synaptophysin were conducted on the mid-brain containing the red nucleus. Synaptophysin staining on BSE-positive brains was substantially reduced in the neuropil of the mid-brain, especially in the red nucleus.  

In addition, there was activation of the ipsilateral ventrolateral midbrain, which extended over the red nucleus and the substantia nigra, and bilateral pontomedullary junction.  

The red nucleus was examined for reversal of neuronal atrophy, GAP43 and Talpha1 tubulin mRNA expression, and trkB receptor immunoreactivity.  

Although any lesions of the dentate nucleus, red nucleus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, and pons, all of which are involved in this case, are able to cause mutism, his mutism was primarily caused by the severe ASDH of the posterior fossa.  

After a stroke, greater numbers of axons emanating from the undamaged cortex cross the midline to innervate the contralateral red nucleus and the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord; this axonal plasticity is enhanced in ngr -/- or nogo-ab -/- mice.  

IOH is usually associated with the interruption of the dentato-olivary tract, most often from cerebrovascular lesions in the dentate nucleus or red nucleus. To determine if there was a relationship between IOH and neurofibrillary degeneration in the dentato-olivary pathway, the severity of neurofibrillary degeneration was assessed in the inferior olivary nucleus, cerebellar dentate nucleus and red nucleus in PSP cases with and without IOH. The severity of neurofibrillary degeneration in the inferior olivary nucleus was significantly greater in PSP cases with IOH than in PSP cases without IOH, whereas there were no significant differences in the cerebellar dentate nucleus and red nucleus.  

It was clearly detected in the prefrontal cortex (middle laminae), hippocampal formation (except CA1), cerebellum, oculomotor nucleus, superior colliculus, red nucleus and substantia nigra pars compacta.  

This included damage in cortical motor neuron synapses ending on neurons of the red nucleus and the ultrastructural changes in the mitochondria such as swelling of these organelles and blurring of their cristae.  

We believe that this tremor phenomenon is due to the involvement of the red nucleus and the inferior olivary nucleus through their projections to the thalamus and the spinal cord..  

Experiments were carried out in urethane-anesthetized rats to evaluate the hypothesis that the red nucleus has functional connections with the hippocampal formation. Depth profiles of electrical stimulation in experiment 1 confirmed that stimulation administered to the red nucleus elicited theta field activity in the hippocampal formation with a linear relationship between stimulus intensity and theta frequency. Experiment 2 showed that microinfusion of local anesthetic procaine hydrochloride into the medial septum resulted in a reversible blockade of theta field activity elicited by electrical stimulation of the red nucleus. In experiment 3, the discharge activity of red nucleus cells was recorded during the field conditions of hippocampal synchrony (theta) and hippocampal asynchrony [ large amplitude irregular activity (LIA)]. Analysis revealed that 26/46 (56%) of red nucleus cells were theta-related, whereas the remaining 20 (44%) were nonrelated. A brief increase above the basal discharge rate of tonic theta-on red nucleus cells during LIA predicted the transition from LIA to theta with 400- to 500-ms latency. The results supported the conclusion that the red nucleus, traditionally associated with motor functions, is functionally connected with the neural circuitry involved in the generation of theta band oscillation and synchrony in the hippocampal formation, in agreement with the predictions of the sensorimotor integration model of hippocampal function..  

The review on structure, neurochemistry and anatomic connections of the red nucleus and substantia nigra with the medullary respiratory center is submitted. The data on the respiratory effects of GABA and apomorphine microinjected into the red nucleus and substantia nigra as well as effects of their electrostimulation after the blockade of GABA and dopamine receptors in the respiratory center are discussed.  

M1 output effects showed many similarities with red nucleus output although red nucleus effects were generally weaker and showed a strong bias toward facilitation of extensor muscles and a greater tendency to facilitate synergies involving muscles at noncontiguous joints..  

After the injection of the retrograde tracer fluorogold (FG) distal portion to the transection, AxCABDNF-injected rats showed FG-labeled neurons in the red nucleus. The anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) injected into the red nucleus was also found in regenerating rubrospinal fibers distal to the transection.  

This study extends this observation to subcortical centers, namely the thalamus, the globus pallidus, the red nucleus, and the locus caeruleus in 10 brains of patients who suffered from AD. The ultrastructural study of a large number of neurons in the thalamus and the red nucleus revealed that the mitochondrial alterations did not coexist with cytoskeletal pathology and accumulation of amyloid deposits.  

Dopaminergic neurons are greatly reduced in number, red nucleus precursors disappear from the ventral midbrain where a relevant number of serotonergic neurons are generated.  

RESULTS: In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated a strong up-regulation of SCD at mRNA and protein level in regenerating neurons of the rat facial nucleus whereas non-regenerating Clarke's and red nucleus neurons did not show an induction of this gene.  

Previous studies suggested that GABAergic dysfunctions within the red nucleus are involved in stress-inducible paroxysmal dystonia of the dt(sz) mutant hamster.  

Those generated in the hemisphere-lateral cerebellar nuclear system, which are used in complicated movements, may not only drive the premotor or motor nuclei but may also be fed back to the cerebellum through the parvocellular red nucleus-inferior olive pathway, and may be compared with the motor command signals generated in the cerebral cortex.  

When compared with the transection-only group, the nerve graft with the aFGF group showed 1) significant improvement in hindlimb locomotion and stepping, 2) the presence of 5-HT-labeled axons below the lesion site at lumbar cord level (these were interpreted as regenerated axons from the raphe nuclei), 3) the presence of anterograde BDA labeling of corticospinal tract axons at the graft site and below, and 4) fluoro-gold retrograde labeling of neuron populations in motor cortex and in red nucleus, reticulospinal nuclei, raphe nuclei, and vestibular nuclei.  

Galectin-1 mRNA was predominantly observed in the cell bodies of neurons such as oculomotor nucleus (III), trochlear nucleus (IV), trigeminal motor nucleus (V), abducens nucleus (VI), facial nucleus (VII), hypoglossal nucleus (XII), red nucleus, and locus ceruleus.  

We obtained simultaneous multi-single neuron recordings from the forelimb motor cortex and magnocellular red nucleus as rats performed two contextually different, but kinematically similar, forelimb reach-like tasks: highly learned, skilled reaching for food through a narrow slot, a task requiring extensive training, versus the swing phases of treadmill locomotion.  

HE staining revealed dark red nucleus in neurons of anterior horn of lumbar spinal cord 5 days after exposure, but this phenomenon disappeared 18 days later.  

There is a significant increase in the maximum distance of the substantia nigra (SND) and a significant decrease in the average distance from the substantia nigra to the red nucleus (SNRND) in patients with PD compared with normal subjects in the 70 years old or less group.  

We show for the first time that AAV vectors can be used for the persistent transduction of highly atrophic neurons in the red nucleus (RN) for up to 18 months after injury.  

Moderate levels of PEP mRNA were observed in layers 3-5 of the cerebral cortex, the anterior thalamic group, the septal region, the substantia nigra, the magnocellular neurons of the red nucleus, and the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves.  

In an ongoing study designed to examine the potential influences of steroid hormones on centrally projecting motoneurons, the astrocyte reaction in the red nucleus was examined. In the present study, in situ hybridization was used to assess changes in GFAP mRNA in the hamster red nucleus following spinal cord injury (SCI) and TP treatment. The uninjured red nucleus served as an internal control. Axotomy alone resulted in a significant but transient increase in GFAP mRNA levels at 2 days postoperative in the injured red nucleus compared with the contralateral uninjured red nucleus. These data suggest that testosterone both delays and reduces the astrocytic reaction in the red nucleus following rubrospinal tract axotomy, and confirms a difference between peripheral and central glial responses to axotomy and steroid administration..  

On the slice showing the anterior pole of the red nucleus (RN), the target was placed in the inferolateral portion of the subthalamic zone, limited superiorly by the thalamus, laterally by the internal capsule, inferiorly by the substantia nigra and medially by the midline.  

In mesencephalic red nucleus (RN), GABA-induced inhibition of neuronal firing is modulated by noradrenaline acting on alpha2- and beta-adrenoceptors.  

Two radiologists independently placed two ROI areas of 22 +/- 5 mm(2) and 62 +/- 6 mm(2) (former area inside the latter area) at different sites of the brain (centrum semiovale, frontal white matter, nucleus caudatus, putamen, thalamus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, and pons) from trace images. Interobserver variance was significant in some of the specified areas (centrum semiovale, frontal white matter, pons, substantia nigra, and red nucleus). Varying ROI sizes at the pons, substantia nigra, and red nucleus yielded statistically different ADC values.  

At the end of 6 week, rubrospinal neurons of five rats in each group were labeled by retrograde transport of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from the lesion site, and then the labeled red nucleus neuron (RN) numbers were counted.  

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