Most patients have a deviated septum and a nasal pyramid deviation. The deviation of the nasal pyramid and deviated septum were present in 81.1% of patients, while 18.9% of patients requested surgery for esthetic reasons.  

The wavelet analysis is pyramid-like and is obtained by simple modification of Mallat's filterbank algorithm (e.g., suppression of the down-sampling in the wavelet channels only).  

A 16-month record of aerosol size distribution from the Nepal Climate Observatory at pyramid (Nepal, 5,079 m above sea level), the highest atmospheric research station, is shown.  

The international consensus is that carbohydrates are the basis of the food pyramid of a healthy diet.  

RESULTS:: A double hook electrode could be inserted into the muscle tissue via the natural opening of the pyramid process along with the stapedius tendon.  

The experimental hydration curves could be reproduced quantitatively using a theoretical model that assigns a pyramid-shaped hydration coat to each adsorbed particle and that accounts for the random distribution of adsorbents on the surface.  

This Account explores nanofabricated pyramids, a new class of nanoparticles with tunable optical properties at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The PEEL approach yields pyramids with variable sizes, thicknesses, and multimetal compositions, as well as blunt or ultrasharp tips or no tips. In addition, we have prepared pyramids with site-specific chemical and biological functionality on different portions of the pyramids. This is an important design feature for biological applications, as suggested by the generation of amphiphilic gold pyramids functionalized with alkanethiols on the hydrophobic portions and DNA on the hydrophilic portions. The optical characteristics of these pyramids depend on particle orientation, wavevector direction, and polarization direction and can be tuned. Using the multipolar surface plasmon resonances of large (>250 nm) pyramids, imaging and spectral identification of pyramid orientation in condensed media was possible. We were also able to direct pyramids to assemble into one- and two-dimensional arrays with interesting optical properties. Furthermore, modification of the PEEL fabrication scheme allowed the production of multimaterial pyramidal structures with complex attributes, highlighting the power of this platform for exacting nanometer-scale control over particle structure and composition..  

It's important to know and use the '5S' pyramid of knowledge for evidence based health care decisions: studies, syntheses, synopses, summaries and systems.  

Observing that a video clip is usually comprised of multiple subclips corresponding to event evolution over time, we further build a multi-level temporal pyramid. At each pyramid level, we integrate the information from different subclips with Integer-valueconstrained EMD to explicitly align the subclips. By fusing the information from the different pyramid levels, we develop Temporally Aligned pyramid Matching (TAPM) for measuring video similarity.  

The evidence pyramid forms the core of evidence-based dentistry that allows grading the evidence..  

A tetragonal pyramid-shaped porous ZnO (TPSP-ZnO) nanostructure is used for the immobilization, direct electrochemistry and biosensing of proteins.  

Superhydrophobic surfaces with reduced hysteresis were prepared by Au-assisted etching of pyramid-structured silicon surfaces to generate hierarchical surfaces.  

Arrays with as many as about 11 million pyramid-shaped pens can be brought into contact with substrates and readily leveled optically to ensure uniform pattern development..  

For DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured bilaterally at the level of the precentral gyrus, corona radiata, internal capsule, cerebral peduncles, pons, and pyramid.  

For many years, spatial scalability has been achieved through wavelets, but recently the Laplacian pyramid (LP) has become an alternative choice because of reduced aliasing in the lower resolutions.  

Each child's average Food pyramid servings were estimated from yearly sets of 3-day diet records.  

The comparisons with a two-dimensional array of ionization chambers using a 18 x 18 cm2 open field and an inverse pyramid dose pattern show an increment in the percentage of points which pass the gamma analysis (tolerance parameters of 3% and 3 mm), passing from 55% and 64% for the 1680Pro and V750 scanners, respectively, to 94% for both scanners for the 18 x 18 open field, and from 76% and 75% to 91% for the inverse pyramid pattern.  

Supervision was even conducted by the Egyptian pyramid builders.  

Total added dietary sugar intake (in tsp/d; based on the US Department of Agriculture's pyramid Servings Database) was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire.  

Crystals of two different shapes, plate-shaped and pyramid-shaped, diffracted to 2.9 and 3.2 A resolution and belonged to the primitive orthogonal space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and the tetragonal space group P4(1) (or P4(3)), with unit-cell parameters a = 73.0, b = 144.9, c = 152.3 A and a = b = 78.2, c = 300.7 A, respectively.  

Organic thin film field-effect transistors (OTFTs) with mobility up to 1.0 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) and on/off ratio of 10(6)-10(8) as well as good environmental stability were demonstrated by using vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc), a pyramid-like compound with an ultra closely pi-stacked structure.  

The authors established a pyramid of Professionalism whose foundation is a formal curriculum of medical ethics, law, and professionalism. At higher levels, the pyramid mirrors Australia's medical regulatory processes, combining nonpunitive support with the possibility of sanctions, by mediating and sometimes remediating a range of notified concerns.  

The coordination sphere around Sn (4+) in 6.2(0.2MeOH) is described as six-coordinate octahedron ( OC-6) in which the apical site is occupied by two transoid Cl (-) ligands, whereas for the Mn (3+) ion in 5, it is a five-coordinate square pyramid ( SPY-5) in which the unidentate Br (-) ligand occupies the axial site.  

The coarsening laws that occur at the transition from the rippled to the rhomboidal pyramid state are also discussed, as well as the crossover effects that occur in rippled states in the proximity of this transition on (110) crystal surfaces..  

the transpetrosal (translabyrinthine and transcochlear), the combined supra- and infratentorial, the subtemporal with or without pyramid resection, the suboccipital and the orbitozygomatic approaches.  

BACKGROUND: Improvement in resolution and use of high-frequency transducers in US has enabled visualization of previously unreported changes in medullary pyramid echogenicity in children with obstructive hydronephrosis. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether these unreported changes in echogenicity and morphology of the renal pyramids in ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction correlate with differential renal function (DRF) of the kidney as determined by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine ((99m)Tc-MAG3) scan. Children were divided into three groups based on the echogenicity of the pyramids: (1) normal echogenicity of the pyramids, (2) increased echogenicity of the pyramids with maintained corticomedullary differentiation (CMD), and (3) loss of CMD. Fisher's exact test was performed for assessing the association between DRF and altered echogenicity of the pyramids. RESULTS: In group 1, which consisted of 13 patients with normal pyramids on US, DRF was normal in 11 and abnormal in two. In group 2, which consisted of 33 patients with echogenic pyramids and preserved CMD, DRF was normal in 15 and abnormal in 18. There was a strong correlation between abnormal pyramids and DRF (P=0.0009). The risk ratio (RR) of DRF becoming abnormal for those kidneys with abnormal echogenicity of the pyramids with preserved CMD (group 2) compared to normal pyramid echogenicity (group 1) was 1.56 (95% CI 1.088-2.236). The RR of DRF becoming abnormal for those kidneys with loss of CMD (group 3) compared to normal pyramid echogenicity (group 1) was 5.571 (95% CI 1.530-20.294). CONCLUSION: We observed that in obstructed kidneys the echogenicity of the pyramids may be abnormal. Increased echogenicity of the pyramids correlated weakly with abnormal DRF and does not necessarily indicate poor renal function.  

Next, we electrically stimulated CST axons in the medullary pyramid 2.5 h daily, between weeks 7 and 10. Chronic stimulation reduced the current threshold for evoking contralateral movements by pyramidal stimulation, suggesting strengthening of connections.  

We propose to extract invariant features from images, and construct pyramid match kernels to measure the similarity between sets of patterns.  

In contrast, the pyramid-structured wavelet transform (PSWT) and the tree-structured wavelet transform (TSWT) do not consider the correlation between different frequency regions.  

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Performance of the task 'Mexican pyramid' from the Evaluacion Neuropsicologica Infantil (ENI) were analyzed on 239 school age children from México and Colombia, distributed in six age groups.  

In the two complexes, the environment around the copper(II) atoms can be described as distorted square-pyramid and the Cu...Cu separations through mu-trans-dmapox and phenyldicarboxylato bridging ligands are 5.245(5) A and 8.212(3) A for 1, 5.237(8) A and 11.171(1) A for 2, respectively.  

The feature extraction step consists of estimating the so-called covariations between the orientation subbands of the corresponding steerable pyramid at the same or at adjacent decomposition levels and building an appropriate signature that can be rotated directly without the need of rotating the image and recalculating the signature.  

The work of adhesion and Hamaker constants of the probe-surface interactions were calculated using a square-pyramid flat-surface model developed previously.  

The distorted square pyramidal configuration of the new homo- and hetero-trihalide Cu(II) mononuclear complexes was identified by C, H, N, Cu analysis, spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-visible), molar conductivity and magnetic measurements. The basal plane consists of three nitrogen atoms of the Schiff base and one halogen (terminal) atom while another axially located trihalogen moiety occupies the fifth side of the square pyramid as a YZ(2) entity, adopting an almost linear configuration.  

in the pyramid-pyramid connections of adult rat neocortex, rate-coding is possible for higher frequencies..  

The three methods include a Laplacian pyramid, an isotropic circular GMRF (ICGMRF), and gray level cooccurrence probability features..  

A mirror pyramid consists of a set of planar mirror faces arranged around an axis of symmetry and inclined to form a pyramid. By strategically positioning a number of conventional cameras around a mirror pyramid, the viewpoints of the cameras' mirror images can be located at a single point within the pyramid and their optical axes pointed in different directions to effectively form a virtual camera with a panoramic field of view. Mirror pyramid-based panoramic cameras have a number of attractive properties, including single-viewpoint imaging, high resolution, and video rate capture. It is also possible to place multiple viewpoints within a single mirror pyramid, yielding compact designs for simultaneous multiview panoramic video rate imaging. Nalwa [ 4] first described some of the basic ideas behind mirror pyramid cameras. In this paper, we analyze the general class of multiview panoramic cameras, provide a method for designing these cameras, and present experimental results using a prototype we have developed to validate single-pyramid multiview designs. We first give a description of mirror pyramid cameras, including the imaging geometry, and investigate the relationship between the placement of viewpoints within the pyramid and the cameras' field of view (FOV), using simulations to illustrate the concepts. A method for maximizing sensor utilization in a mirror pyramid-based multiview panoramic camera is also presented.  

The estimation process is initiated at the third level of a Gaussian pyramid, uses only local information, and the illumination changes between the two images are also taken into account.  

The coordinating environment of phosphorus(V) in 3-P as determined by X-ray crystallography resembles a distorted trigonal pyramid with the nitrogen atoms occupying equatorial positions with the oxygen atom lying at the unique apex.  

Population pyramid changes have made it necessary to adopt new social-sanitary policies which include efficient operation methods in administration and management.  

Foods were also divided into USDA food pyramid categories with conversion of each group into calories expended.  

OBJECTIVE: Extensive financial losses caused by the collapse of pyramid savings schemes led to the 1997 turmoil in Albania. RESULTS: Financial loss in pyramid scams was frequent in both ACS patients (55%) and controls (41%).  

GSK has replaced its organizational pyramid with 12 "centers of excellence.  

The initial repairs comprised 11 tubularized island flaps (TIFs), 8 Snodgrass tubularized incised plate (TIP) techniques, 5 Mathieu repairs, 1 Meatal Advancement and GlanuloPlasty Incorporated (MAGPI) technique, 1 pyramid, 1 Arap technique and 1 Thiersch-Duplay repair.  

In complex 1, the central two Cu(II) atoms are bridged by cis-oxpn(2-) with the Cu1-Cu2 separation of 5.221A and the polyhedron of each copper atom is a square-pyramid. Cu1(II) central atom situated in a tetrahedral geometry is four-coordinated and Cu(II) atom situated in a square-pyramidal geometry is five-coordinated.  

massoniana forest, the structure was a aptypical pyramid-like form, suggesting that the population was stable; in P. lanceolata forest, it was a typical pyramid-like form, with most young individuals in the population.  

We compared the distribution of objectives with levels of expected competency from Miller's pyramid.  

These more stable structures are envisaged as an icosahedral B12 each vertex of which is connected to the apex of a pentagonal pyramid (B6) via radial 2c-2e sigma bonds.  

METHODS: Development of the healthy lifestyle pyramid for children and adolescents. RESULTS: We propose a three-dimensional, truncated and staggered pyramid with 4 faces and a base, which introduces a completely new concept that goes beyond other published pyramids. Face 3 is an adaptation of the traditional food guide pyramid, adapted to children's energy, nutritional and hydration needs. On the base of the pyramid, there is advice about adequate nutrition alternating with advice about physical activity and sports. CONCLUSION: The Healthy Lifestyle pyramid is specifically developed for children and adolescents according to current scientific knowledge and evidence-based data and includes easy-to-follow advice and full colour pictures.  

DNA markers are now used to assess the genetic purity of hybrids and their parental lines, and to pyramid Rf or tms (thermosensitive male sterility) genes in rice.  

This clustering was comparable to that of a pyramid of Gabor filters and was not affected by illumination angles.  

Lag constraints required that each path from apex to base of a computer-generated pyramid display differ from some number (the lag) of immediately prior paths. Location constraints specified end points at which paths must exit the pyramid.  

It is evident that the population pyramid is upturned.  

We found that adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide pyramid was associated with only a small reduction in major chronic disease risk in a population of over 100,000 US adult men and women.  

The original HEI was a ten component index based on the US Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide pyramid.  

VIIVII in pontocerebellar angle, in pyramid, or symetrical anastomoses of n.  

Small hospitals sit at the apex of the pyramid of primary care in the health systems of many low-income countries.  

The arolium in Lycorma delicatula is shaped as a truncated pyramid, tapering proximally.  

The difference between the white and near-infrared electroluminescence of metal-oxide-semiconductor light-emitting diodes fabricated on 1,100 degrees C-annealed Si-rich SiO(x)/p-Si substrate with interfacial pyramidal Si dots (Si nano-pyramids) was characterized. By changing the substrate temperature and induced coupled plasma power during the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of Si-rich SiO(x) films, the effects of the growth conditions on the defect- and Si nano-pyramid-related carrier transport and Si nanocrystal-related electroluminescence spectroscopy were also investigated. The annealed Si-rich SiO(x)/p-Si films grown at higher synthesized substrate temperate (350 degrees C) show the larger Si nano-pyramids precipitating near the Si/SiO2 interface. The lifetime can be lengthened and the electroluminescence power can be raised simultaneously by increasing deposition temperature to 350 degrees C and adjusting the induced coupled plasma power to a threshold of 30 W, which effectively increases the densities of Si nanocrystals and nano-pyramids in the Si-rich SiO(x) film with Si concentration of up to 40 at%. A nearly defect-free Si-rich SiO(x) sample can be grown under such conditions, which contributes to the most stable and largest near-infrared electroluminescence with the longest lifetime, although the power-current slope of purely Si nanopyramid related electroluminescence at near-infrared wavelengths is slightly lower..  

The chiral cations in the complexes have structures based on the trigonal pyramid in which the arsine is coordinated orthogonally to the prochiral, six-electron MePhAs+ ion that forms the base of the pyramid.  

METHODS: Dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000 were linked to the USDA pyramid Servings Database.  

The anterior retroperitoneal approach was used in all cases for complete discectomy, arthrodesis with cage insertion and an autologous corticocancellous graft harvested from the iliac bone and fixation using a triangular plate (pyramid, Medtronic, Memphis TN).  

Of significant diagnostical help are auditory evoked potentials (AEP), computerised tomography (CT) of the temporal bone pyramid with measuring the inner auditory canal diameter, and magnetic resonance (MRI). CT of the temporal bone pyramid shows a difference in the inner auditory canal diameters of 0.04 cm.  

Tested structures included trigonal planar, planar and D2d -tetragonal, regular and distorted square pyramids, trigonal bipyramids, and Jahn-Teller distorted octahedra. Each approach converged to the same axially elongated square pyramid, 4 x Cu-Neq=2.00+/-0.02 A and 1 x Cu-Nax=2.16+/-0.02 A (EXAFS) or 2.20+/-0.07 A (MXAN), with strongly localized solvation shells.  

The answer to the North-South health gap is in a global deal: a declining demographic trend, already well under way and free circulation not only of goods but also of people which would in the long run shape up the age pyramid of a progressively mixed population.  

For these experiments, we chose a representative gram-negative bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and we used regular V-shaped AFM cantilevers with pyramid-shaped and colloidal tips.  

Initial diagnostic features include, renal enlargement, echogenic medullary streaks that have a vascular or perivascular distribution, thrombus in the vein prominent echopoor medullary pyramids, subsequently loss of corticomedullary differentiation, reduced echogenicity around the affected pyramids and echogenic band at the extreme apex of the pyramid.  

DFT calculations on molecular model systems show that byproduct formation and deactivation start by a beta-H transfer trans to the weak sigma-donor ligand (siloxy) at the metallacyclobutane intermediate having a square-based pyramid geometry.  

For Os(CO)5, the lowest-energy structure is the singlet D(3h) trigonal bipyramid. However, the C(4v) square pyramid for Os(CO)5 lies only approximately 1.5 kcal/mol higher in energy, suggesting extraordinary fluxionality.  

The islands transformed from initial pyramid and dome shapes to lens shape for 1.4nm and 3.7nm cap layer thickness at 550 degrees C and 700 degrees C, respectively.  

RESULTS: a) II, IF, SGS, IE and increased creatinine occurred less in cortical echogenicity grade 0; b) MP, arterial hypertension and normal parenchymal thickness predict cortical echogenicity grade 1; c) IF, IE, increased creatinine and thin parenchyma predict occurrence of echogenicity grade 2; d) Excluding obese patients, both youth and hematocrit accounted for pyramid prominence; e) increased creatinine and GO was probable in patients with small kidneys.  

This unit adopts the shape of a flat, almost trigonal, pyramid (mean O-Hg = 2.072 A and mean Hg-O-Hg = 110.8 degrees).  

Librarians at AHSL collaborated with UA College of Medicine faculty to create an innovative search engine, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) Search, that provides users with a simple search interface to EBM resources and presents results organized according to an evidence pyramid.  

Trials have revealed that cardiovascular risk is not uniform in the population, but is distributed in a "risk pyramid." Diabetic patients with prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at greatest risk. The presence of insulin resistance-related metabolic abnormalities is a common denominator in this risk pyramid.  

A primary example of this is the promotion of the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Guide pyramid.  

Background: A science-based diet approach to achieving a healthy diet began in the early 1900s, and this led to the development of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Food Guide pyramid. In contrast, the USDA's Food Guide pyramid diet recommends consuming a high carbohydrate diet (i.e., >55% of the energy), which is rich in grains and other complex carbohydrates that have high-GIs. Compared to the USDA's Food Guide pyramid diet, clinical studies using the proposed unique macronutrient percentages have shown increases in metabolic rate, dietary theromogenesis, and nitrogen balance.  

Next, this model was used to design an applicator foil consisting of a rectangular Al base plate covering the whole beam and a pyramid of four stacked cylindrical slabs of different diameters centered on top of it.  

This new algorithm creates a pyramid similar to MIP-Maps to represent the texture.  

The atomic structure of this region has been solved by X-ray crystallography and shows the TB4 and flanking cbEGF domains to be arranged as a tetragonal pyramid with N- and C-termini exposed at opposite ends of the fragment.  

From March 2003 to May 2004, 27 patients, who underwent corrective rhinoplasty for the correction of bony pyramid deviation, were included in this study.  

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depending on the orientation of 2 horizontal subunits (the bony pyramid and the cartilaginous vault) with respect to the facial midline, the nasal deviations are classified into 5 types: I, a straight tilted bony pyramid with a straight tilted cartilaginous vault in the opposite direction; II, a straight tilted bony pyramid with a concavely or convexly bent cartilaginous vault; III, a straight bony pyramid with a tilted cartilaginous vault; IV, a straight bony pyramid with a bent cartilaginous vault, and V, a straight tilted bony pyramid and a tilted cartilaginous dorsum in the same direction.  

The [ S(2)B(18)H(19)](-) anion 1, from syn-B(18)H(22) 2 with NaH and elemental sulfur, has an unusual arachno-type eleven-vertex {SB(10)} subcluster that has an open hexagonal pyramidal {B(7)} structural feature. Neutral 4and anion 5 do not have the {B(7)} hexagonal pyramidal feature. Anion 5 spontaneously reverts to anion 1 over a few hours at room temperature, remarkable in that the open {B(7)} hexagonal pyramid is regenerated.  

The same air that moves through me and you through the waving branches of the bronchial tree through veins through the heart the same air that fills balloons that carries voices full of lies and truths and half-truths that holds up the wings of butterflies humming birds eagles hang gliders 747s the same air that sits like a dull relative on humid lakes in Minnesota in summer the same air trapped in vintage champagne in old bicycle tires lost tennis balls the air inside a vial in a sarcophagus in a tomb in a pyramid buried beneath the sand the same air inside your freezer wrapping its cold arms around your t.v.  

The surgical reconstruction of the nasal pyramid requires a precise analysis of the position, dimension and depth of the loss of substance.  

The drawing of two circles centered on the nasal pyramid is the expression of this concept. Thus, a detailed analysis of the nasal pyramid and a biomechanical approach are the key to a relevant surgical plan..  

Grid-structured ZnO microsphere arrays assembled by uniform ZnO nanorods were fabricated by noncatalytic chemical vapor deposition, taking advantage of morphologies of alumina nanowire pyramid substrates and ZnO oriented growth habits.  

The purpose of this research was to compare food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: the US Department of Agriculture's Mypyramid; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard University's Healthy Eating pyramid.  

Meanwhile, a double-layered flat structure was found at Au25, and a pyramid-based structure at Au26.  

Exogenous zinc potentiates the efficacy of the hippocampal mossy fiber (mf)-CA3 pyramid synapse by a TrkB-requiring mechanism.  

We report on an aperture scanning near-field optical microscope in which femtosecond pulses are coupled to a hollow-pyramid aperture sensor.  

Sharks and other top predators overwhelmed the fish assemblages on Kingman and Palmyra so that the biomass pyramid was inverted (top-heavy). In contrast, the biomass pyramid at Tabuaeran and Kiritimati exhibited the typical bottom-heavy pattern.  

We report a 59-year-old male patient, homeless, who presented an ulcerated tumoral lesion from four years ago, located in left malar region, orbit and nasal pyramid.  

Data collection comprised a semi-structured interview, direct and structured observation, and focus group, comparing two interactive games based on the food pyramid (video game and board game) used individually and then combined.  

Furthermore, we show that phenomenological consistency would exist between these effects and the random Delta variations found near dopant atoms if the primary effect of the interstitial dopant atom is to displace the apical oxygen so as to diminish d(A) or tilt the CuO(5) pyramid.  

invicta to the dominance of the native pyramid ant, Dorymyrmex flavus McCook, which showed the most significant increase in bait treated blocks and was found to persist at densities significantly higher than the control for >2 yr after the last bait treatment.  

Treatment of [ Zn(tmeda)Cl2] (tmeda = N, N, N', N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) with a phosphonate-substituted 2-cyanoethylene-1,1-dithiolato ligand in air yields a tetranuclear zinc-carbonate complex 1 having the formula of [ Zn4(tmeda)3(mu3-CO3){S2CC(CN)P(O)(OEt)2}3] in which four zinc atoms form a trigonal pyramid with the apical zinc atom in a hitherto unknown S3O3 coordination sphere.  

pyramid vector quantization (PVQ) uses the lattice points of a pyramidal shape in multidimensional space as the quantizer codebook. We propose a new method of deriving the indices of the lattice points of the multidimensional pyramid and describe how these techniques can also improve the channel noise immunity of general symmetric lattice quantizers.  

For enhancement, a Laplacian-like image pyramid is used to decompose the original fingerprint into sub-bands corresponding to different spatial scales. In a further step, contextual smoothing is performed on these pyramid levels, where the corresponding filtering directions stem from the frequency-adapted structure tensor (linear symmetry features).  

We use the theoretical results to establish a general framework for the design of invertible filter banks on the sphere and demonstrate the approach with examples of self-invertible spherical wavelets and steerable pyramids. We conclude by examining the use of a self-invertible spherical steerable pyramid in a denoising experiment and discussing the computational complexity of the filtering framework..  

The single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that the geometry around both of the copper(II) ions can be described as a tetragonal pyramid with a trapezoidal base at the corners of which are two oxygen atoms of N-oxide and two chlorine atoms. The oxygen atoms of either water or ethanol are at the apex of the pyramid.  

Quadtree-like pyramids have the advantage of re-suiting in a multiresolution representation where each pyramid node has four unambiguous parents. Unfortunately, the quadtree-like type of pyramid has poor approximation powers because of the employed piecewise-constant image model. This paper deals with the construction of improved centered image pyramids in terms of general approximation functions. The advantages of the centered topology such a symmetry, consistent boundary conditions and accurate up-projection of labels are combined with a more faithful image representation at coarser pyramid levels. We start by introducing a general framework for the design of least squares pyramids using the standard filtering and decimation tools. We then define centered pyramids and provide the filter coefficients for odd spline approximation functions. Finally, we compare the centered pyramid to the ordinary one and highlight some applications..  

For practical implementation, efficient pyramid-like algorithms are derived using the spline technique for both the the composition and reconstruction of images.  

A nonexpansive pyramidal decomposition is proposed for low-complexity image coding. The image is decomposed through a nonlinear filterbank into low- and highpass signals and the recursion of the filterbank over the lowpass signal generates a pyramid resembling that of the octave wavelet transform.  

The RT can be applied to lossless pyramid structured coding with various elementary block sizes and filters. In addition, it generalizes other mean based lossless pyramid structured coding schemes..  

It uses an explicit spline representation of the images in conjunction with spline processing, and is based on a coarse-to-fine iterative strategy (pyramid approach).  

Motivated by the AM-FM representation, the so called modulated wavelet (packet) transform that can be implemented efficiently by the conventional pyramid (tree) structured algorithms is developed.  

In this paper, an unsupervised image segmentation technique is presented, which combines pyramidal image segmentation with the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Each layer of the pyramid is split into a number of regions by a root labeling technique, and then fuzzy c-means is used to merge the regions of the layer with the highest image resolution. First fuzzy c-means is applied without pyramids. In the second approach the regions generated by pyramidal segmentation are merged by fuzzy c-means. These coefficients increased to 0.90 and 0.93 when the pyramidal segmentation was combined with fuzzy c-means.  

We have built a multiresolution image pyramid, along with an interpolation process, an optimizer, and the criterion itself, around the unifying concept of spline-processing.  

The aim of this paper, which is a sequel to a previous paper devoted exclusively to the pyramid transform, is to present an axiomatic framework encompassing most existing linear and nonlinear wavelet decompositions.  

An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This paper presents a general theory for constructing linear as well as nonlinear pyramid decomposition schemes for signal analysis and synthesis. The proposed theory is based on the following ingredients: 1) the pyramid consists of a (finite or infinite) number of levels such that the information content decreases toward higher levels and 2) each step toward a higher level is implemented by an (information-reducing) analysis operator, whereas each step toward a lower level is implemented by an (information-preserving) synthesis operator. Several examples of pyramid decomposition schemes are shown to be instances of the proposed theory: a particular class of linear pyramids, morphological skeleton decompositions, the morphological Haar pyramid, median pyramids, etc.  

A methodology is presented for the optimal construction of multichannel reduced pyramids by selecting the interpolation synthesis postfilters so as to minimize the error variance at each level of the pyramid. The general optimization methodology is applied for the optimization of pyramids for the compression of electrocardiographic signals and RGB colored images..  

The new algorithm uses a multiresolution Gaussian autoregressive (MGAR) model for the pyramid representation of the observed image, and assumes a multiscale Markov random field model for the class label pyramid. The models used in this paper incorporate correlations between different levels of both the observed image pyramid and the class label pyramid. The parameters of the Gibbs distribution for the label pyramid are assumed to be known.  

A low entropy pyramidal image data structure suited for lossless coding and progressive transmission is proposed in this work. The new coder, called the progressively predictive pyramid (PPP) is based on the well-known Laplacian pyramid. By introducing inter-resolution predictors into the original Laplacian pyramid, we show that the entropy level in the original pyramid can be reduced significantly. Numerical results show that PPP is superior to traditional approaches to pyramid generation in the sense that the pyramids generated by PPP always have significantly lower entropy values..  

enterocolitica O:3/biovar 4; this closed breeding pyramid has remained free from this organism since 1996.  

The procedure utilizes the Laplacian transform and the Laplacian pyramid image representation.  

The NQM, which is based on Peli's (1990) contrast pyramid, takes into account the following: 1) variation in contrast sensitivity with distance, image dimensions, and spatial frequency; 2) variation in the local luminance mean; 3) contrast interaction between spatial frequencies; 4) contrast masking effects.  

In the first stage, a low-pass image pyramid is built. Then, an initial translation is estimated with full-pixel precision at the top of the pyramid using a modified n-step search matching. In the third stage, a gradient descent is executed at each level of the pyramid starting from the initial translation at the coarsest level.  

We then present a method for designing a hierarchical browsing environment which we call a similarity pyramid. The similarity pyramid groups similar images together while allowing users to view the database at varying levels of resolution. We show that the similarity pyramid is best constructed using agglomerative (bottom up) clustering methods, and present a fast sparse clustering method which dramatically reduces both memory and computation over conventional methods..  

Our work differs from previous proposals in: 1) the multistage filtering method employed; 2) the pyramid structure used, and most importantly; 3) the prototype construction scheme to determine the models stored in memory.  

We present two constructive learning algorithms, Mpyramid-real and MTiling-real, that extend the pyramid and tiling algorithms, respectively, for learning real to M-ary mappings (i.e., classification problems involving real-valued input attributes and multiple output classes).  

We also discuss a new method for determining the largest radius of the lattice used and its scaling factor , for both uniform and piecewise-uniform pyramidal lattices.  

In addition, we build a polar pyramid to characterize junctions of arbitrary inherent orientation scales..  

tauschii proved to be a promising tool to dissect, introgress, and pyramid different PHSR genes into adapted wheat genetic backgrounds.  

We introduce a registration algorithm that combines a simple yet powerful search strategy based on a stochastic gradient with two similarity measures, correlation and mutual information, together with a wavelet-based multiresolution pyramid.  

Our ridgelet transform applies to the Radon transform a special overcomplete wavelet pyramid whose wavelets have compact support in the frequency domain.  

We propose to design the reduction operator of an image pyramid so as to minimize the approximation error in the /sub p/-sense (not restricted to the usual p=2), where p can take noninteger values.  

Its strength relies on providing a simple and, yet, very effective local statistical description of oriented pyramid coefficient neighborhoods via a GSM vector.  

To investigate a more efficient source geometry suitable for Co-60 tomotherapy applications, a computer code was written to model an isotropic source in a 6-faced polyhedron geometry such as cube, parallelepiped, prism and truncated pyramid.  

The task consisted of an open field containing 16 identical ziggurats (pyramid shaped towers) arranged at equal distances.  

The coordination polyhedron in [ Cd(TSCLM)2(H2O)].MeOH.2H2O is a square pyramid with two monoanionic ligands acting as bidentate NS donors and a water molecule completing the coordination sphere.  

Specimens were instrumented with a pyramid-shaped nine-accelerometer package to record cranial accelerations.  

One-stage reconstruction of the nasal septum and pyramid in acute trauma brings about significantly better long-term functional results compared to conventional closed nasal bone reposition..  

We describe a solution to increase the performance of a pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS) under bad seeing conditions.  

Unless a sufficient body of people continues to dismantle and re-build programs, the knowledge encoded in the old programs will become as inaccessible as the knowledge of how to build the Great pyramid at Giza..  

In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide pyramid for adults aged 70+ y. We now propose a Modified Mypyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the Mypyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for Mypyramid, which is a multifunctional Internet-based program allowing for the calculation of individualized food-based dietary guidance and providing supplemental information on food choices and preparation. Pedagogic issues related to computer availability, Web access, and Internet literacy of older adults suggests a graphic version of Mypyramid is needed. Fluid and physical activity icons serve as the foundation of Mypyramid for Older Adults. A flag to maintain an awareness of the potential need to consider supplemental forms of calcium, and vitamins D and B-12 is placed at the top of the pyramid.  

To study the effects of activity, we electrically stimulated CS tract axons in the medullary pyramid. To study the effects of injury, one pyramid was lesioned. We studied sparse ipsilateral CS projections of the intact pyramid as a model of the sparse connections preserved after CNS injury.  

An underlying principle is the compositional pyramid rising from the bottom of the frame to a center of consciousness high on the midline, which also finds its expression in the configuration of portrait paintings. In general, the layout of the portrait follows the principle of the compositional pyramid, with a center of consciousness at its apex, but there are many other compositional principles at work in the corpus of portraits in general.  

Using a food-frequency questionnaire, we quantified intake of fruit and vegetables in the 12 mo before screening as energy-adjusted pyramid servings/d (ps/d).  

A right regular pyramid was used to simulate a single mandibular molar tooth preparation with known axial-wall inclinations and vertical heights. Various combinations of these 2 variables allowed the calculation of surface areas with a formula for the area of a pyramid, cones, and right triangles through geometric/trigonometric manipulations. The pyramidal model system had a 9-mm square base with marginal and unfavorable vertical heights, 3 or 4 mm, and axial-wall inclination angles from 2 to 25 degrees.  

In this work we present the new ABC-pyramid Atmospheric Research Observatory (Nepal, 27.95 N, 86.82 E) located in the Himalayas, specifically in the Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. After an accurate instrumental set-up at ISAC-CNR in Bologna (Italy) in autumn 2005, the ABC-pyramid Observatory for aerosol (physical, chemical and optical properties) and trace gas measurements (ozone and climate altering halocarbons) was installed in the high Khumbu valley in February 2006. With the name of "Nepal Climate Observatory-pyramid" the station is now part of the Observatory program of the ABC project..  

We present the results of the co-phasing closed loop performed with a pyramid wavefront sensor for what we believe to be the first time in the presence of emulated atmospheric disturbance.  

Contrast pyramid, shift-invariant discrete wavelet transform, and dual-tree complex wavelet transform fusion are applied, as well as levels of JPEG2000 compression.  

Each Cu atom is five-coordinated and the coordination geometry around the Cu atom is best described as a distorted square-pyramid with a tau value of 0.155 (3) for (I) and 0.092 (7) for (II).  

The equilibrium MD simulations in the ground state indicate that ligand motions coupled to transition from the ground state to the LMCT state are mostly represented by stretching and bending vibrations of the Cu-S(Cys) distance, Ndelta(His)-Cu-Ndelta(His) angle, and S(Cys)-Cu-[ Ndelta(His)]2 trigonal pyramid structure.  

The significance of our new approach is that the constructed pyramid, reflects the prior knowledge formulated.  

It has forced us to remodel the traditional treatment pyramid, and to start new strategies such as saw-tooth or step-down-bridge schedules.  

Here, we review the process of pathogen emergence over both ecological and evolutionary time scales by reference to the "pathogen pyramid." We also consider the public health implications of the continuing emergence of new pathogens, focusing on the importance of international surveillance..  

Infective endocarditis (IE) represents the top of the pyramid of the relationship between humans and bacteria in that it is a less common form of infection than other localized infections in specific organ systems, but it may carry considerable morbidity and mortality.  

We investigate the pyramid wave-front sensor's capability to reconstruct in a closed loop, with only one sensor, the wave fronts on both apertures of a stellar interferometer, including the differential piston: The method consists of placing the principal element of this sensor, namely, a refractive-square-based pyramid, in a combined focal plane of the interferometer instead of using two sensors, one for each individual telescope.  

Firstly, to speed up calculation, the images will be decomposed into multi-scale and multi-band representation by steerable pyramid that outweighs wavelets by providing invariance for both translation and rotation.  

These thiolatonickel(II) complexes have a distorted trigonal pyramidal geometry with somewhat different tau values: 0.80 and 0.90 for two crystalline phases of 2, 0.74 for 3, and 0.69 for 4, where tau is a normalized measure of pyramidalization (tau = 0 for tetrahedron, tau = 1 for trigonal pyramid).  

Evaluation of standard field patterns as pyramid, peaks, wedge, chair, garden fence test, picket fence test and sweeping gap output was done.  

We used an untested functional assessment method in addition to more conventional methods.Exercise rehabilitation interventions were subsequently prescribed and graduated in accordance with what is known as the General Physical Rehabilitation pyramid.  

A cry1C line was then transformed with the cry1Ac gene to produce pyramided cry1Ac + cry1C plants. PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the presence of the cry1C, cry1Ac or pyramided cry1Ac + cry1C genes in the Indian mustard genome. The cry1C plants also controlled Cry1A-resistant DBM while cry1Ac plants controlled Cry1C-resistant DBM, and the pyramided cry1Ac + cry1C plants effectively controlled all three types of DBM.  

Two Mn atoms are five-coordinate in the form of a trigonal bipyramid or a square pyramid.  

The geometry of the anion in 1 can be classified to an edge-sharing bi-square-pyramid with a syn-orthogonal configuration.  

RESULTS: Results show that a high percentage of the subjects follow the recommendations of the new Nutritional pyramid of the Spanish Nutrition Society (SEN) regarding intake of meat, fish, milk, dairy products and exercise habits.  

The reconstruction principles aim to independently restore the three layers of the nasal pyramid, namely mucosa, bony and cartilaginous support, as well as skin coverage.  

We devised cubic and pyramidal microcontainers for cell encapsulation. While the cube is easier to manipulate, the pyramid offers a higher surface area-to-volume ratio and may therefore provide the encapsulated cells with increased access to nutrients.  

Hotmap takes advantage of the design of a mapping system's imagery pyramid to superpose a heatmap of the log files over the original maps.  

Results were compared to age-appropriate recommendations of the Food Guide pyramid and to the Dietary Reference Intakes.  

Here, we used a combination of imaging and electrophysiological recording techniques to investigate potential roles for CP-AMPARs at developing hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell (MF-PYR) synapses.  

From July to October 2005 data was collected by questionnaire and passed by pyramid scheme.  

In 2005, the US Department of Agriculture released a new food guide, Mypyramid, because the previous pyramid was in substantial discordance with current scientific evidence. The US Department of Agriculture pyramids are the most visible source of US nutrition policy and dietary guidance and it is, therefore, imperative they provide scientifically derived recommendations for a healthy diet. Unfortunately, Mypyramid strays from much of the evidence generated through years of research and, in our opinion, fails to provide the public with clear information about healthy food choices. In this Review, we discuss the policy and process behind the development of Mypyramid, assess the current evidence linking diet to chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes, and suggest potential alternatives for dietary recommendations..  

Systematic ligand studies imply that while a tetrahedral geometry around the aluminum center may result in the most active MSPV reduction catalysts, the enantioselectivity of the reaction is enhanced when the aluminum center allows for a 2-point coordination of the substrate to achieve a pentacoordinate geometry with the fifth ligand weakly coordinated to the axial site of a pseudo square pyramid..  

Achievement of the other recommended shelf intakes of the Food pyramid is much lower, ranging from 12% achieving the recommended sparing intake of foods high in fat, salt or sugar, to 45% consuming the recommended 3 portions per day of meat and poultry.  

The PV-ir cells of RVM and caudal pons were found medial to the facial nucleus and lateral to the pyramid in a column distinct from the GAD67-ir cells.  

We presented population pyramid and aging index for both populations in 2002 and compared sex specific standardized traumatic and non-traumatic mortality rates and the average age of death for 2002 and 2005.  

Despite mounting circumstantial evidence that pyramidal cells are also coupled, the paucity of direct evidence has made this controversial. Dual intracellular recordings from pairs of cortical and hippocampal pyramids demonstrated strong, but sparse coupling. Approximately 70% of CA1 pyramids close to the stratum radiatum border were coupled to another pyramid, but only to one or two of their very closest neighbours. The very high incidence of convergent inputs from coupled pyramids onto single targets provided additional evidence that 'spikelets' reflected full action potentials in a coupled cell, since the EPSPs activated by APs and by 'spikelets' had significantly different amplitude distributions..  

A new study by Thomson and colleagues elegantly demonstrates coupling between CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, which is far more common than previously supposed.  

The crystal structure of [ Cu(2)L(Im)(Br)(H2O)](CF(3)SO(3))(2).3H2O (1) shows one copper coordinated by the three pyridine nitrogens of the terpyridine unit, one nitrogen of the imidazolate bridge (Im-) and one bromide anion occupying the axial position of a distorted square pyramid.  

In 2004, the United States Surgeon General released a report on osteoporosis recommending that physicians adopt a pyramidal approach to therapy. The base of the pyramid includes calcium, vitamin D, physical therapy and fall prevention.  

Silicon surface hydrophobicity has been varied by using silane treatments on silicon pyramid surfaces generated by KOH anisotropic etching. Hierarchical structures were also constructed from Si pyramids where nanostructures were added by Au-assisted electroless HF/H2O2 etching.  

Evaluation of the nasal bone and nasal pyramid is essential for the correct osteotomy. The shape of the nasal bone and nasal pyramid of Korean subjects were analyzed using a three-dimensional computed tomography (CT).  

These studies together with NMR, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopic data indicated the presence of mononuclear complexes, which adopt distorted pyramidal or octahedral geometries depending on the metal centre. The X-ray crystal structure of [ Cu(HL1)](PF6)2(NO3).H2O showed that the coordination sphere of the copper centre can be described as a distorted square pyramid with the basal plane defined by three nitrogen donors of the macrocycle backbone and one nitrogen atom from one imidazolyl pendant arm.  

This hierarchical feature-encoding pyramid is invariantly composed of the general feature-encoding clique at the bottom, sub-general feature-encoding cliques in the middle, and highly specific feature-encoding cliques at the top.  

Dietary quality, measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), was calculated via sample menus provided in published media for the New Glucose Revolution, Weight Watchers, Atkins, South Beach, Zone, Ornish, and 2005 US Department of Agriculture Food Guide pyramid (2005 Food Guide pyramid) plans. Weight Watchers and the 2005 Food Guide pyramid plan were included because they are the largest commercial weight-loss plan, and the current government recommendation, respectively. Of a maximum possible score of 70, the AHEI scores for each weight-loss plan from the highest to the lowest plan were: Ornish (score 64.6), Weight Watchers high-carbohydrate (score 57.4), New Glucose Revolution (score 57.2), South Beach/Phase 2 (score 50.7), Zone (score 49.8), 2005 Food Guide pyramid (score 48.7), Weight Watchers high-protein (score 47.3), Atkins/100-g carbohydrate (score 46), South Beach/Phase 3 (score 45.6), and Atkins/45-g carbohydrate (score 42.3).  

The purpose of this article is to clarify the nutritional recommendations for pregnant women in light of the new Food Guide pyramid, known as "Mypyramid," along with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 and recommendations by the Institute of Medicine. The differences between the Food Guide pyramid (introduced in 1992) and the more recent, color-coded Mypyramid (introduced in 2005) are discussed.  

Skinner pyramid, standard drinks, "J" curve, AUDIT or FACE questionnaires are easily available.  

The structure of the compound 8 have been solved by single crystal X-ray crystallography and was found to be distorted square pyramid around copper(II) ion..  

When compared to the recommendations of the food pyramid adapted to the Brazilian population, adequate intake was observed only regarding the meat group (consumption: 1.9 portions; recommended: 1-2).  

A model of a non-modulated pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS) based on Fourier optics has been presented.  

Experimental studies in nonhuman primates have questioned the selectivity of pyramidal tract damage in giving rise to the classical pyramidal syndrome in humans, characterized by permanent spastic hemiplegia (PSH). According to this view, concomitant injury of extrapyramidal pathways is necessary for the development of both hemiplegia and spasticity. In this study we used conventional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging tractography to characterize the anatomical correlates of PSH in a patient with a rare and discrete unilateral lesion of the medullary pyramid. Our findings support the hypothesis that damage confined to the medullary pyramid/pyramidal tract is sufficient to produce PSH. In contrast to nonhuman primates, the human 'pyramidal' and 'pyramid' syndromes are equivalent clinico-anatomic concepts..  

Meanwhile, the texture retrieval performance of the proposed algorithms is more or less the same as the original MDFB approach which outperforms the steerable pyramid and the contourlet transform approaches..  

The 63-residue En-6 polypeptide chain forms three alpha-helices in positions 18-25, 36-40 and 46-56, which are arranged in an up-down-up three-helix bundle forming the edges of a distorted trigonal pyramid. The base of the pyramid is covered by the N-terminal heptadecapeptide segment, which includes a 3(10)-turn of residues 3-6.  

In rat, dendritic symmetry of the 2 main excitatory neuronal classes, spiny stellate and star pyramid neurons (SSNs and SPNs), was quantified by an asymmetry index, the dendrite-free angle. Comparing voxel representations of dendrites and axon collaterals of the same neuron revealed a close overlap of dendritic and axonal fields, more pronounced in SSNs versus SPNs and considerably stronger in spiny L4 neurons versus extragranular pyramidal cells.  

To test the hypothesis, three types of hydrotherapy are proposed (to be tested separately) as a putative neuroleptic treatment: head-out hot showers, adapted cold showers (twice daily each), and colon hydrotherapy (every 3-12 weeks, which also includes a dietary change according to Harvard's Healthy Eating pyramid).  

In sigma-phenylboron N-fused porphyrin [ (NFP)BPh]Cl, the coordinating environment of boron(III) resembles a distorted trigonal pyramid, with the nitrogen atoms occupying equatorial positions and with the phenyl ligand lying at the unique apex.  

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