Transient serotonin-immunoreactive cells were noted in the pineal organ, habenula, and pretectum.  

Using loss- and gain-of-function experiments in zebrafish, we show that NR4A2 is indeed responsible for the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in selective subpopulations of dopamine cells in the posterior tuberculum, as well as in the pretectum, preoptic area and telencephalon.  

In the pretectum, thalamus, and prethalamus of urodeles, the CB and CR staining was particularly suitable for the identification of diverse structures within the simple periventricular gray layer.  

Injections of biocytin into the pretectum anterogradely labelled terminals that lay in close association with pIII(PG) motoneurons retrogradely labelled by ciliary ganglion injections of WGA-HRP.  

Combined 5-HT immunofluorescence with axonal tracing revealed that the 5-HT innervation of RS neurons of the middle rhombencephalic reticular nucleus comes mainly from neurons in the isthmic region, but also from neurons located in the pretectum and caudal rhombencephalon.  

To determine whether similar oscillations in neuronal firing also exist in rat pretectum, recordings of neuronal activity were made with standard extracellular recording methods in vivo.  

The organization of the trout pretectum was compared with the pretectal organization patterns proposed in various teleosts..  

After tracer injections into the inferior olive, labeled somata were observed bilaterally in the pretectum, nucleus ruber, principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, descending trigeminal nucleus, inferior reticular formation, and cerebellar valvula.  

We found that these PT neurons and two other GFP labeled non-TH type neuronal groups, one in the paraventricular organ of the posterior tuberculum and the other in the hypothalamus, were significantly reduced after exposure to MPTP, while the rest of GFP-positive neuronal clusters, including those in telencephalon, pretectum, raphe nuclei and locus coeruleus, remain largely unchanged.  

At around E11.0, the pretectum replaces this structure.  

Explants from the pretectum and the striatum showed an attractive effect, whereas those from the midhindbrain boundary, the dorsal thalamus, and the ventral thalamus had no effect. Expression of semaphorin (Sema) 3C and Sema3F in the pretectum and of Sema3A in the striatum suggested a role for these axon guidance molecules in dopaminergic axon pathfinding. Antineuropilin-1 and antineuropilin-2 antibodies reduced attraction by the pretectum, whereas attraction by the striatum was not affected by the presence of antineuropilin-1 antibodies. Moreover, neuropilin-1- and neuropilin-2-soluble Fc chimeras reduced the attraction by the pretectum.  

The patterns analyzed serve to fix the cephalic and caudal boundaries of the pretectum and to define three molecularly distinct anteroposterior pretectal domains (precommissural, juxtacommissural, and commissural) and several dorsoventral subdomains.  

First, we injected retrograde axonal tracers that fluoresce at different wavelengths in the dLGN and SC of single animals to determine if individual GABAergic neurones in the pretectum project to both structures.  

The overall size of the pretectum in both monotremes was found to be at least comparable in size, if not larger than, the pretectum of representative therian mammals of similar brain and body size. Our findings suggest that the pretectum of these two monotreme species is comparable in both size and organization to that of eutherian mammals, and is more than just an undifferentiated area pretectalis. The presence of a differentiated pretectum with similar chemoarchitecture to therians in both living monotremes lends support to the idea that the stem mammal for both prototherian and therian lineages also had a differentiated pretectum. This in turn indicates that a differentiated pretectum appeared at least 125 million years ago in the mammalian lineage and that the stem mammal for proto- and eutherian lineages probably had similar pretectal nuclei to those identified in its descendants..  

Formation of both the ZLI and the Irx1b-positive thalamus require Otx1l/2; embryos impaired in Otx1l/2 function fail to form these areas, and, instead, the adjacent pretectum and, to a lesser extent, the prethalamus expand into the mis-specified area.  

We describe the expression patterns of Sax1, Emx2, Six3, Nkx2.2 and Pax6 in the mesencephalon and pretectum in detail.  

In the diencephalon, the cells were found in some nuclei of the preoptic area and hypothalamus, habenula, pretectum, and dorsal and ventral thalamic regions.  

CONCLUSIONS: Neural structures in the midbrain, including the superior colliculi and the pretectum, seem to be able to mediate visual function in the foveal and macular regions.  

In contrast to the plasticity of the retinocollicular projection, retinal input to sleep, circadian, and pupillary control centers in the hypothalamus, pretectum, and lateral geniculate complex was unaffected by dark-rearing.  

The application of DC stimulation increased the incidence of avoidance behaviors to a visual prey stimulus while reducing the prey catching behavior component of approach, suggesting that the DC current applied to the pretectum increased the inhibition upon the feeding elements of the optic tectum.  

Comparison of the obtained results with literature data has revealed a sufficiently high level of differentiation of this pretectum part of the sturgeons.  

nudiventris, Lov.; this pretectum part has a similar structure.  

Therefore, the two types of GR cells appear to constitute parallel pathways from the pretectum to the inferior lobe..  

It includes the dorsally positioned telencephalon and eyes, the ventrally positioned hypothalamus, and the more caudally located diencephalon [ from rostral to caudal: the prethalamus, the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI), the thalamus and the pretectum].  

At 24hpf, strong nr2e1 expression was detected in telencephalon, hypothalamus, dorsal thalamus, pretectum, midbrain tectum, and retina.  

We show by extracellular recording that all motion-sensitive neurons in the pigeon's pretectum respond similarly to real and illusory contours, and their preferred directions are identical for both contours in unidirectional cells, whereas these directions are changed by 90 deg for real versus illusory contours in bidirectional cells.  

The phenotype of m865 mutant embryos shows defects in the development of dopaminergic neurons in the pretectum and of retinal amacrine cells, as well as abnormal caudal dopaminergic cluster in the diencephalon.  

In contrast, expression of pax6a, which is negatively regulated by shh, was suppressed in the thalamus and pretectum regions, supporting the idea of augmentation of the shh signaling pathway by suppression of foxl1.  

The caudal forebrain can be divided into three transverse subdivisions: prethalamus (also called ventral thalamus), thalamus (dorsal thalamus) and pretectum. Genetic marker analyses revealed that during early diencephalon patterning in Fez;Fezl-deficient mice, the rostral diencephalon (prospective prethalamus) did not form and the caudal diencephalon (prospective thalamus and pretectum) expanded rostrally.  

We build on our analysis to provide a model for the tectum-pretectum loop in the nonmammalian midbrain. Our model also makes a testable prediction regarding the tectopretectal projection, i.e., that the presence of a larger object and a bigger discrepancy between the directions of motion for the object and the background lead to a larger error by the pretectum in estimating the background motion when the tectal input is abolished..  

After neurulation, uniform alar expression appears across prospective prosomeres prosomere 1, prosomere 2 and prosomere 3 (prethalamus, thalamus and pretectum). The secondary distribution highlights various transversal and longitudinal domains, notably the zona limitans intrathalamica and the pretectum limits, as well as two longitudinal bands in the basal plate, termed paramedian and parabasal.  

By contrast, destruction of the pupilloconstrictive pretectum or of the pupilloconstrictive part of lateral EW (EWL) did not appreciably increase Müller cell GFAP.  

The pretectum is one of the primary visual centers, and plays an important role in the visuomotor reflexes.  

In most cases of cerebellar application, labeled fibers were seen in the thalamus, the pretectum, the torus longitudinalis and torus semicircularis, the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle, and midbrain and rhombencephalic reticular areas.  

The lack of Otx2 also resulted in the activation of Pax3 (paired box gene), Pax7, and Lim1 (Lin-11/Isl-1/Mec-3), three genes normally coexpressed with Mash1 and GABAergic markers in the pretectum, thus suggesting that thalamic progenitors lacking Otx2 exhibit marker similarities with those of the pretectum.  

in 2.0-3.5 months after unilateral ablation of tectum and pretectum, the densities of Parv-, Calb- and Aclr-immunoreactivity terminals and fibers were diminisched in the ipsilateral n.  

This unitary domain soon divides at HH14 into a rostral part, across alar secondary prosencephalon and prospective alar prosomere 3 (prethalamus; caudal limit at the prospective zona limitans), and a caudal part in alar prosomere 1 (pretectum) and midbrain.  

However, cells projecting to the pretectum were found to contain novel-wheel induced Fos.  

All diencephalic regions, which receive direct retinal inputs, show immunolabeled cells in the preoptic area, in the pretectum, and in the ventral thalamus from embryonic stages onwards. During the fry development, the immunolabeled neurons can be observed in the periventricular pretectum from 15-days postfertilization and in both the ventrolateral thalamic nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus from 30-days postfertilization.  

Thus, depending on the group in question, the somata of retinopetal neurons can be located in the septo-preoptic terminal nerve complex, the ventral or dorsal thalamus, the pretectum, the optic tectum, the mesencephalic tegmentum, the dorsal isthmus, the raphé, or other rhombencephalic areas.  

At later stages, expression of all zebrafish barhl shows large extent of overlap in the pretectum, tectum and dorsal hindbrain.  

Subsequently, transcripts are detected in the dorsal telencephalon, hypothalamus, pretectum and torus longitudinalis.  

Therefore, following a brief overview of the anatomy and retinal projections to the entire mammalian pretectum, the connections and potential roles of the NOT and the PON are considered in detail.  

They project upon the visual thalamus and pretectum to influence visual perception.  

Afferents to the motoneurons arise from the vestibular nuclei, the oculomotor and abducens internuclear neurons, the mesencephalic and pontine burst neurons, the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, the supraoculomotor area and the central mesencephalic reticular formation and the pretectum.  

The correlation model of motion detection has been used to describe visual motion processing in the pretectum and accessory optic system (AOS). Previous work has suggested that a subset of neurons in the AOS and pretectum of pigeons show apparent speed tuning. A meta-analysis of the spatiotemporal tuning of units in the AOS and pretectum of pigeons using this within-groups analysis of speed tuning has been performed. We conclude that speed tuning in the AOS and pretectum is rarer than previously estimated, and there is remarkable diversity in the impact of SF on tuning for speed.  

Although high densities of GABAergic cells were observed in the paracommissural pretectum, posterior tubercle, and tegmentum of dogfish embryos (regions previously demonstrated to contain pinealopetal cells), the presence of GABA-ir perikarya in the pineal organ strongly suggests that the rich GABAergic innervation of the elasmobranch pineal organ is intrinsic.  

From medium-sized larvae to adults, the regions most richly innervated by DAir fibers were the neurohypophysis, the striatum, the pretectum and the midbrain tegmentum.  

The tegmental ventricular zone was composed of a large caudal region located ventral to the pretectum and the midbrain tectum, and of a smaller rostral wedge-shaped region that extended dorsally between the dorsal and the ventral thalamus, in the last one, ventricular crests coursing in the zona limitans intrathalamica.  

RESULTS: Di-I-labeled fibers were visible on all sections from the superior colliculus to the pretectum in the LHON and the control specimens, as were the nuclei in the cell bodies stained with PI. CONCLUSIONS: In our LHON patient, the preservation of retinofugal fibers to the pretectum lends support to the clinical observation of relatively preserved pupillary function in LHON..  

Dorsal hypothalamus and isthmus included high levels of alpha(2) AR, whereas pretectum and molecular and proliferative zone of cerebellum were specifically characterized by high densities of beta AR.  

In several species, it has been shown that the AOS and pretectum receive input from visual areas of the telencephalon.  

Additional subtelencephalic cell groups showing prominent labeling included the thalamic reticular nucleus and ventral lateral geniculate nucleus of the diencephalon, the nucleus pretectalis, subpretectalis and spiriformis lateralis of the pretectum, and the magnocellular isthmic nucleus of the optic lobe.  

The diencephalon yields the pretectum, thalamus, and prethalamus, and the telencephalon produces the archipallium, neopallium, and ganglionic eminences. The caudal forebrain primordium generates not only the pretectum, thalamus, and prethalamus but also the archipallium, cortical hem, choroid plexus, choroidal roof, and eminentia thalami.  

Similarities to and discrepancies from the CB1 receptor distributions in other vertebrate CNS are discussed, paying particular attention to the abundant CB1 immunoreactivity observed in the area encompassing the pretectum and glomerular nucleus, which is characterized by a peculiar differentiation in bony fishes..  

The pretectum (PT) can supply the pulvinar nucleus (PUL), and concomitantly the cortex, with visual motion information through its dense projections to the PUL.  

However, PZs were observed in the pallium and subpallium, preoptic region, pretectum, epithalamus, dorsal and ventral thalamus, posterior tuberculum and hypothalamus.  

Recombination was detected in the progenitor domains p1 and p2 in the ventricular zone of the neural tube and in distinct domains of the pretectum, the dorsal and ventral thalamus, the tegmentum of the mesencephalon, and the hindbrain.  

Here, neurons were recorded to study nonlinear interaction between excitatory and inhibitory responses evoked by electrical microstimulation of the retina and pretectum, respectively.  

The pretectum, accessory optic system (AOS), and vestibulocerebellum (VbC) have been implicated in the analysis of optic flow and generation of the optokinetic response. In pigeons, there are two pathways from the pretectum and AOS to the VbC: a climbing fiber (CF) pathway to Purkinje cells (P cells) via the inferior olive and a direct mossy fiber (MF) pathway to the granular layer (GL). We conclude that MF input to the VbC is from both fast and slow cells in the AOS and pretectum, whereas the CF input is primarily tuned to slow gratings..  

Furthermore, the expression of an early marker of posterior forebrain development that marks the compartment from the midbrain-hindbrain junction to the ZLI (including the future dorsal thalamus, pretectum, and midbrain) was disrupted, supporting the idea that diencephalic development is abnormal from very early in embryogenesis.  

BACKGROUND: Neurons in the mammalian pretectum are involved in the control of various visual and oculomotor tasks.  

Following application of digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes for sGC alpha and beta subunit mRNAs, we found comparatively intense hybridization signals in the telencephalon, preoptic area, thalamus, hypothalamus, pretectum and tegmentum. However, wide overlaps of sGC mRNA-containing neurons and nNOS-positive neurons were observed in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, preoptic area, thalamus, hypothalamus, pretectum, optic tectum, tegmentum and cerebellum.  

After injection of tracer into the pretectum, two types of axon terminals were identified as those of pretectogeniculate pathways. In addition, a population of GABA-negative and occasionally GABA-positive terminals, labeled by tracer injected into either the pretectum or the tectum, was identified as retinal terminals; these were presumably labeled by the retrograde transport of tracer in collateral branches of visual fibers innervating both the GLd and the pretectum or tectum.  

Tracers were injected into portions of the telencephalon, pretectum, inferior lobe, and cerebellum to confirm reciprocally connections with the lateral valvular nucleus and to determine afferent terminal morphology in the lateral valvular nucleus. These results indicate that the lateral valvular nucleus receives projections from various sources including the telencephalon, pretectum, and inferior lobe to relay information to the valvular and cerebellar corpus.  

Efferent projections of the ventral telencephalon terminate in the supracommissural nucleus of area ventralis telencephali, the posterior zone of area dorsalis telencephali, habenula, periventricular pretectum, paracommissural nucleus, posterior dorsal thalamus, preoptic region, midline posterior tuberculum (especially the area dorsal to the posterior tuberal nucleus), tuberal (midline) hypothalamus and interpeduncular nucleus.  

The diencephalon was the region with the lowest density of AChE-positive cells, mainly located in the pretectum, whereas ChAT-ir cells were exclusively located in the preoptic region.  

The medial division was reciprocally connected to the pretectum and projected to the superficial layers of the superior colliculus and the intralaminar nuclei. The lateral intermediate divisions received projections from the pretectum, the intermediate layer of the superior colliculus, and the lateral and interpositus posterior cerebellar nuclei, and projected to the pretectum, superficial layers of the superior colliculus, and the pulvinar. The lateral division received projections from superficial layers of the superior colliculus and had reciprocal connections with the pretectum. The dorsal division received projections from the pretectum and had reciprocal connections with the periaqueductal gray of midbrain.  

The diencephalon is a central area of the vertebrate developing brain, where the thalamic nuclear complex, the pretectum and the anterior tegmental structures are generated.  

Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that CRF and NPY mRNA fluctuated with food intake in the brain region containing the mid-posterior hypothalamus, pretectum, and optic tectum: CRF mRNA decreased 6 h after a meal and remained low through 31 days of food deprivation; NPY mRNA content also decreased 6 h after a meal, but increased to prefeeding levels by 24 h.  

In the gnarled mutant, where tectal neurons form ectopically in the pretectum, RGC axons stall before entering the tectum, or else are misrouted or branch aberrantly in the tectal neuropil.  

Low concentrations of PEP mRNA were detected in the deep mesencephalic nuclei, the reticular formation, the pretectum, and the tectum.  

The nucleus pretectalis (PT) of birds is an ovoid-shaped visuomotor cell group of the pretectum that receives tectal input and projects back to the optic tectum.  

Most nuclei of the pretectum receive innervation largely, but not solely, from the contralateral retina, although the olivary pretectal nucleus has very dense patches of innervation derived exclusively from one retina or the other.  

It is expressed in discrete domains of the central nervous system, including cranial neural crest, dorsal neural tube, and mesencephalic tectum, pretectum, and base, and at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary.  

Other retrogradely labeled neurons were found ipsilateral to the injection site, in the pretectum, the ventral tegmentum, the dorsal nucleus of the posterior commissure and the lateral habenular nucleus.  

In adult lizards, a small subpopulation of astrocyte-like cells was also stained in the pretectum.  

the pretectum, thalamus and prethalamus) are the caudal forebrain..  

Both the pretectum (PT) and the superior colliculus (SC) play an important role in directing eye movements and in sensorimotor coupling.  

Using Msx1(nlacZ) mutant mice, we show that the normal expression domain of Msx1 is interrupted in the pretectum of mutant embryos.  

GABA neurons of epithalamus are derived from the embryonic pretectum.  

Neurons in the accessory optic system (AOS) and pretectum are involved in the analysis of optic flow and the generation of the optokinetic response. Previous studies found that neurons in the pretectum and AOS exhibit direction selectivity in response to large-field motion and are tuned in the spatiotemporal domain.  

At caudal forebrain levels, a number of GABAergic neurons was observed in several areas (dorsal thalamus, pretectum), but no correlation to xDll-4 was observed there.  

Melanopsin ganglion cells convey information regarding general levels of environmental illumination to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the intergeniculate leaflet, and the pretectum.  

Other notable species differences in DARPP-32 distribution were found in the olfactory bulb, dorsal ventricular ridge and pretectum.  

There is a heavy projection from the AOS to the pretectum, although its function is unknown.  

In the primate, retinal projections to the pretectum and other retinorecipient nuclei are organized such that direct retinal input can only account for the contralateral hemifield responses of these neurons.  

Furthermore, arousal (wheel-running) induced c-Fos in neurons projecting to the IGL (prefrontal cortex, RCh, pretectum).  

Within the pretectum, axons innervated the OPN and the nucleus of the optic tract preferentially, and formed distinctive terminal arbors within each.  

The thalamus, pretectum, and midbrain lacked TRHir neurons.  

An intense accumulation of PACAP-immunoreactive (-IR) nerve fibers was observed throughout the hypothalamus, in the amydaloid and extended amygdaloid complex, in the anterior and paraventricular thalamic nuclei, in the intergeniculate leaflet, in the pretectum, and in several brainstem nuclei, such as the parabrachial nucleus, the sensory trigeminal nucleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

Recent evidence suggests that the pretectum participates in orchestrating sleep and circadian responses to light. Lesions of the pretectum eliminate dark shift-induced rapid eye movement sleep triggering in albino rats, and compromise circadian phase shifts in hamsters. We hypothesized that regions of the pretectum respond to light with robust and region-specific Fos activation, similar to the suprachiasmatic nucleus and intergeniculate leaflet. We found three regions in the pretectum (the olivary pretectal nucleus, posterior limitans, and a region homologous to the hamster commissural pretectal nucleus), and two regions in the lateral geniculate complex (the intergeniculate leaflet and ventral lateral geniculate nucleus) that demonstrated significant Fos activation in response to light.  

As development progresses, Dmbx1 marks the prospective midbrain and pretectum.  

Further sites of expression are the boundary of the early neural plate and surface ectoderm, the roof of mesencephalon, pretectum and dorsal thalamus, the differentiating heart, and the otic vesicle.  

After BDA injections into nucleus rotundus, retrogradely labelled neurons were observed consistently within the following neuronal groups in the midbrain and the diencephalon: (i) the stratum griseum centrale of the optic tectum; (ii) the nucleus subpretectalis in the pretectum; (iii) the nucleus ansa lenticularis posterior, the posterior nucleus of the ventral supraoptic commissure, and the posteroventral nucleus, in the dorsal thalamus and (iv) the lateral suprachiasmatic nucleus and part of the reticular complex in the ventral thalamus.  

Early and adult diencephalic TH cells are restricted to the pretectum (P1) and ventral thalamus (P3) in the alar plate, and to various TH groups in the basal plate posterior tuberculum (P3), as well as to various populations in the hypothalamus (secondary prosencephalon).  

In experiment 2, controls were compared to groups receiving either NMDA lesions of the pretectum or tectum or knife cuts designed to sever connections between the IGL and more medial retinorecipient nuclei.  

The pretectum and deep layers of the optic tectum also showed CGRP-li fibers, and numerous CGRP-li fibers were observed in the midbrain central gray, tegmentum, and pons.  

The nucleus pretectalis (NP) is a prominent nucleus in the percomorph pretectum and has been shown to project to the nucleus isthmi in the filefish by an HRP tract-tracing method [ Ito et al., 1981], but a homologous nucleus to the NP is apparently lacking in ostariophysans. No labeled cells were found in the pretectum.  

The paracommissural pretectum of prolarvae and larvae contained a large group of non-CSF-c GABAir neurons, although it was less compact than those of the thalamus, and a further group was found in the dorsal pretectum.  

Finally, chicken-II GAP immunoreactivity was only detected in large synencephalic cells, which are the origin of a profuse innervation reaching the telencephalon, preoptic area, hypothalamus, thalamus, pretectum, posterior tuberculum, mesencephalic tectum and tegmentum, cerebellum, and rhombencephalon.  

The topographic analysis of Gbx2 expression on coronal and sagittal sections discriminated the positions and boundaries of diverse neuronal nuclei belonging to the dorsal thalamus from neighboring territories (the epithalamus, ventral thalamus, pretectum, and the underlying basal plate).  

In a subregion of the pretectum of nine fish, we recorded 47 direction-selective neurons.  

The pretectum is involved in the neural integration of visually dependent responses. We studied the occurrence of immunoreactivity for subunits that constitute the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors in the chick pretectum.  

The griseum tectale (GT) is a retinorecipient layered formation located in the rostral alar midbrain, just behind the constriction that separates it from the diencephalon (pretectum).  

The accessory optic system and pretectum are highly conserved brainstem visual pathways that process the visual consequences of self-motion (i.e.  

The pretectum is composed of numerous small nuclei that control various oculomotor functions. However, the human pretectal nuclei still bear their traditional, in most cases misleading, nomenclature.In order to reveal the presumed chemoarchitectonic similarities between human and non-human pretectal nuclei, neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-immunohistochemistry was performed in the human pretectum, after being utilised successfully for the identification of different pretectal nuclei in the cat. No VIP neurones were observed in the human pretectal area, but numerous NPY cells were found in the 'nucleus lentiformis', and in the anterior bulge of the pretectum, while the 'nucleus sublentiformis' contained an abundant NPY fibre network. Our chemoanatomical findings were compared to the standard cytoarchitecture as well.Based on the homotopies in the spatial distribution pattern of NPY neurones in the cat and human pretectum, the current, widely accepted non-human anatomical nomenclature was applied to the morphologically homologous nuclei of the human pretectum. We identified the anterior part of the pretectum as the human equivalent of the anterior pretectal nucleus in non-humans, including its two compact and reticular subdivisions.  

This finding is in agreement with the known anatomical projections from premotor regions of the saccadic system to the pretectum..  

Brainstem afferents originate from the pretectum, superior colliculus, periaqueductal gray matter, parabrachial nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus, raphe system, locus coeruleus, nucleus incertus and reticular formation.  

Both the human and the orthologous Fugu sequence direct similar reporter gene expression in the developing pretectum, neural retina and olfactory region, indicating evolutionary conservation of Pax6 regulatory mechanisms despite the low level of overall sequence conservation..  

These competing inputs may result from connections between the pretectum and accessory optic nuclei.  

On the other hand, the retina subserving the blind field is not depleted of ganglion cells which still send normal appearing terminals to the midbrain pretectum and superior colliculus.  

This gene, Necab, encodes a putative cytoplasmic Ca(2+)-binding protein and coincides with Pax6 expression pattern in the neural ectoderm of the optic vesicle and in the forebrain pretectum.  

The Lhx1/5 and Lhx2/9 subgroups label the pretectum/ventral thalamus/zona limitans versus the dorsal thalamus, respectively, in alternating stripes of expression in both species.  

The aim of this account is to survey data about the distribution of peptides in primary (lateral geniculate complex, pretectum, tectum) and secondary (striatum, anterodorsal and anteroventral tegmental nuclei, isthmic nucleus) visual relay centers. All peptides found in the lateral geniculate complex, except two, occurred in the pretectum together with four other peptides.  

Emx2(-/-)Otx2(+/-) double mutants did not develop diencephalic structures such as ventral thalamus, dorsal thalamus/epithalamus and anterior pretectum. Moreover, dorsally the posterior pretectum and posterior commissure were also present in the double mutants. In contrast, Otx2(+/Emx2) knock-in mutants displayed the majority of these diencephalic structures; however, the posterior pretectum and posterior commissure were specifically absent. Consequently, development of the dorsal and ventral thalamus and anterior pretectum requires cooperation between Emx2 and Otx2, whereas Emx2 expression is incompatible with development of the commissural region of the pretectum..  

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether aging alters serotonergic innervation of the superior colliculus and pretectum in rats. Coronal sections through the superior colliculus and pretectum were incubated with antibodies to serotonin, the serotonin 2A receptor, and the serotonin transporter. The results indicate that with age there is an increase in serotonin immunoreactivity throughout the entire superior colliculus and pretectum, a decrease in levels of serotonin 2A receptor staining in select layers of superior colliculus, and no change in serotonin transporter immunoreactivity. These data suggest that the age-related changes in the serotonergic system in the superior colliculus and pretectum may account for some of the alterations in light-mediated behaviors with aging..  

The present studies used a combination of immunohistochemical, lesion, and retrograde tracing techniques to study neuron types in the IGL and their projections to hamster SCN and pretectum. IGL neurons of all four types also send projections to the pretectum, but rarely do individual cells project to both the SCN and the pretectum. Putative functions of the various neuromodulator projections from the IGL to pretectum or SCN are discussed..  

The visual response properties are described of a group of retinal slip neurons in the wallaby pretectum, referred to as slow cells.  

In the forebrain, the PZs are associated with the ventricular zones of the olfactory bulbs and ventral telencephalic area ("subpallium"), dorsal telencephalic area ("pallium"), preoptic region, ventral thalamus, dorsal thalamus, epithalamus, pretectum, posterior tuberculum, and the hypothalamus.  

The visual response properties of nondirectional wide-field sensitive neurons in the wallaby pretectum are described.  

Two streams of optic axons to the DRN were observed: one descending from the optic tract at the level of the pretectum and anterior superior colliculus, the other emerging as a small fascicle at the anterior pole of the inferior colliculus and descending bilaterally through the PAG.  

Early expression of Dscr1 is detected mainly in the heart tube and in the CNS in rhombomere 4 and the pretectum.  

Subsequently, th and dat detection identifies dopaminergic neurons in the olfactory bulb, the pretectum, the retina and the locus coeruleus.  

The cytoarchitecture of nuclei in the preoptic area, ventral thalamus, dorsal thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, posterior tuberculum, synencephalon, and pretectum and the accessory optic nuclei was analyzed in a perciform teleost, the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, by using serial sections stained with cresyl-violet. The organization of the pretectum and the accessory optic system is essentially similar in sea bass to that described in other perciforms with highly developed vision.  

In the pretectum, NPY-immunoreactive cell bodies were limited to the nucleus posterodorsalis, while in the mesencephalon immunolabeled somata were found in the stratum album centrale of the optic tectum and in the substantia nigra.  

In the forebrain, cholinergic cells were present in the striatum, preoptic region, paraventricular nucleus, pineal and parapineal organs, habenula, and pretectum.  

While no catecholaminergic neurons are found in the midbrain, various immunoreactive populations were found in the diencephalon (hypothalamus, posterior tuberculum, ventral thalamus, pretectum) and telencephalon (preoptic region, subpallium, olfactory bulb).  

From all injections, retrogradely labeled cells were seen in the ipsilateral pretectum along the border of the medial and lateral subnuclei of the LM.  

These results are discussed in relation to previous studies of the responses of neurons in the accessory optic system and pretectum to drifting gratings and other largefield stimuli..  

It persists in the developing anterior thalamus (conventionally termed "ventral" thalamus) and pretectum but is downregulated in the body of the posterior (dorsal) thalamus.  

This work is a study of the distribution pattern of calbindin-D28k, calretinin, and parvalbumin in the diencephalic alar plate of a reptile, the lizard Psammodromus algirus, by using the prosomeric model (Puelles [ 1995] Brain Behav Evol 46:319-337), which divides the alar plate of the diencephalon into the caudorostrally arranged pretectum (p1), dorsal thalamus plus epithalamus (p2), and ventral thalamus (p3). Calbindin and calretinin are more extensively expressed in the dorsal thalamus than in the neighboring alar regions, and therefore these calcium-binding proteins are particularly suitable markers for delimiting the dorsal thalamus/epithalamus complex from the ventral thalamus and the pretectum. Conversely, parvalbumin is more intensely expressed in the pretectum and ventral thalamus than in the dorsal thalamus/epithalamus complex. The pretectum displays the most intense expression of parvalbumin within the diencephalon. Virtually all nuclei in the three sectors of the pretectum (commissural, juxtacommissural, and precommissural) present strong to moderate expression of parvalbumin.  

Evidence has been provided for the existence of extensive, putatively catecholaminergic cell groups in the spinal cord, the pretectum, the habenular region, and cortical and subcortical telencephalic areas.  

In the forebrain, the CR-immunoreactive (CR-ir) populations were scarce in the telencephalon and hypophysiotrofic hypothalamus, but numerous in many specialized nuclei of the diencephalon (preglomerulosus complex, nucleus glomerulosus, anterior glomerular nucleus, nucleus diffusus) and pretectum (parvocellular and magnocellular superficial pretectal nuclei, central pretectal nucleus), which are related to sensory systems.  

The interstitial nucleus of the tectothalamic tract is also involved in reciprocal projections of the pretectum and nucleus rotundus.  

In addition, its projections are found in the red nucleus and pretectum but do not seem to reach the ventrolateral thalamus. Especially, the caudal aspect of the nucleus sends, apart from projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus, red nucleus, periaquaductal gray, pretectum, prerubral area, and several thalamic regions, prominent projections to the caudal brain stem which terminate in the inferior olive and gigantocellular reticular formation.  

In particular, we found that the monkey LGN receives a significant cholinergic/nitrergic projection from the pedunculopontine tegmentum, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic projections from the thalamic reticular nucleus and pretectum, and a cholinergic projection from the parabigeminal nucleus.  

The pretectum and midbrain tegmentum also contained CGRPi fibres, whereas the optic tectum was virtually devoid of immunolabelling.  

They also confirm the presence of secondary subdivisions in the pretectum (commissural, juxtacommissural, and precommissural).  

The nearly equal direct and consensual pupil reactions when stimulating the temporal retina suggest an input of temporal retina to both sides of the pretectum.  

either directly or via pretectum or tegmentum).  

Although axons followed different patterns of ingrowth depending on their site of entry to the brainstem, within the pretectum, they innervated preferentially the nucleus of the optic tract and the olivary pretectal nucleus in which they formed two types of terminal arbors.  

FGFR3 is also expressed in anterior midbrain and hindbrain during this developmental period, and is additionally expressed in the posterior telencephalon, in the pretectum, and at the zona limitans intrathalamica.  

Loss of connections between the intergeniculate leaflet and visual midbrain or neurotoxic lesions of pretectum or deep superior colliculus (but not of the superficial superior colliculus) blocked phase shifts of the circadian activity rhythm in response to a benzodiazepine injection during the subjective day.  

Following intraocular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), a diffuse stream of CTB-positive, fine-caliber optic axons emerged from the optic tract at the level of the pretectum/anterior mesencephalon.  

Diffuse and heavily beaded NPY-ir fiber plexuses were observed throughout the superior colliculus, pretectum, and accessory optic system. Enucleation did not alter the appearance of NPY- and VIP-containing neuronal elements in the superior colliculus and pretectum while in the thalamus a subset of NPY-ir fiber population disappeared, indicating their retinal origin. Although there is a partial overlap in the topographical localization of the NPY- and VIP-ergic neurons in the pretectum, the colocalization of the two peptides could not be demonstrated. The present observations demonstrate the existence of two different and separate peptidergic (NPY and VIP) neuronal populations in the pretectum..  

Interesting novel aspects appear in the interpretation of the lamprey pretectum, the dorsal and ventral thalami, and the hypothalamus.  

To define more specifically the area or areas involved in mediating REM sleep responses to changes in illumination, fiber-sparing neurotoxic lesions were made to the pretectum (PT) or the SC.  

In addition, the response properties of single neurons in the visual cortex and pretectum of anesthetized and paralyzed cats and monkeys were determined in electrophysiological experiments.  

In the embryonic brain, R-cadherin was first expressed in groups of cells in the diencephalon and pretectum.  

We found that in zebrafish embryos at 46-54 hours postfertilization, DiI-labeled retinal axons were closely associated with cells expressing R-cadherin message in the hypothalamus, the pretectum, and the anterolateral optic tectum.  

Additional terminal sites for axons of this latter group may include the pretectum, the zona incerta, the medial part of the medial geniculate nucleus, and the ventral posteromedial nucleus.  

From 9.5 to 11.5 dpc, activation of the gene spreads to many sites of early neuronal differentiation, such as the olfactory bulbs, the pretectum, and the oculomotor nucleus in the midbrain, a thin stripe of cells lining the floor plate from the mesencephalon to the cervical spinal cord and a ventral column of cells spanning the neural tube from rostral hindbrain and including motor neuron as well as ventral interneuron precursors.  

Single retinal ganglion cells often have multiple terminal structures in the thalamus, pretectum, and tectum. The axons of layer 2 projecting neurons have additional collaterals and terminal arbors in the thalamus and pretectum. The axons of layer 3 projecting ganglion cells have dense additional terminal arbors in the thalamus and pretectum.  

In several brain regions, including parts of the pretectum, lateral geniculate and basal forebrain, nuclei are innervated by the dorsal, but not the median, raphe.  

In the diencephalon proper, separate proliferation zones are present in the habenula, and in the periventricular cell masses of the dorsal thalamus, the ventral thalamus, and the pretectum.  

Though the physiological properties and central projections of human wide-field, monostratified ganglion cells are not known, some of the cells resemble macaque ganglion cells known to project to the lateral geniculate nucleus, the pretectum, or the superior colliculus..  

TO2 neurons have very wide dendritic trees that arborize mainly in layers 2 and 3; axons project bilaterally or unilaterally to the pretectum and thalamus and ipsilaterally to the medulla oblongata. TO4 neurons have narrower dendritic trees that arborize in layers 2 and 3; they project to the ipsilateral pretectum, thalamus, and medulla oblongata. TO5 neurons have dendritic trees that arborize in layers 1 and 2 or 1-3 and project bilaterally or unilaterally to the pretectum and thalamus.  

In situ analyses revealed that tal-2 transcripts are detected at embryonic day 12.5 in the following regions; 1) the diencephalon-the zona limitans intrathalamica and the pretectum, 2) the mesencephalon-the tectum, and the anterior and posterior tegmentum, 3) the metencephalon-the isthmus and the anterior pons.  

Efferent neurons were observed in the left habenula, and bilaterally in the subhippocampal nucleus and the dorsal pretectum.  

c-Fos was increased, compared to levels in a control group left in their home cages, in the IGL, and the pretectum (PT), but decreased in the SCN.  

In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated atrophy in the tegmentum and pretectum of the midbrain and the base of the pons. In women, only the pretectum of the midbrain showed significant ageing effects after the age of 50 years, and thereafter remained rather constant. There were significant correlations between supratentorial brain atrophy and the diameter of the ventral midbrain, pretectum, and base of the pons in men, and between brain atrophy and the diameter of the fourth ventricle in women..  

These tracts reach the cerebellum, mesencephalic, and diencephalic targets (tegmentum, torus, tectum, tuberculum posterius, pretectum, and ventral thalamus) ipsi- and contra-laterally.  

commissura posteriori) and in the pretectum. Cell groups were labeled bilaterally within the dorsal region along the diencephalic-mesencephalic border (caudal pretectum and rostral tectum opticum), in tectum opticum, torus semicircularis, and tegmentum mesencephali.  

At prenatal stages, reelin was also expressed in the olfactory bulb, and striatum and in restricted nuclei in the ventral telencephalon, hypothalamus, thalamus, and pretectum.  

These results are discussed in the light of previous anatomofunctional assessments of the pretectum and accessory optic system..  

Second, the cells of origin of these projections have been identified by analyzing the retrograde labeling after tracer injections in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pretectum.  

To explore the hypothesis of a common developmental origin of these pretectal cerebellopetal neurons, we also investigated the development of CaR-immunopositive cells in the chick pretectum and the arrival of their fibers in the cerebellum, from 10 days of incubation (stage 36) to posthatching stages.  

The observed morphological changes are restricted to specific brain regions such as the tectum and the dorsal thalamus, whereas the ventral thalamus and the pretectum are almost undisturbed.  

Male hamsters received stereotaxic, iontophoretic injections of the retrograde tracer, cholera toxin beta fragment, or the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutin, into nuclei of the pretectum (medial, commissural, posterior, olivary, anterior, nucleus of the optic tract, posterior limitans), into the superior colliculus, or into the visual thalamic nuclei (lateral posterior, dorsal lateral geniculate, intergeniculate leaflet, ventral lateral geniculate).  

Responses from relay cells in the A-laminae of the LGNd were extracellularly recorded and analyzed during saccadic eye movements and visual stimulation in association with reversible inactivation of the ipsilateral pretectum with the GABA agonist, muscimol.  

The amphibian optic tectum and pretectum have been analyzed in detail anatomically and physiologically, and a specific model for tecto-pretectal interaction in the context of the visual guidance of behavior has been proposed. Individual neurons may project divergently to telencephalic (ipsilateral amygdala and striatum), diencephalic (ipsi-and contralateral thalamus, contralateral pretectum), and mesencephalic (ipsi- and contralateral tectum and tegmentum) centers, and to the ipsi- and contralateral medulla oblongata and rostral spinal cord. Rather, the pretectum appears to influence the tectum indirectly, acting either on retinal afferents or modulating inhibitory interneurons..  

When the retinas were treated with macrophage/microglia inhibiting factor (MIF), and the regenerating axons were guided into the pretectum, predominantly large RGC of type RI survived.  

Although several authors have commented on the specific subpopulation of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) that project to the rat pretectum, much of this evidence is circumstantial, and depends mostly upon electrophysiological data (e.g., conduction velocity). Here, we have used microinjections of Fluoro-Gold into the OPN (pretectum and superior colliculus as controls) to retrogradely label RGCs projecting to this region. In the contralateral retinae, labeled RGCs were most numerous and widespread, with 97% projecting to the contralateral pretectum.  

The cytoarchitecture of the diencephalon and pretectum of the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, was studied utilizing cresyl violet stained serial paraffin sections. The identified cell groups were assigned to the preoptic area, hypothalamus, thalamus and posterior tubercle, epithalamus, synencephalon and pretectum. Our cytoarchitectural analysis indicates that the diencephalon and pretectum of the white sturgeon is intermediate to that described for cladistians and neopterygians. The cytoarchitectonic complexity of the pretectum in Acipenser is intermediate to that observed in Polypterus and neopterygians in that a magnocellular component within the superficial pretectal nucleus is clearly present but cannot be delineated as a distinct magnocellular superficial pretectal nucleus.  

Subcortical targets included the amygdyla, auditory thalamus, pons, pretectum, superior and inferior colliculi, and central gray.  

Current research indicates that many structures participate in several eye movement types, such as the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, frontal eye fields and pretectum.  

We have looked at the phenotypic expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the two isoforms of its synthetic enzyme [ glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-65 and -67] in adult rat retinas that had the superior colliculus, pretectum and optic tract lesioned unilaterally at birth.  

Afferent and efferent connections are also similar, with both areas commonly receiving input from the retina, locus coreuleus, and raphe, having reciprocal connections with superior colliculus, pretectum and hypothalamus, and also showing connections to zona incerta, accessory optic system, pons, the contralateral vLGN/IGL, and other thalamic nuclei.  

Injections of biotinylated dextran amine in the pigeon dorsal pallidum produced numerous fibers and terminals in specific nuclei of the thalamus, hypothalamus, pretectum and midbrain tegmentum. Labeled fibers and terminals were also observed in the avian subthalamic nucleus (anterior nucleus of the ansa lenticularis), in the pretectum (nucleus spiriformis lateralis) and in the avian substantia nigra pars reticulata.  

In addition to this pathway, birds possess a major descending pathway from the basal ganglia to the tectum via the GABAergic nucleus spiriformis lateralis in the pretectum.  

Responses to eye illumination were abolished by contralateral pretectum-ablation but normal after the corresponding lesion on the ipsilateral side. Contralateral pretectum thus plays an important role for dorsal light response and negative phototaxis. Noncrossed pretecto-reticular fibers from the ipsilateral pretectum and crossed fibers from the contralateral side were transected.  

These data indicate that the plasticity phenomenon evidenced in the monocular frog H-OKN depends on the activation of the NMDA receptors of one pretectum.  

During the neuromeric stage of brain development (about E3-E5), axonin-1+ nerve cell bodies are predominantly found in two neuromeric subdivisions: 1) in the alar plate of the precommissural pretectum and dorsal thalamus and 2) in the posterior preoptic region of the hypothalamus.  

Necropsy revealed hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions in the thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate nucleus, superior colliculus, midbrain pretectum and red nucleus, and mucor mycelia were numerously found.  

The primary retinal projection to the pretectum terminated in the ipsilateral and contralateral olivary nuclei.  

These results in the intact animal can be correlated with the visual response properties of the turtle's pretectum and accessory optic system recorded in vitro..  

The goal of the present experiments was to examine the relationships of the zona incerta with two structures associated with visuomotor behavior, the superior colliculus and pretectum. The zona incerta is also reciprocally interconnected with the pretectum.  

Striatal efferent fibers were found to reach the lateral and medial amygdala, the anterior and posterior entopeduncular nuclei, several thalamic nuclei, the dorsomedial posterior tubercle, the pretectum, the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis, the pontomesencephalic reticular formation, and the caudal brainstem.  

The postnatal development of the cat pretectum has been analysed with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry with the aim to establish the time course of morphological and neurochemical maturation of parvalbumin (PARV), calbindin-D28k (CALB), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) expressing neuronal populations. At birth, PARV-ir retinal afferents to the pretectum have already formed distinct termination zones which appear as 3 clusters separated by intercluster regions in coronal sections. The different onset of marker expression and cellular growth patterns suggest the existence of several populations of CaBP-ir excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the pretectum.  

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