Four cats then received electrolytic lesions restricted to the posterior parahippocampal region (experimental group) including mainly parahippocampal cortex, parasubiculum and presubiculum.  

In LBD patients, significant tissue loss amounting to 10-20% was found in the hippocampal subregions corresponding to the anterior portion of the CA1 field on both sides, along the longitudinal midline in the dorsal aspect within the CA2-3 field, and in the subiculum and presubiculum.  

While diffuse plaques, including those in caudate nucleus and presubiculum, were less prominently labelled, amorphous Abeta plaques in the cerebellum were not detectable with 6-CN-PiB.  

In addition, no differences were found in cell densities in hippocampal cornu ammonis subfields (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4), fascia dentata, polymorphic region, subiculum, prosubiculum, and presubiculum.  

The regional, laminar, and longitudinal organization of intrinsic projections in the presubiculum was examined in the rat with the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin and the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin. Cells of origin of intrinsic projections in the presubiculum were distributed in layers II and V, with almost none in layers III and VI. Septotemporal and proximodistal differences in both the projection and the distribution of layer II cells were found: layer II cells in the septal and mid presubiculum, especially those located in the distal part, provided long projections to the temporal presubiculum, whereas layer II cells in the temporal presubiculum provided slightly shorter projections almost entirely within the mid and temporal presubiculum. Layer II cells aggregated massively in the distal portions of the septal and mid presubiculum, but very few layer II cells were found in the most proximal part, especially in the temporal presubiculum. On the other hand, in layer V, cells of origin and their terminals were diffusely and equally distributed throughout the entire proximodistal extent of the presubiculum. These longitudinal connections, in layers II and V, make it possible to merge information conveyed by parallel pathways in the presubiculum..  

Finally, a large population of somatostatin-negative GABAergic cells in stratum radiatum project to the molecular layers of the subiculum, presubiculum, retrosplenial cortex, and indusium griseum and fire rhythmically at high rates during theta oscillations but do not increase their firing during ripples.  

The parahippocampal region in the rodent brain includes the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices, the presubiculum, and the parasubiculum.  

Projections from the remaining cingulate areas preferentially target the postrhinal and medial entorhinal cortices as well as the presubiculum and parasubiculum.  

First, the results confirm and extend known intrahippocampal formation inputs to dentate gyrus, subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, and entorhinal area, which are arranged generally along the formation's transverse axis and dominated by the subicular projection-by far the densest established by field CA1 anywhere in the brain.  

There were also very substantial projections to the entorhinal cortex, presubiculum, and parasubiculum of the hippocampal formation, as well as to areas TH and TF of the parahippocampal cortex.  

The hippocampal formation, including the subiculum and presubiculum, together with the entorhinal cortex (EC) and perirhinal cortex (area 35) contribute numerous axons to the fornix in a topographical manner. The medial fornix originates from cells in the caudal half of the subiculum, the lamina principalis interna of the caudal half of the presubiculum, and from the perirhinal cortex (area 35). The intermediate portion of the fornix (i.e., that part midway between the midline and most lateral parts of the fornix) originates from cells in the rostral half of the subiculum and prosubiculum, the anterior presubiculum (only from the lamina principalis externa), the caudal presubiculum (primarily from lamina principalis interna), the rostral half of CA3, the EC (primarily 28I and 28M), and the perirhinal cortex (area 35).  

Alterations in superficial layer circuitry were suggested by showing that presubiculum, parasubiculum and deep MEC stimulation evoked 100-300 Hz field potential transients and prolonged EPSPs (superimposed on IPSPs) in superficial MEC which were partially blocked by APV (in contrast to control) and fully blocked by CNQX.  

This slow spread may depend in part on the relatively small size of human commissural projections from the amygdalo-hippocampal formation, which largely originate in the presubiculum.  

Head direction cells are described in the presubiculum of the macaque, used as a model of what is likely to be present in humans. The response of head direction cells in the presubiculum was not influenced by the place where the monkey was, by the 'spatial view' observed by the monkey, and also the position of the eyes in the head.  

The term "hippocampal formation" is defined as the complex of six structures: gyrus dentatus, hippocampus proprius, subiculum proprium, presubiculum, parasubiculum and area entorhinalis In this work we attempt to present a brief review of knowledge about the hippocampus from the point of view of history, anatomical nomenclature, comparative anatomy and functions (Tab.  

CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were activated as well as entorhinal cortex, presubiculum, and neocortical temporal cortex.  

Moreover, the posterior cingulate areas are interconnected with the parahippocampal regions, whereas the medial parietal cortex projects only sparsely to the presubiculum.  

While there was no evidence of an input from the dentate gyrus or fields CA1-3, a small contribution arose from the presubiculum and entorhinal cortices.  

The presubiculum, but not parasubiculum, was strongly reactive for glycogen phosphorylase.  

To understand how this cell loss affects the functional properties of the MEA, we investigated whether projections from the presubiculum (prS), providing a main input to the MEA-III, are altered in this epileptic rat model.  

the subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum and entorhinal area, and the adjoining neocortical perirhinal and retrosplenial cortices of the New Zealand white rabbit.  

The projections from the perirhinal cortex, entorhinal cortex, parasubiculum, and presubiculum to the thalamus were examined using both anterograde and retrograde tracers. These relatively light projections, which arose from all areas of the entorhinal cortex, from the presubiculum, parasubiculum, and area 35 of the perirhinal cortex, terminated mainly in the anterior ventral nucleus. In contrast, the projections to the lateral dorsal nucleus from the entorhinal cortex, presubiculum and parasubiculum were denser than those to the anterior thalamic nuclei.  

The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether presubiculum commissural projections traveling in the PSD can also activate ventral levels of the EC and, if so, whether this activation is followed by that of the dentate gyrus-hippocampal system in the ventral hippocampus.  

The fiber projection from the presubiculum to the medial division of the entorhinal cortex of the rat serves as a model projection. Steps involved are: (1) Surgical application to the presubiculum (injection) of the neuroanatomical tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), with the purpose of labeling fibers innervating the entorhinal cortex.  

In the forebrain galanin was seen in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, throughout the cortex, in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, claustrum, granular and pyramidal cell layers of the hippocampus, subiculum and presubiculum.  

The question of primary concern in the present research was whether the group of anatomically related structures (hippocampus, subiculum, presubiculum/parasubiculum, entorhinal cortex, perirhinal/postrhinal cortex) are involved in mediating a similar memory process or whether the individual structures are differentially involved in memory processes and/or in handling various types of information. The structures were found to differ functionally, with the hippocampus and the presubiculum/parasubiculum being especially involved in processing spatial information, and the perirhinal/postrhinal cortex having a specific role in remembering information over a brief time period (working memory).  

A specific and dense fiber projection that typically ends in superficial entorhinal layers of the medial EC originates in the presubiculum. To investigate whether apical dendrites of deep entorhinal pyramidal neurons indeed receive input from this projection, we injected the anterograde tracer PHA-L in the presubiculum or we lesioned the presubiculum, and we applied in the same experiments the tracer Neurobiotin trade mark pericellularly in layer V of the medial EC of 17 rats. PHA-L labeled presubiculum axons in the superficial layers apposing apical segments of Neurobiotin labeled layer-V cell dendrites were studied with a confocal fluorescence laserscanning microscope. In cases in which the presubiculum had been lesioned, material was investigated in the electron microscope. appositions of boutons on labeled presubiculum fibers with identified dendrites of layer-V neurons. Hence we conclude that layer-V neurons receive synaptic contacts from presubiculum neurons.  

Calretinin-containing neurons in the hippocampal formation, including the subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, and entorhinal cortex, were visualized with immunocytochemistry.  

The organization of the laminar and topographical projections from the presubiculum to the entorhinal area was studied in the rat by anterograde labeling with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin. We found that the pattern of presubiculo-entorhinal projections differs between the superficial and deep layers of the presubiculum. The superficial layers (layers II and III) of the presubiculum gave rise to bilateral projections to layers I-VI of the medial entorhinal area (MEA). In contrast, the deep layers (layers V and VI) of the presubiculum gave rise to ipsilateral projections to the entorhinal area. Using two-dimensional unfolded maps of parahippocampal cortices, we elucidated the distinct topographical relationship in the presubiculo-entorhinal projection: 1) The septotemporal or longitudinal axis of the presubiculum corresponded to the axis on the MEA/LEA boundary, where the septal presubiculum projected toward the rhinal fissure and the temporal presubiculum projected away from the fissure. 2) The proximodistal axis of the presubiculum corresponded to the axis from the MEA/LEA boundary to the MEA/parasubiculum boundary that was virtually perpendicular to the MEA/LEA boundary, where the proximal portion of the presubiculum (close to the subiculum) projected to the region near the MEA/LEA boundary..  

Thereafter, we focused on projections to the hippocampal formation (dentate gyrus, hippocampus proper, subiculum) and to the parahippocampal region (presubiculum, parasubiculum, entorhinal, and perirhinal and postrhinal cortices).  

Immunoblotting analysis of kappa-opioid receptors from butorphanol-withdrawal rats showed significant increases in 11 of 21 brain regions examined, including the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, dorsomedial hypothalamus, hypothalamus, paraventricular thalamus, thalamus, presubiculum, and locus coeruleus, when compared with saline treated, non-dependent controls.  

In the remainder of the cortex, the heaviest projections originated in the hippocampal formation, including the entorhinal cortex, subiculum, presubiculum, and parasubiculum.  

Our comparative cytochemical study is focused on the laminar organisation of major extracellular matrix constituents in the murine hippocampal formation, including the regions CA1, CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus proper, the dentate gyrus, the subiculum and the presubiculum.  

There was a tendency of GAP-43 mRNA up-regulation in the presubiculum, a region that projects to MEAIII.  

Layer IV of some cortical areas, most thalamic nuclei, and presubiculum displayed high levels of labeling for the three ligands.  

Small islands of alpha7 immunoreactive cells were present in the outer presubiculum.  

Six of the monkeys then received ibotenic acid lesions restricted to the hippocampal formation (group H), and the four others received selective ablations of the posterior parahippocampal region (group P), comprising mainly parahippocampal cortex, parasubiculum, and presubiculum.  

There were no projections to the presubiculum or to the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices.  

These include the presubiculum of the isthmus (PrSi), parasubiculum of the isthmus (PaSi), area 29 of the isthmus (area 29i) and area prostriata (Pro), which has anterior (Pro-a) and posterior (Pro-p) divisions.  

In older mutant mice (16-18 months old), there was also gliosis most marked in the presubiculum and parasubiculum of the hippocampal formation, as well as the entorhinal cortex, neocortex, and striatum.  

In contrast, projections from cells closer to the subiculum-presubiculum border, i.e., distal part of subiculum, terminate in the medial entorhinal cortex and in the postrhinal cortex.  

Saturation binding and displacement experiments showed that [ (125)I]YVP and [ (125)I]EYF bound selectively with a very high affinity, K(D)=0.18 nM and 0.06 nM, to NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors respectively.By using in vitro autoradiography with these radioligands and frog pancreatic polypeptide (PP) as selective unlabelled competitor of NPFF(2) binding sites, NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptor distribution was analyzed throughout the rat CNS.The highest densities of [ (125)I]EYF binding sites were seen in the most external layers of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, the parafascicular thalamic nucleus, laterodorsal thalamic nucleus and presubiculum of hippocampus.  

Unilateral anterior thalamic lesions produced evidence of a widespread hippocampal hypoactivity, as there were significant reductions in Fos counts in a range of regions within the ipsilateral hippocampal formation (rostral CA1, rostral dentate gyrus, 'dorsal' hippocampus, presubiculum and postsubiculum).  

The specific experiments reported in this paper comprise the tracing with biotinylated dextran amine of fibres in the rat brain running from the presubiculum to layer III of the medial division of the entorhinal cortex.  

Within the subicular complex, a more intense GABA(B)R1a-b immunostaining was found in the subiculum than in the presubiculum or parasubiculum, especially in the pyramidal and polymorphic cell layers.  

In the telencephalic regions, intense DNPI immunoreactivity was observed in the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb, layer IV of the neocortex, granular layer of the dentate gyrus, presubiculum, and postsubiculum.  

In contrast, these regions were spared in dementia with Lewy bodies where a selective loss of lower presubiculum pyramidal neurons was found.  

The cortical input of the hippocampus introduces highly differentiated information analyzed at the highest levels of the neocortex through the intermediary of the entorhinal cortex and presubiculum.  

oriens (p < 0.01 vs schizophrenia), in alveous (p < 0.01 vs schizophrenia) and in presubiculum (p < 0.05 vs depressed). moleculare (p < 0.01 vs schizophrenics) and presubiculum (p < 0.05 vs controls and bipolars; p < 0.01 vs schizophrenics).  

The perisubicular region, located medially adjacent to the dorsal subiculum may be equivalent to the rat's presubiculum; evidence for the presence of a parasubiculum was rather weak..  

Whilst the largest cortical output of the hippocampal formation originates in the entorhinal cortex, direct projections from CA1, subiculum and presubiculum to the cortex have been reported. Retrograde neuronal labelling was observed in CA1, subiculum, presubiculum and parasubiculum; it was absent in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA2. Our results indicate that CA1, subiculum, presubiculum and parasubiculum send direct output to cortical areas.  

There have been previous reports of somatostatin- and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-positive patches in the superficial layers of the presubiculum in monkeys. In this study, we show additional instances of patches in the presubiculum, as demonstrated by cytochrome oxidase (CO), by myelin and Nissl stains, and by the calcium-binding proteins calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR), and parvalbumin (PV). As patches are restricted to the presubiculum, these labeling patterns provide a convenient marker for the boundary between the presubiculum and the adjoining posteroventral retrosplenial cortex. More work is necessary to determine how this modularity may relate to the functional organization of the presubiculum..  

We hypothesized that the susceptibility of layer III of the EC to prolonged seizure activity might be mediated by excitatory afferents originating in the presubiculum. METHODS: Experiments were designed to ablate the presubiculum unilaterally by focal ibotenate injections and to evaluate the effect of this deafferentation on the vulnerability of EC layer III neurons to the chemoconvulsant kainate (injected systemically 5 days later).  

Subiculum was isolated from presubiculum, CA1, and entorhinal cortex in ventral horizontal slices.  

Axonal varicosities and extensions were found on axons that entered presubiculum, entorhinal cortex or CA1, supporting the notion that these were projection cells.  

Cells projecting to the anteroventral thalamic nucleus (AV cells), the medial mammillary body (MMB cells), and the nucleus accumbens (ACC cells) were observed consistently throughout the entire septotemporal (dorsoventral) and transverse extent of the subiculum (from field CA1 of the hippocampus to the presubiculum).  

FB134 showed a nervous tissue specific expression pattern and an exclusively prominent expression in the developing presubiculum and parasubiculum.  

Low levels of Y1 immunostaining were distributed widely throughout layers II-III of the cerebral cortex (i.e., orbital, cingulate, frontal, parietal, insular, and temporal regions), nucleus accumbens core, amygdalohippocampal and amygdalopiriform areas, dentate gyrus, CA1 and CA2 fields of hippocampus, principal and oral divisions of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, islands of Calleja and presubiculum.  

The presubiculum sent fibers mainly to the medial EC; most densely to layers I and III. Fibers to the contralateral EC were detected only from the presubiculum; they originated from the superficial layers and terminated in layer III of the medial entorhinal area..  

The more spatially demanding task in each experiment also resulted in increased Fos expression in the subicular complex (postsubiculum, presubiculum and parasubiculum), as well as in the prelimbic cortex.  

The subdivisions examined included CA4, CA3, CA2, CA1 (CA: cornu ammonis), prosubiculum (PRO), subiculum and presubiculum (PRE), parasubiculum (PARA) and the entorhinal cortex (ENT).  

Less attention has been paid to the presubiculum, which, however, is also a component of the parahippocampal gyrus, receives dense inputs from several cortical areas, and itself is a major source of connections to the entorhinal cortex (EC). In part of a closer investigation of corticohippocampal systems, the authors applied single-axon analysis to the connections from the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) to the presubiculum. One major result from this approach was the finding that many of these axons (at least 10 of 14) branch beyond the presubiculum.  

Notably, the seizure-induced death of layer III neurons in the EC can be attenuated by eliminating the prominent excitatory input from the presubiculum.  

In the striatum, hippocampal formation, presubiculum and parasubiculum, amygdaloid nuclei, thalamic nuclei, locus coeruleus, and nucleus ambiguous MOR-1-LI predominated, whereas MOR-1C-LI was absent or sparse.  

For example, in adult NT-3(lacZneo)/+ mice, beta-galactosidase is expressed in high amounts in limbic areas of the cortex (cingulate, retrosplenial, piriform, and entorhinal), in the visual cortex, in the hippocampal formation (dentate granule cells, CA2 cells, fasciola cinereum, induseum griseum, tenia tecta, presubiculum, and parasubiculum), and in the septum (septohippocampal nucleus and lateral dorsal septum).  

The presubiculum is similar to EC in its six-layered structure, but lacks a columnar circuitry that the EC possesses. We report epileptiform activity in combined presubiculum-subiculum slices that consists of synchronous population bursts and multiple afterdischarges. We conclude that re-entrant activity in a presubiculum-subiculum circuit generates epileptiform activity in both regions. These bursts are transmitted back to the presubiculum.  

Spatial view cells (in conjunction with whole body motion cells in the primate hippocampus, and head direction cells in the primate presubiculum) would also be useful as part of a spatial navigation system, for which they would provide a memory component..  

In vitro autoradiography studies showed that binding of [ 76Br]BAP was high in the thalamus and presubiculum, moderate in the cortex and striatum, and low in the cerebellum and hippocampus.  

The function of the primate hippocampus and related structures was analysed by making recordings from the hippocampus, subiculum, presubiculum, and parahippocampal gyrus in monkeys actively walking in the laboratory. Head direction cells were found in the presubiculum. The response of head direction cells in the presubiculum was not influenced by the place where the monkey was, there being the same tuning to head direction at different places in a room, and even outside the room.  

Injections of anterograde and retrograde tracers confined to retrosplenial area 30 revealed that this area has reciprocal connections with adjacent areas 23, 19 and PGm, with the mid-dorsolateral part of the prefrontal cortex (areas 9, 9/46 and 46), with multimodal area TPO in the superior temporal sulcus, as well as the posterior parahippocampal cortex, the presubiculum and the entorhinal cortex.  

The highest densities of labeled cells were observed in the presubiculum, parasubiculum, entorhinal cortex, and subiculum, whereas the CA3 field and the dentate gyrus had the lowest densities of positive neurons. A higher terminal labeling was observed in the subiculum than in CA1 and was particularly prominent in layer II of the presubiculum. A bundle of GABAergic fibers was visible deep to the cell layers of the presubiculum and subiculum.  

Changes in the expression of immediate early gene c-fos by noxious mechanical stimulation to the mandibular incisor pulp of rats were immunohistochemically examined in the hippocampus (Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus) and the retrohippocampus (subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum and entorhinal cortex).  

The regions of highest V1a receptor density included the prefrontal, cingulate, pyriform, and entorhinal cortex, as well as the presubiculum and mamillary bodies.  

It was demonstrated that the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex (areas 46, 9/46, and 9) and its medial extension (medial areas 9 and 9/32) is the origin of a specific fiber pathway, running posteriorly as part of the cingulum bundle, and terminating mainly in the retrosplenial area 30 and the posterior presubiculum.  

Neuronal loss, astrocytosis, and spongiform change were studied in lesions in the entorhinal cortex, parasubiculum, presubiculum (external and internal principal laminae), subiculum, and prosubiculum, respectively. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that in group I neuronal loss and astrocytosis were more severe in the parasubiculum and the external principal lamina of the presubiculum than in the other regions including the entorhinal cortex, and in group II the lesions in the entorhinal cortex, parasubiculum, and the external principal lamina of the presubiculum were more severe than in the other regions. In both groups in this study the lesions from the internal principal lamina of the presubiculum through the prosubiculum in the direction of the hippocampus were mild, which could be the least vulnerable in the parahippocampal gyrus in CJD. CONCLUSION: On the contrary, our findings also raise the possibility that the parasubiculum and the external principal lamina of the presubiculum may be the structures most vulnerable to early lesions in the parahippocampal gyrus in CJD.  

Dendritic elongation of PV-like immunoreactive interneurons and perisomatic distribution of PV-like immunoreactive terminal boutons on their cellular targets were first observed in the subiculum around E127; then from E127 to E142 in CA3/CA2 and layers III-V of the entorhinal cortex and, to a lesser extent in CA1, the dentate hilus and deep granule cell layer; and finally from E156 to postnatal day 12 in the rest of the dentate gyrus, the presubiculum and parasubiculum, and layers III-II-I of the entorhinal cortex.  

Projections from each layer of the entorhinal cortex (EC) of the cat were traced to the dentate gyrus (DG), Ammon's horn (CA), prosubiculum (ProSb), subiculum (Sb), presubiculum (PreSb) and parasubiculum (ParaSb); the anterograde or retrograde labeling method was used after stereotaxic injection of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase, cholera toxin B subunit, or Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin.  

The volume of seven subregions (CA1, CA2-3, CA4, dentate gyrus, subiculum, presubiculum and white matter) was determined and the number of neurons estimated in each of these grey matter subregions using the optical dissector technique.  

In the majority of slices from AOAA-treated rats, responses recorded in the superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex to white matter, presubiculum, or parasubiculum stimulation were abnormal.  

In parasagittal sections of rat brain, a high density of specific binding was observed in the accessory olfactory bulb, cortical regions (layers 1, 3, and 4 > 2, 5, and 6), caudate putamen, molecular layers of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, subiculum, presubiculum, retrosplenial cortex, anteroventral thalamic nuclei, and cerebellar granular layer, reflecting its preferential (perhaps not exclusive) affinity for pre- and postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate mGlu2 receptors.  

Lead exposure caused a decrease in [ 3H]MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors in the hippocampal formation including CA2 stratum radiatum, CA3 stratum radiatum and presubiculum, and in the agranular insular, cingulate, entorhinal, orbital, parietal and perirhinal areas of cerebral cortex.  

Cerebellar Purkinje cells and their dendrites were immunoreactive, as were the presubiculum/subiculum regions and dentate gyrus granule cells of the hippocampus.  

The results showed that 1500 nM [ 3H]ouabain binding was sensitive to serotonin 10(-3) M and significantly increased in the following brain regions: frontal cortex, areas CA1, CA2, and CA3 of the hippocampus, presubiculum, zona incerta, caudate putamen and the amygdaloid area, confirming and extending previous results.  

A characteristic feature of the parvopyramidal layer of the presubiculum of 6 individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) was the presence of large, evenly distributed amyloid-beta (A beta) deposits, which in the end stage of the disease occupy 80.9 +/- 12.2% of the parvopyramidal layer. However, A beta deposits in the presubiculum are thioflavin-S- and Congo red-negative--and thus, nonfibrillar--even after 11 to 19 years of AD. The source of nonfibrillar presubicular A beta is probably local neurons or neuronal projections to the parvocellular layer of the presubiculum. The presubiculum is most likely the model brain structure for the study of amyloid of exclusively neuronal origin. The parvopyramidal layer of the presubiculum reveals only a small population of the neurons (2.5 +/- 2%) affected by neurofibrillary pathology..  

In severe cases (i.e., Braak stages V and VI), we observed a marked decrease in neuropil immunolabeling within the CA2, CA1 subregions and prosubiculum, while the labeling of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, subiculum proper and presubiculum was indistinguishable from mild and moderate cases.  

gamma-Frequency activity recorded intracellularly from deep layer neurons of entorhinal cortex, presubiculum and parasubiculum consisted of one action potential correlated with each of the three to five gamma cycles recorded with a proximate field potential electrode.  

Inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (IPSPs) were studied in neurons of presubiculum, parasubiculum and medial entorhinal cortex in horizontal slices from rat brains.  

Ischaemic rats were slower to find the goal box than sham-operated controls; this learning deficit correlated with the degree of neuronal loss in the CA1, but not in the CA2, CA3 and CA4 subfields and presubiculum of the hippocampal formation.  

In the hippocampal formation, the subanesthetic dose of ketamine induced prominent increases in 2-DG uptake in the dentate gyrus, CA-3 stratum radiatum, stratum lacunosum moleculare, and presubiculum.  

Such cells were found in the CA1 region, the parahippocampal gyrus, and the presubiculum.  

Finally, in parasagittal sections of rat brain, a high density of specific binding was observed in the accessory olfactory bulb, cortical regions (layers 1-3 > 4-6), caudate putamen, molecular layers of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, presubiculum, retrosplenial cortex, anteroventral thalamic nuclei, and cerebellar granular layer, reflecting its preferential (perhaps not exclusive) affinity for presynaptic and postsynaptic mGlu2 receptors.  

Less consistently, damaged neurons were observed in the presubiculum, in the temporal and perirhinal cortices and in the lateral amygdaloid nucleus.  

In Layer II of the presubiculum there is a high density of immature D2 mRNA negative cells at E13 with D2 mRNA positive cells located on the periphery of the clusters.  

Some bursting cells were antidromically activated by stimuli applied to the superficial or deep layers of presubiculum, but never by stimuli applied to deep layers of medial entorhinal cortex (dMEC). Some non-bursting subicular neurons were antidromically activated by stimuli applied to dMEC, but never by stimuli applied to presubiculum. Antidromic population events in subiculum were single spikes when deep MEC was stimulated, but were bursts when presubiculum was stimulated, even in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists. It is concluded that: (1) the distinction between bursting and non-bursting subicular neurons is a dichotomy and cells do not change their identity when activated antidromically or orthodromically; (2) the outputs of the two cell types may be different: bursting cells projected to presubiculum and non-bursting cells projected to entorhinal cortex; and (3) non-bursting cells can, when repetitively stimulated, fire repetitive spikes with interspike intervals in the range of intervals seen in bursts..  

Numerous polymorphic parvalbumin neurons and a dense plexus of fibers and puncta characterized the deep layer of the subiculum and the lamina principalis externa of the presubiculum. In contrast, parvalbumin neurons did not statistically decline in subfields CA3, subiculum or presubiculum in Alzheimer's diseased brains relative to controls. This vulnerability may be related to their differential connectivity, e.g., those regions connectionally related to the cerebral cortex (dentate gyrus and CA1) are more vulnerable than those regions connectionally related to subcortical loci (subiculum and presubiculum)..  

Although the retrohippocampal region (presubiculum, parasubiculum, and entorhinal area) is an integral part of the hippocampal circuitry and is affected selectively in a number of disorders, estimates of neuron numbers in the rat retrohippocampal region have yet to be published.  

The hippocampal subdivisions examined included: CA4, CA3, CA2, CA1, prosubiculum, subiculum and presubiculum (PRE), parasubiculum (PARA) and entorhinal cortex (ENT).  

(2) The lamina principalis interna of the presubiculum was well individualized and did not appear as a simple horizontal shift of adjoining fields. The developmental fate and the particular connections of the presubiculum suggest that its functional importance should be further investigated during infancy and adulthood..  

In the hippocampus a fall in binding then occurred within the first six months of life, with little or no subsequent fall during aging, whereas in the entorhinal cortex and the presubiculum the major loss of nicotine binding occurred after the fourth decade.  

Lead exposure produced a significant decrease in [ 3H]MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor in the hippocampal formation including CA2 stratum radiatum, CA3 stratum radiatum, hilus dentate gyrus and presubiculum, and in the cerebral cortex including agranular insular, cingulate, entorhinal, orbital, parietal and perirhinal areas.  

The presubiculum and parasubiculum are retrohippocampal structures bordered by the subiculum and medial entorhinal cortex. We conclude that the deep layer cells of the presubiculum and parasubiculum are richly interconnected with excitatory synapses. The absence of significant ascending input can account for the functional separation of superficial and deep layer neurons of presubiculum and parasubiculum..  

When BZ receptor binding was compared in the same normal control (n = 15) and schizophrenic (n = 8) cases in which the GABA(A) receptor was analyzed, there were very few differences noted between the two groups, except for small, though significant, increases in the stratum oriens of CA3 (30%), the subiculum (20-30%) and the presubiculum (15-20%) of the patient group.  

GABAergic projection neurons were observed only in the dorsal part of the presubiculum, which, when taking into account the topography of presubicular projections to MEA, indicates that only the dorsal part of MEA receives GABAergic input. The GABAergic projection neurons constitute approximately 30-40% of all GABAergic neurons present in the superficial layers of the dorsal presubiculum. The projections from the dorsal part of the presubiculum comprise a small inhibitory component that originates from GABAergic neurons and targets entorhinal interneurons..  

In the presubiculum, retrosplenial area 29e, and parasubiculum, neuropil staining first appeared by P3. This area and the presubiculum reached their adult appearance by P21. Labeled cells were first seen by P7 in layer III of the presubiculum and by P15 in the retrosplenial area 29e and the parasubiculum.  

Stellate cells were recorded in layers II and V of presubiculum and parasubiculum. Pyramidal cells were recorded in layers III and V of presubiculum and layers II and V of parasubiculum.  

The ultrastructure of axon terminals in the anteroventral thalamic nucleus arising in the cingulate cortex and in the presubiculum was examined using the anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase in rats. In contrast, the axonal arborizations arising from the presubiculum were concentrated ipsilaterally in the dorsal part of the anteroventral nucleus and comprised two identifiable populations of terminals. The other population of the presubiculum terminals consisted of medium-sized terminals. These results indicate that the posterior cingulate cortex and the presubiculum project differentially upon the anteroventral thalamic nucleus. They also indicate that although the posterior cingulate cortex gives rise to only one type of corticothalamic terminal, the presubiculum gives rise to two types of corticothalamic terminals.  

In control rats (implanted with electrodes but not electrically stimulated), the somatostatin-1 receptor-selective [ 125I]Tyr3-octreotide and the non-subtype-selective [ Leu3,D-Trp22,125I-Tyr25]somatostatin-28 preferentially labelled the strata oriens and radiatum of the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus, the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, the subiculum and presubiculum of the hippocampal formation, the inner layer of the frontal cortex, and the lateral and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala.  

The presubiculum demonstrated remarkable sparing that contrasted with the almost complete loss of fibers in the parasubiculum.  

Entorhinal cortex infusion retrogradely labeled neurons within the perirhinal cortex, endopiriform nucleus, piriform cortex, dentate gyrus, presubiculum, parasubiculum, CA1-CA4 fields, amygdaloid nuclei, basal forebrain, thalamus, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, raphe nuclei, and locus coeruleus.  

Other structures with notable labelling included the basal ganglia, presubiculum, amygdala, mamillary bodies, cerebellar cortex and pineal gland.  

High concentrations of binding sites were detected in the presubiculum, parafascicular thalamic nucleus, gracile nucleus, spinal trigeminal tract nucleus, and a number of brainstem nuclei, with virtually no labelling in the cerebellum.  

FR115427 produced a pattern of altered 1CGU which was broadly similar to that elicited by dizocilpine with increases in 1CGU in the pontine nuclei, presubiculum and hippocampus and reductions in somatosensory and motor cortex and within components of the auditory system.  

Also, cells in the ipsilateral presubiculum showed a higher proportion of peak interactions (9/16) than their contralateral homologues (5/30).  

Iontophoretic injection of the retrograde tracer fast blue, aimed at layer III of the MEA, resulted in retrogradely labeled neurons in the presubiculum in all the injected hemispheres. The present data indicate that of all potential afferents only those from the presubiculum distribute preferentially to layer III of the MEA. This, in turn, suggests a potentially important role of the presubiculum in the seizure-related degeneration of neurons in layer III of the MEA..  

We report here that, in the human hippocampal formation of both control and AD individuals, GSK 3 alpha and 3 beta are immunohistochemically localized to neurons within the presubiculum > CA1, CA3, and CA4 subfields of the hippocampus, layers III > II > IV, V, VI of entorhinal cortex, and occasional neurons in layers III, V, and VI of temporal neocortex. The presubiculum and other subfields are frequently spared.  

pyramidale), subiculum, and presubiculum of the schizophrenic group.  

The presubiculum and retrosplenial cortex, whose merging formed the caudal pole of the hippocampal formation, also expressed precociously the three calcium-binding proteins.  

Other cortical regions receiving projections from medial and lateral portions of occipital area 2 included the presubiculum, retrosplenial areas, and caudal portions of the parietal cortical areas 1 and 2.  

Hippocampal 'place' cells and the head-direction cells of the dorsal presubiculum and related neocortical and thalamic areas appear to be part of a preconfigured network that generates an abstract internal representation of two-dimensional space whose metric is self-motion.  

The subdivisions examined included CA1-4, prosubiculum (PRO), subiculum and presubiculum (PRE), parasubiculum (PARA) and the entorhinal cortex (ENT).  

A band of fibers coursing within CA1 divided into dorsal and ventral bundles to reach the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively.  

In the subicular complex, the majority of neurons in the presubiculum were intensely immunopositive for Zif268 when stained with this antibody. Many Zif268-expressing neurons were observed in the presubiculum and layer II of the rostral part of the entorhinal cortex.  

mu receptor-like immunoreactivity is widely distributed in the rat central nervous system with immunoreactive fibers and/or perikarya in such regions as the neocortex, the striatal patches and subcallosal streak, nucleus accumbens, lateral and medial septum, endopiriform nucleus, globus pallidus and ventral pallidum, amygdala, hippocampus, presubiculum, thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, superior and inferior colliculi, central grey, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, interpeduncular nucleus, medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract, raphe nuclei, nucleus of the solitary tract, spinal trigeminal nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia.  

The density of choline acetyltransferase staining was high in the presubiculum and parasubiculum.  

The immunohistochemical localizations of two specific calcium binding proteins, calbindin D-28K (calbindin) and parvalbumin (PV) were examined in the subicular complex, that is, the subiculum, presubiculum, and parasubiculum, of the adult mouse and were compared in detail with staining pattern of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry. In the presubiculum calbindin-IR neurons were clustered in layer 2, most of which were supposed to be presubicular pyramidal cells.  

The sources of ipsilateral projections from the hippocampal formation, the presubiculum, area 29a-c, and parasubiculum to medial, orbital, and lateral prefrontal cortices were studied with retrograde tracers in 27 rhesus monkeys. Lateral prefrontal cortices received the most robust projections from the presubiculum and the supracallosal area 29a-c. Orbital, and to a lesser extent medial, prefrontal areas received projections from a smaller but significant number of neurons from the presubiculum and area 29a-c. Lateral prefrontal cortices receive robust projections from the presubiculum and area 29a-c and sparse projections from the hippocampal formation.  

Dense bands of receptor binding in the presubiculum and parahippocampal gyrus--areas of highest binding in human cortex--were diminished in Alzheimer's disease but not Lewy body dementia.  

Compared with non-associative recall, associative recall specifically increased the blood flow in a field located in the entorhinal cortex, extending into the presubiculum.  

Message for constitutive nitric oxide synthase is also present in a number of other regions, including the amygdala, several hypothalamic nuclei, the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb, two distinct regions of the perirhinal cortex, the subthalamic nuclei, a neuronal layer in the retrosplenial granular cortex, the lateral geniculate nucleus, the presubiculum, the inferior colliculus, the superior colliculus, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, and scattered individual neurons in the cortex, hippocampus and brainstem.  

In addition, areas 24a and 24b projected to the molecular layer of the CAI subfield of Ammon's horn and the external pyramidal layer of the presubiculum.  

These findings indicate a concerted discharge of the hippocampal and retrohippocampal cortices during SPW that includes neurons within CA3, CA1, and subiculum as well as neurons in layers V-VI of the presubiculum, parasubiculum, and entorhinal cortex.  

Projections from the retrosplenial granular area (RSG) to the retrohippocampal region terminate predominantly ipsilaterally in layers I, III, V and VI of the presubiculum, layers I and IV-VI of the parasubiculum, the molecular and pyramidal cell layers of the subiculum, and layers I, III, V and VI of the entorhinal area. On the other hand, projections from the retrosplenial agranular area (RSA) terminate predominantly ipsilaterally in layers I and III of the presubiculum and layers V and VI of the entorhinal and perirhinal areas, and ipsilaterally in layers IV-VI of the parasubiculum.  

Cholecystokinin binding was present in all portions of the bovine hippocampus; high levels were found in the dentate gyrus, CA1 subfield of Ammon's horn, subiculum and presubiculum.  

CONCLUSIONS: The increased staining of myelin during the first and second decades principally occurred in the subicular region and adjacent portions of the presubiculum. During the fourth through sixth decades, however, it extended to progressively more lateral locations along the surface of the presubiculum. The precise origin(s) of the axons showing progressive myelination is unknown; however, the axons in the subiculum may include some perforant path fibers, while those found in the presubiculum may include cingulum bundle projections.  

The heavy PHA-L labeled fibers terminated in the stratum lacunosum and molecular of field CA1 of Ammon's horn of the hippocampus, and moderately in the subiculum, the presubiculum and the parasubiculum, mainly in the molecular layer.  

A high correspondence between the mu-receptor mRNA and receptor binding distributions was observed in the nucleus of the accessory olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nuclei, striatal patches of the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen, endopiriform nucleus, claustrum, diagonal band of Broca, globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, most thalamic nuclei, medial and posteriocortical medial amygdala, lateral, dorsomedial, posterior and mammillary nuclei of the hypothalamus, presubiculum, subiculum, rostral interpeduncular nucleus, median raphe, inferior colliculus, parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, central grey, nucleus ambiguus, nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus gracilis, nucleus cuneatus, and the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus.  

In contrast, pyramidal neurons in the CA3, subiculum and presubiculum were not labeled. These cells were rare in the hippocampus and subiculum, but were more frequently observed in the presubiculum, parasubiculum, and in the entorhinal cortex. Strongly stained CB-immunoreactive bundles of myelinated axons were found in the molecular layer of the subiculum and in various layers of the presubiculum.  

Dense binding was also observed in the adjacent presubiculum and cortical amygdaloid transition area, whereas minimal binding was detected in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus.  

The relations between the inputs from the presubiculum and the parasubiculum and the cells in the entorhinal cortex that give rise to the perforant pathway have been studied in the rat at the light microscopical level. Projections from the presubiculum and the parasubiculum were labeled anterogradely, and, in the same animal, cells in the entorhinal cortex that project to the hippocampal formation were labeled by retrograde tracing and subsequent intracellular filling with Lucifer Yellow. The morphology of these projection neurons is highly variable and afferents from the presubiculum and the parasubiculum do not show a preference for any specific morphological cell type. Cells in layers I and IV of the entorhinal cortex receive weak inputs from the presubiculum and parasubiculum. Not only is the presubiculum different from the parasubiculum with respect to the distribution of projections to the entorhinal cortex, they also differ in their afferent and efferent connections. Therefore, we propose that the interactions of the entorhinal-hippocampal network with the presubiculum are different from those with the parasubiculum..  

Retrosplenial cortex, which is medially adjacent to PPC, has cortical connections that are prominent with visual cortex, do not involve somatic sensory or auditory cortex, and include the presubiculum.  

The results confirm past findings in rabbits indicating projections to anterior thalamus from the mammillary nuclei, the posterior cingulate cortex, presubiculum and postsubiculum.  

The most rostral part of the AV projects to layers I and III of the ventral presubiculum, the pyramidal cell layer of the temporal subiculum, and deep layers of the parasubiculum and medial entorhinal area. At the midrostrocaudal level of the AV, the lateral and the dorsal quadrants of the AV project, respectively, to layers I and III and to layers I and IV-VI of the ventral presubiculum, whereas the ventral and the medial quadrants project, respectively, to layers I and III and to layers I and IV-VI of the dorsal presubiculum. At the caudal third level of the AV, the dorsolateral part projects to layers I and III of the presubiculum with a patchy pattern and to the pyramidal cell layer of the septal subiculum. The anterodorsal nucleus projects mainly to deep layers of the presubiculum, parasubiculum, and entorhinal area.  

In this study, CaBP and PV were localized in neurons of the human hippocampal formation including the subicular complex (prosubiculum, subiculum, and presubiculum) in order to explore to what extent these subpopulations of hippocampal neurons differ in phylogenetically distant species. In the prosubiculum and subiculum immunoreactive nonpyramidal neurons were equally distributed in all layers, whereas in the presubiculum they occurred mainly in the superficial layers.  

In the subicular complex, chandelier cells were frequently stained in the parasubiculum, whereas only a few cells were found in the presubiculum.  

Distinct bands of calretinin-positive fibers occupied the supragranular zone of the molecular layer in dentate gyrus, the pyramidal cell layer of the CA2 area in Ammon's horn and the upper two layers of presubiculum. In the presubiculum, the calretinin-positive axon bundle included a large number of immunoreactive myelinated axons, as well as axon terminals.  

Zinc-containing neurons were observed in layers IV-VI of the medial entorhinal area, layers II and III of the parasubiculum, layers II, III and V of presubiculum, and in the superficial CA1 and deep CA3 pyramidal cell layers. Cells double-labeled with Fluoro-Gold and zinc selenide complexes were primarily located in distal (relative to the area dentata) parts of the superficial CA1 pyramidal cell layer and distal parts of the deep CA3 pyramidal cell layer and in layers II and III of presubiculum.  

Layer II of the presubiculum had one of the highest densities of fiber and terminal labeling in the hippocampal formation. A large number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were scattered throughout layer II of the presubiculum; small, spherical, multipolar cells were commonly observed in layer I. The parasubiculum had a somewhat lower density of positive cells and fibers than the presubiculum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).  

Positive neurons were also conspicuous in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and in the pyramidal layer of CA3, sparse in the pyramidal layer of CA2 and CA1, and almost absent from presubiculum and parasubiculum.  

The only marked difference in the distribution was localized in the caudal part of the body where no specific labeling was found in the presubiculum of the infant..  

The regional and laminar organization of the projections from the presubiculum and the parasubiculum to the entorhinal cortex was analyzed in the rat with the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L). The projections from the presubiculum were bilateral and confined to layers III and I of the medial entorhinal area (MEA). Projections to layer III of the entorhinal cortex arose predominantly from superficial layers of the presubiculum, whereas the fibers that reach layer I of the entorhinal cortex appear to originate preferentially from the deep layers of the presubiculum. The position of the terminal plexus in the entorhinal cortex was determined by the point of origin along both the dorsoventral and transverse or proximodistal axes of the presubiculum and parasubiculum. Projections from the presubiculum and parasubiculum entered the entorhinal cortex at the level of the injection, or slightly ventral to it, and the main terminal field was always present ventrally to the injection site. The distribution in relation to the origin along the transverse axis was more complex, and differences between the presubiculum and parasubiculum were present. The proximal presubiculum, i.e., the part closest to the subiculum, projected to the most lateral part of MEA and the central part of the presubiculum sent fibers to the most medial part of MEA. The distal part of the presubiculum, i.e., the part that borders the parasubiculum, projected to the central part of MEA. Projections from the portion of the parasubiculum directly adjacent to the presubiculum, the so-called proximal parasubiculum, reached medial parts of MEA, and those originating in the central part distributed preferentially to lateral parts of MEA and adjacent medial parts of LEA.  

In the hippocampal formation of control subjects, the density of high affinity [ 3H]-glibenclamide binding sites ranged from 17.6 +/- 0.9 pmoles/g in the presubiculum to 11.6 +/- 0.6 pmoles/g in the parvo-pyramidal layer of the presubiculum.  

An EPSP could also be evoked from stimulation of the superficial or deep layers of the presubiculum and was attributed to activation of entorhinal fibers of passage.  

beta 4 mRNA was detected at high levels in the presubiculum, parasubiculum, subiculum and dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation, in layer IV of the isocortex, in the medial habenula, in the interpeduncular nucleus, and in the trigeminal motor nerve nucleus.  

Specific hybridization occurred in neurons of the hilus of the dentate gyrus, fields CA1-3 in Ammon's horn, subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum and occasionally in neurons of the entorhinal cortex.  

The rostral part and the dorsalmost part of LD project densely to retrosplenial granular a (Rga) cortex, presubiculum and parasubiculum. In the postsubiculum the LD terminals are distributed to layers I and III/IV and extend into superficial layer V; in the presubiculum and the parasubiculum the LD terminals are only in the deep layers (i.e., layers IV-VI).  

Receptor binding was greatest in the subicular complex--particularly presubiculum--and entorhinal cortex, where it was prominent in the characteristic parvo- and magnocellular islands of these regions and in middle layers of entorhinal cortex.  

In the forebrain, the c-kit mRNA signals were detected in the olfactory bulb, the caudate-putamen, throughout the superficial cortex, the accumbens nucleus, the nucleus of vertical limb diagonal band, the bed nucleus of anterior commissure, Ammon's horn, the entopeduncular nucleus, the subthalamic nucleus, the dorsal raphe nucleus, the parasubiculum, the presubiculum, the ventricular nucleus of lateral lemniscus, and the entorhinal cortex.  

Injections into the lateral mammillary nucleus revealed inputs from the presubiculum, parasubiculum, septal region, dorsal tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, and periaqueductal gray.  

Dense labelling appeared in the presubiculum of hippocampus.  

Pyramidal neuron density was determined in the stratum pyramidale of the presubiculum, subiculum, prosubiculum and CA1-4. There was no significant effect of AD on pyramidal neuron density in the presubiculum, CA2 and CA3, but in CA4 it increased (23%) significantly. Pyramidal band width decreased significantly with age in the presubiculum but there was no effect of age on any other region of the hippocampal formation investigated. The width of the stratum pyramidale was significantly lower in the presubiculum (19%), subiculum (30%) and CA3 (17%) of AD compared with control brains.  

Using neuronal count and Kariometry, age-dependent modifications were studied in layers II, III and V of the lateral area of the EC; in the pyramidal layer of the subiculum (S), and in layer II of the presubiculum (PS).  

Labeled cells in the presubiculum were concentrated in layers III and V, in the hippocampal pyramidal cell layer and the dentate granule cell layer, but neurons containing precipitates were largely absent from the subiculum. Projections from regio superior to the dorsal presubiculum are likely to be zinc-negative while projections from the same area to the subiculum are zinc-containing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).  

The retrosplenial granular b cortex (Rgb) projects only to the postsubiculum, but the retrosplenial granular a cortex (Rga) projects to the postsubiculu, rostral presubiculum, parasubiculum, and caudal medial entorhinal cortex.  

Zinc-containing neurons in the presubiculum and prosubiculum were also retrogradely labeled from the BNST, whereas cells of the subiculum proper did not label.  

CA1 cells located proximally in the field, i.e., close to the CA2 field, gave rise to projections that terminated in the distal third of the subiculum, i.e., close to the presubiculum.  

As shown by receptor autoradiography, the distribution of kappa 1 binding sites was limited to the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the presubiculum region of temporal hippocampal slices.  

Within the hippocampal complex, binding was evident in the subiculum, CA3 and dentate gyrus and almost nonexistent in the presubiculum or other fields of the hippocampus.  

The parasubiculum contained D1 receptors but not D2 receptors and the presubiculum had D2 receptors in layer 2 but few D1 receptors.  

More caudal levels of the entorhinal cortex projected to progressively more distal portions of the subiculum (towards the presubiculum) and more proximal portions of CA1 (towards CA2).  

In the rat, layers 1 and 3 of the entorhinal cortex and layer 2 of the presubiculum were found to be rich in specific binding sites. In the monkey, the highest densities were detected in the deep layers (4 through 6) of the entorhinal cortex (EC) and in layer 2 of the presubiculum. In the human brain, less specific binding was seen as compared to the other two species; the highest densities occurred in the outer layers of the presubiculum and in the hilus of area dentata.  

Additional limbic inputs to both areas TEO and TE arose from the posterior portion of the presubiculum.  

Alz-50 immunostained neurites occupied primarily the lateral two-thirds of the subiculum proper, whereas only sparse staining was seen in the adjacent presubiculum.  

The distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was examined in the multilayered posterior part of the hippocampal region of the adult mouse (Mus musculus domesticus), namely, the entorhinal area, the parasubiculum, the presubiculum, and those parts of the retrosplenial cortex that extend into the posterior hippocampal region (area retrosplenialis 29d and 29e). The presubiculum was very rich in AChE, with layers, I, III and IV being particularly intensely stained.  

In eight cases of FAD (four from one pedigree and two each from two others) we quantified neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and senile plaques (SP) in hippocampal subdivision CA1-4, subiculum, presubiculum, and dentate gyrus. We observed consistent patterns of the distribution of lesions: The highest density of NFT and SP was present in CA1-2; virtually no SP or NFT were present in presubiculum; SP diameter was consistently greatest in CA4.  

hippocampus, molecular layer (ipsilateral to lesion), entorhinal cortex (ipsilateral), dentate gyrus (ipsilateral), presubiculum (bilateral), parasubiculum (bilateral) and nucleus accumbens (bilateral).  

NT terminal plexuses were particularly abundant in layers I-VI of the anterior cingulate cortex, in layer I of area 32 and of medical areas 9, 8, 6 and in layers II-III of area 29, of the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex.  

These projections differ from the thalamic projections to presubiculum and parasubiculum. These thalamic projections end in areas that are distinct from those to which the presubiculum and parasubiculum project. IV-VI), whereas presubiculum projects to layers I and III, and parasubiculum projects to layer II. In contrast presubiculum projects to the retrosplenial granular a cortex but not to the retrosplenial granular b cortex. These differences clearly mark the postsubiculum, the presubiculum, and the parasubiculum as distinct regions within the subicular cortex and suggest that they subserve different roles in the processing and integration of limbic system information..  

The cellular localization of transcripts for a new putative agonist-binding subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), alpha 5, was examined using in situ hybridization in the rat central nervous system (CNS), alpha 5 subunit mRNA was localized to a small number of regions when compared with two of the other known agonist-binding subunits, alpha 3 and alpha 4, alpha 5 mRNA is expressed at relatively high levels in neurons of the subiculum (pyramidal layer), presubiculum and parasubiculum (layers IV and VI), which are components of the hippocampal formation, in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area, in the interpeduncular nucleus, and in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve.  

The fibers carried by the cingulate bundle exclusively innervate field CA1 of the hippocampus, the dorsal part of the subiculum, and the presubiculum and parasubiculum.  

The present study describes the differences and similarities between the connections of the presubiculum and parasubiculum based on retrograde and anterograde tracing experiments. Both subicular areas also are innervated by axons originating in the ipsilateral and contralateral entorhinal cortex, presubiculum, and parasubiculum. In contrast to these similarities, most axons innervating the presubiculum originate in the lateral dorsal thalamic nucleus, the claustrum, and the contralateral presubiculum. Conversely, the parasubiculum is innervated primarily by axons that originate in area CA1 of the hippocampus, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, and the contralateral presubiculum and parasubiculum. The major efferent projection from the presubiculum and parasubiculum courses bilaterally to the medial entorhinal cortex; however, the results of the present study confirm previous suggestions that presubicular axons terminate almost exclusively in layers I and III, whereas parasubicular axons innervate layer II. The presubiculum also projects to the anteroventral and laterodorsal nuclei of the thalamus, and the lateral ventral portion of the medial mammillary nucleus, whereas the parasubiculum projects prominently to the anterodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, the contralateral presubiculum and parasubiculum, and the lateral dorsal segment of the medial mammillary nucleus. Thus despite some similarities, the major connections of presubiculum and parasubiculum are distinct from one another and distinct from the projections of the adjacent subiculum and postsubiculum.  

An occasional intensely stained multipolar NADPH-d containing neuron was observed in the subiculum, presubiculum and parasubiculum.  

In a monkey performing a visual delayed matching-to-sample task, units and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were sampled from the inferior bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS; Areas TEa and IPa), the hippocampus, and the presubiculum. VEP latencies indicated that flash information--signaling the imminent presentation of a color sample to be retained--reached the presubiculum and the hippocampus substantially earlier than the STS.  

that part which borders the presubiculum, give rise to labelling in the retrosplenial and postrhinal cortices, the presubiculum, the anterior thalamic complex, the shell of the nucleus gelatinosus, and the mammillary nuclei, preferentially in the caudal part of the medial nucleus.  

Thus, subicular cells near the border with the CA1 field project to targets different from those reached by projections from subicular cells situated close to the border with the presubiculum.  

Eight specific areas within these structures were stereotactically targeted for study, including amygdala, entorhinal cortex, presubiculum, the anterior, middle and posterior levels of hippocampus and the middle and posterior levels of parahippocampal gyrus. Stimulation of presubiculum and entorhinal cortex were most effective in evoking widespread responses in adjacent limbic recording sites, whereas posterior parahippocampal gyrus appeared functionally separated from other limbic sites since its probability of influencing ipsilateral sites was significantly lower than any other area.  

Aspects of the model are identified with the information provided by cells in the hippocampus and dorsal presubiculum.  

Silver staining by a modified Bielschowsky's technique and immunostaining for beta-amyloid protein BAP have revealed the occurrence of diffuse amyloid deposits bilaterally in the presubiculum in each of fourteen Alzheimer's disease cases examined. Observations on serial blocks show these deposits to be localized in the parvopyramidal layer of the presubiculum proper and the transsubiculum.  

The hippocampal output to the dorsal presubiculum was analysed in the guinea-pig by field potential analysis. The generation site of the presubicular response in deep cell laminae was not consistent with the terminal field of the hippocampus-presubiculum projections but was with that of the subiculum-presubiculum projections. These data suggest that the presubicular response might be evoked through hippocampus-subiculum-presubiculum connections. The results show that the hippocampal output evokes excitatory synaptic effects in the presubiculum and that these effects are segregated in deep cell laminae. The fact that these laminae give origin to an important projection to the anterior thalamic nuclei suggests that hippocampal impulses may be transferred to subcortical structures through the presubiculum..  

The SPs of familial cases, however, had a greater tendency to fuse together than those of sporadic cases, especially in the cingulate cortex, presubiculum and striatum.  

The projection was largely homotopic with the exception of the most medial MEA, which projected ventrally like previously described projections from the para- and presubiculum to the superficial layers of the entorhinal area.  

Area 7a is also heavily interconnected with limbic areas: the ventral posterior cingulate cortex, agranular retrosplenial cortex, caudomedial lobule, the parahippocampal gyrus, and the presubiculum. Area 7m (on the medial posterior parietal cortex) has its own topographically distinct connections with the limbic (the posterior ventral bank of the cingulate sulcus, granular retrosplenial cortex, and presubiculum), visual (V2, PO, and the visual motion cortex in the upper bank of the STS), and somatosensory (SSA, and area 5) cortical areas.  

A detailed description is given of the distribution of zinc in three areas of the domestic pig hippocampal region, viz., the entorhinal area, the parasubiculum, and the presubiculum. In the parasubiculum, the deep half of layer I together with layers II-III had the appearance of an intensely stained triangle wedged in between the entorhinal area and the presubiculum.  

Projections from the rostrodorsal and caudoventral subiculum terminated in a topographically organized laminar fashion in the medial mamillary nucleus bilaterally, whereas afferent projections from the presubiculum and parasubiculum terminated only in the lateral mamillary nucleus.  

Specific silver impregnation techniques for extracellular amyloid and intraneuronal neurofibrillary changes were used to examine the presubiculum in Alzheimer victims. Extended amyloid clouds in the absence of neurofibrillary changes were noted in the parvopyramidal layer of the presubiculum proper.  

There was no difference in nicotinic binding in the presubiculum, comparing DAT and control samples (P greater than 0.05).  

The presubiculum projects bilaterally to the dorsolateral region of the pars posterior of the MM and ipsilaterally to the LM.  

Putative neural nicotinic receptors, tagged with L-[ 3H]-nicotine, were most concentrated within the presubiculum..  

Computerized image analysis of GAD-IR puncta indicated that putative GABA terminals were numerous on apical and basilar dendrites of all pyramidal cells but unexpectedly highest in the monkey presubiculum.  

Plaque surface density was determined in the stratum pyramidale of the presubiculum, subiculum, prosubiculum and CA1-4.  

Terminal labeling originating from both frontal and parietal injection sites was found to be in apposition in 15 ipsilateral cortical areas: the supplementary motor cortex, the dorsal premotor cortex, the ventral premotor cortex, the anterior arcuate cortex (including the frontal eye fields), the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, the frontoparietal operculum, the insular cortex, the medial parietal cortex, the superior temporal cortex, the parahippocampal gyrus, the presubiculum, the caudomedial lobule, and the medial prestriate cortex.  

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