Posterior Commissure

In UAV, valve morphology was unicuspid unicommissural with a posterior commissure in all patients.  

In addition, the coordinates of the two landmarks, anterior commissure and posterior commissure, were determined using both imaging methods. The length of the anterior commissure-posterior commissure distance differed significantly (P < 0.0001) between MRI (27.6 +/- 1.6 mm) and ventriculography (25.0 +/- 1.3 mm).  

In the plane of the commissures, the optimal electrode location was determined statistically to be 6.3 mm anterior to the posterior commissure and 12.3 mm lateral to the midline, or 10.0 mm lateral to the third ventricle.  

The difference between study groups was most pronounced for posterior commissure hypertrophy (P<0.01).  

The central body is a prominent neuropilar structure in the midbrain of the grasshopper and is characterized by a fan-shaped array of fiber columns, which are part of a chiasmal system linking anterior and posterior commissures. In the midbrain, individual axons entering the commissural system from each of the w, x, y, z tracts after mid-embryogenesis (55%) are seen to systematically de-fasciculate from an anterior commissure and re-fasciculate with another more posterior commissure en route across the midline, a feature we call "fascicle switching".  

However, removal of P3 from Fra does prevent eagle-expressing commissural axons from crossing the midline in the posterior commissure suggesting that some neurons have a stronger requirement for P3-dependent signaling.  

CASE: A 42-year-old woman presented with a palpable mass, 2.5 cm in size, just inside the posterior commissure of the vagina, at the site of a previous episiotomy for a vaginal delivery.  

The lesion was located in 13 cases in cerebral hemisphere infiltrating basal ganglia, in 13 cases tumors were diffused within one of the hemisphere but without involvement of basal ganglia, in 7 cases tumors were localized in eloquent areas, in 1 case in posterior commissure, in 1 case it was a tumor of corpus callosum and third-ventricle and in 1 case a tumor was multifocal.  

During the first 2 weeks of postnatal development, numerous GATA3-expressing cells were found in the intergeniculate leaf, ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, pretectal nucleus, nucleus of the posterior commissure, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, periaqueductal grey, substantia nigra and raphe nuclei.  

Measurement of the CA on the coronal MR images of the posterior commissure perpendicular to the anteroposterior commissure plane was performed for all subjects.  

Here, we show that in Drosophila, Engrailed (EN) and Gooseberry-Neuro (GsbN) act together as cofactors to build the posterior commissures (PCs), which shapes the ventral nerve cord.  

The mean (SD) of the directly localized PPN midpoints was 6.4 mm (0.5) lateral, 3.5 mm (1.0) posterior and 11.4 mm (1.2) caudal to the posterior commissure in the anterior commissure-posterior commissure plane.  

Most laryngeal granular cell tumors are located in the posterior part of the vocal fold and in the posterior commissure.  

METHODS: Eleven sheep had radiopaque markers sutured as five opposing pairs along the anterior (A(1)-E(1)) and posterior (A(2)-E(2)) mitral leaflet free edges from the anterior commissure (A(1)-A(2)) to the posterior commissure (E(1)-E(2)).  

RESULTS: The posterior commissure and the infraglottis were significant in terms of the laryngectomy: glottal tumors AC: (p=0.03) AP: (p=0.0001); AC: (p=0.0007) AP: (p<0.0001), respectively. CONCLUSION: total laryngectomy is the treatment of choice in the presence of total involvement of the posterior commissure and the infraglottis.  

MRI images were reoriented to standard position parallel to the anterior-posterior commissure line, segmented into gray and white matter tissue types, and assigned to Brodmann areas (BAs) using a postmortem-histological atlas.  

The measured coordinates of the subthalamic nucleus agreed well with those calculated by conventional estimation from midpoint of the anterior and posterior commissure.  

As an additional procedure for persistent regurgitation, an edge-to-edge technique to the posterior commissure side was performed, after which the mitral regurgitation disappeared..  

The main locations of obstruction were the right arytenoid cartilage and the posterior commissure.  

METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging volumes were fused and 3D vectors of deviation were calculated for the anterior commissure (AC), posterior commissure (PC), and frontal cortex.  

We report the imaging features of 4 cases of patients with papillary tumor of the pineal region, a tumor newly recognized in the 2007 World Health Organization "Classification of Tumors of the Nervous System." In each case, the tumor was intrinsically hyperintense on T1-weighted images with a characteristic location in the posterior commissure or pineal region.  

The posterior commissure, a faint trace of the median sulcus, and the rubral eminences were the structures invariably noticed.  

Using both cephalic and noncephalic references, subthalamic P16 was only recorded in the ventral part of the ZI (mean 6.6 +/- 1.3 mm posterior to the midcommissure point, 4.8 +/- 1.2 mm inferior to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line, and 9.7 +/- 0.6 mm lateral to the midline).  

In 98% of tracts, the bending point of the PT was identified < or = 3 mm from the level of the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) plane.  

However, it is unclear what additional benefit these techniques provide over traditional anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC)-based standard atlas coordinate calculation methods based on the AC-PC plane.  

Then, the regions of interest (ROIs) were located in prefrontal white matter at 4 mm inferior, and 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 mm superior to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) plane, respectively.  

Details of the procedure: opening of the pararectal space by digital dissection first after incision on the level of the posterior commissure.  

Regional annular remodeling is heterogeneous and is not limited the posterior commissure or the posterior annulus..  

RESULTS: The mean x, y, and z coordinates associated with contralateral eye deviation were found to be 11.57, 2.03, and 3.83 mm lateral, posterior, and inferior to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure midpoint, respectively.  

The glottis was the less commonly involved part of the larynx, including true vocal folds (28 per cent, n = 4) and posterior commissure (14 per cent, n = 2).  

Case 1 had open posterior commissure (MTD Type I) and Cases 2 and 3 supraglottis compression (MTD Type II, III).  

In addition to expression in the distal limb, genital bud, and spinal cord, we show that this BAC transgene also reproducibly drives unique bilateral, dorsal posterior commissure expression. The ability of this BAC to direct posterior commissure expression makes it worthy of further study as a valuable tool in transgenic/targeting experiments..  

RESULTS: In the two groups of patients, we found no difference in the prevalence of abnormal interarytenoid bar findings (32%vs 32%), arytenoid medial wall erythema (47%vs 43%), posterior commissure changes (36%vs 34%), or posterior cricoid wall edema (1%vs 3%).  

The eyelid retraction of Collier's sign has been reported to occur with lesions in the rostral midbrain and posterior commissure.  

The PLAP marker is expressed in a number of axonal tracts, including the posterior commissure, mammillotegmental tract and cerebellar peduncle.  

Target coordinates were calculated in the anterior commissure-posterior commissure referential.  

These analyses showed evidence of lower combined scores for stimulating contacts at an x coordinate approximately 12.0 to 12.3 mm lateral to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line and at a z coordinate approximately 3.1 to 3.3 mm under the AC-PC line.  

Slices with a 2-mm thickness and 0.2-mm gap were obtained parallel to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line.  

The most frequent laryngoscopic finding in patients suffering from LPR is a posterior commissure hypertrophy.  

MA abusers had significantly lower FA values in bilateral frontal WM at the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) plane and the right frontal WM 5 mm above the AC-PC plane relative to healthy comparison subjects.  

The medical history of the patient included respiratory failure secondary to childhood polio at the age of ten; the airway management included a surgical tracheostomy.Flexible naso-laryngoscopy revealed a soft mass arising from the posterior pharyngeal wall obscuring the view of the posterior commissure and vocal folds.  

Qualitative evaluation determined RT3DE superiority in depicting aortic cusp morphologic lesions; left ventricular outflow tract spatial relationships with mitral apparatus and aortic root; and both anterior and posterior mitral leaflet scallops, particularly posterior commissure.  

Thus, the highest density of cell bodies containing d-glutamate was observed in the dorsal raphe nucleus, the ventral part of the mesencephalic central gray, the superior colliculus, above the posterior commissure, and in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus.  

MRI revealed a unilateral midbrain infarct involving the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF) and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) and spared the posterior commissure (PC).  

The main areas shown to project to the optic tectum were the following: the caudoventral part of the medial pallium, the area of the ventral thalamus and dorsal thalamus, the nucleus of the posterior commissure, the torus semicircularis, the mesencephalic M5 nucleus of Schober, the mesencephalic reticular area, the ishtmic area, and the octavolateral nuclei.  

Following tectal injections, backfilled diencephalic cells were found bilaterally in: prethalamic eminence, ventral geniculate nucleus, periventricular prethalamic nucleus, periventricular pretectal nucleus, precommissural nucleus, magnocellular and parvocellular nuclei of the posterior commissure and pretectal nucleus; and ipsilaterally in: nucleus of Bellonci, periventricular thalamic nucleus, nucleus of the tuberculum posterior, and the subpretectal tegmentum, as well as in the pineal organ.  

The AC-PC line (anterior commissure-posterior commissure line) with vertical lines through the AC and PC were chosen as reference lines.  

Rigidity (p = 0.0004, R2 = 0.15), akinesia (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.07) and total score (p = 0.009, R2 = 0.089) well fit to second-order polynomial regression and showed the greatest improvement after stimulation at 0-1 mm below the horizontal anterior-posterior commissure (AC-PC) plane.  

At first we refer to the posterior commissure and coordinate of the standard atlas for approximately determining the lateral part of the ventral intermediate nucleus.  

Landmark identification is fully automatic and done in 3 steps: calculation of midsagittal plane, computing of anterior commissure (AC) and posterior commissure (PC) landmarks, and calculation of cortical landmarks.  

The most frequently affected area by this disease was true vocal cord, followed by false vocal cord, epiglottis, arytenoids and posterior commissure.  

The subcommissural organ (SCO) is an ependymal differentiation located in the dorsal midline of the caudal diencephalon under the posterior commissure.  

Symptoms felt to be most related to reflux (>or= 95%) are throat clearing, persistent cough, heartburn/dyspepsia, globus sensation (lump in the throat) and voice-quality change, while the physical examination findings include (>or= 95%) arytenoid erythema, vocal-cord erythema and edema, posterior commissure hypertrophy, and arytenoid edema.  

Frame-based volumetric magnetic resonance images were acquired and then transferred to a stereotactic workstation to determine the anterior and posterior commissure coordinates and plane.  

BACKGROUND: An understanding of the relationships between the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line (AC-PC), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and red nucleus (RN) is imperative if these structures are to be used for targeting in deep brain stimulation. The anterior and posterior commissures and the border coordinates of the STN and RN were derived using frame coordinates.  

GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) cells were localized in the posterior commissure and lateral hypothalamic area.  

In addition, the coordinates of the two landmarks, anterior commissure and posterior commissure, were determined using both imaging methods. The length of the anterior commissure-posterior commissure distance differed significantly (P < 0.0001) between MRI (27.6 +/- 1.6 mm) and ventriculography (25.0 +/- 1.3 mm).  

In general, the vertical gaze center is thought to be present in the midbrain, including the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, posterior commissure and interstitial nucleus of Cajal.  

The rostralmost brainstem group was located near the posterior commissure, the second group at the isthmus, and the third group in the bulbar area.  

These evoked increases in BAT SNA were reversed by microinjection of bicuculline (60 pmol in 60 nl) into the rvmPAG at the level of the posterior commissure.  

The other diffusion metrics exhibited no significant differences between APPsw and control mice in the CC and VHC, nor did any of the diffusion metrics exhibit significant differences between APPsw and control mice in other midline white matter tracts (anterior commissure, posterior commissure, fornix, and dorsal fornix).  

During egocentric judgments, the irrelevant background influenced activity in the posterior commissure and the medial temporal gyrus.  

The coordinate system origin is at the posterior commissure.  

CONCLUSION: The severity of aortic valve calcifications on chest CT, as assessed either subjectively or objectively, correlated with increased pressure gradients across the aortic valve, particularly for calcification of the peripheral left-posterior commissure and the central right-left commissure.  

edema of the vocal cords, posterior commissure hypertrophy, arythenoids edema, subglottic edema) in 19 cases (90.5% of patients).  

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Accurate identification of the anterior commissure (AC) and posterior commissure (PC) is critical in neuroradiology, functional neurosurgery, human brain mapping, and neuroscience research.  

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study explores morphological relationships and structural variability of the corpus callosum (CC), fornix (Fo), anterior (AC), and posterior commissures (PC).  

The region of interest was located just lateral to the posterior commissure and extended caudally to the level of the superior colliculus.  

Results showed a high incidence of posterior commissure bar (53.2% and 51.9%), arytenoid complex edema/erythema (76.3% and 53.2%), and pseudosulcus (37.2% and 7.7%).  

In the second case (55 years old patient) the tumour involved half right vocal fold from the posterior commissure.  

In other regions, immunoreactive cells are moderately stained (i.e., magnocellular nucleus of the posterior commissure, amygdaloid nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, lateral periaqueductal gray) or weakly stained (i.e., vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, hippocampus, inferior colliculus, reticular nucleus).  

The rostral mesencephalic limit (m/d) is underlined in the alar zone by a thick band of fasciculated radial glia intercalated between the griseum tectale and the posterior commissure.  

The probably vascular lesion was located at the mesodiencephalic junction, lying between the right border of the posterior commissure, the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal and the periaqueductal grey matter, accounting for the three ocular motor signs.  

The targets were determined as points 6-8 mm anterior to the posterior commissure, 4-6 mm dorsal to the level of the intercommissural line, and 15-17 mm lateral from the midline.  

The epsilon4 carriers (n=14) showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity in the parahippocampal white matter 15 mm below the anterior commissure-posterior commissure plane than noncarriers (n=15).  

RESULTS: Compared with A-pacing (*p <0.05): 1) The regurgitant fraction increased with both AV- and V-pacing (A: 6 +/- 3%, AV: 13 +/- 3%*, V: 15 +/- 2%*); 2) AV and V-pacing delayed closure at the leaflet center (A: 21 +/- 10 ms, AV: 52 + 5 ms*, V: 92 +/- 6 ms*) and posterior commissure (A: 17 +/- 10 ms, AV: 46 +/- 8 ms*, V: 94 +/- 6 ms*).  

Another suture (papillary muscle repositioning) from the posterior papillary muscle was passed through the mitral annulus near the posterior commissure and externalized.  

At surgery, findings of aortic valve, one normal left posterior commissure and very rudimentary right anterior commissure, was compatible with the uni-commisural aortic valve.  

The electrodes were placed at the following anterior commissure-posterior commissure line-related coordinates: 20 mm lateral to the midline, 6 mm below the intercommissural plane, and 3 mm anterior to the midcommissural point.  

Neuropathological findings included glial fibrillary lesions in the area of the posterior commissure and neuronal loss in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the MLF with preservation of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal and ocular motor complex.  

In this anatomopathological study, a method was applied to localize the STN in reference to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line (AC-PC line) in 12 postmortem brains of patients who died of non-neurological diseases.  

Retinofugal terminals were located in 8 brain nuclei, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, nucleus pretectalis superficialis, nucleus dorsolateralis thalami, area pretectalis pars dorsalis (APd), area pretectalis pars ventralis (APv), nucleus of the posterior commissure (NPC), accessory optic nucleus, and the tectum opticum.  

On the 42nd day of hospitalization, the mitral valve was reconstructed by quadrangular resection of the posterior commissure and annuloplasy with a prosthetic ring.  

Forming part of the scaffold, neurons located at the ventral midbrain-forebrain border (MFB) give rise to the medial longitudinal fascicle (mlf) and the posterior commissure (pc).  

RESULTS: The mean location of the clinically effective contacts was in the posterior subthalamic white matter, including the ZI and the PRL (mean, 5.6 +/- 1.2 mm posterior to the midcommissural point, 3.2 +/- 1.1 mm inferior to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line, and 10.5 +/- 1.2 mm lateral to the midline).  

The neurites of the posterior commissure follow the aberrant position of the SCO in oep mutants.  

Fibers also crossed over from one side to another through commissures, including the posterior commissure.  

In this study, eight experienced observers tested the stability of four sagittal reference lines by manually tracing the posterior commissure-obex (PC-OB) line, the line tangential to the anterior surface of the pons at its most convex point and the lines orthogonal to the main axis of both hippocampi, in ten exams of healthy subjects.  

A direct association was observed for hyperplasia and hyperemia of the posterior commissure region in relation to globus (p = 0.01) and regurgitation (p = 0.04). Hyperemia of the posterior commissure region had a direct association with sialorrhea (p = 0.03) and an inverse association with xerostomia (p = 0.03).  

The main sources of input to nucleus reuniens were from the orbitomedial, insular, ectorhinal, perirhinal, and retrosplenial cortices; CA1/subiculum of hippocampus; claustrum, tania tecta, lateral septum, substantia innominata, and medial and lateral preoptic nuclei of the basal forebrain; medial nucleus of amygdala; paraventricular and lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus; zona incerta; anterior, ventromedial, lateral, posterior, supramammillary, and dorsal premammillary nuclei of the hypothalamus; and ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray, medial and posterior pretectal nuclei, superior colliculus, precommissural/commissural nuclei, nucleus of the posterior commissure, parabrachial nucleus, laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, nucleus incertus, and dorsal and median raphe nuclei of the brainstem.  

OBJECTIVE: To determine the change in pachydermia/posterior commissure hypertrophy in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPR) on long-term acid-suppressive therapy. Pre- and posttreatment still laryngeal images from these patients were analyzed by five otolaryngologists blinded to patient information and were scored for pachydermia/posterior commissure hypertrophy according to the Reflux Finding Score (RFS) subset. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the grading scores between the pre- and posttreatment group for degree of pachydermia/posterior commissure hypertrophy despite a prolonged treatment interval (mean = 32 months) (P = .25). CONCLUSIONS: There is no statistically significant difference in the degree of pachydermia/posterior commissure hypertrophy found at diagnosis and after long-term acid suppressive therapy in patients with LPR.  

Involvement of the PLIC was assessed at the level of the basal ganglia, approximately 8 mm above the anterior commissure-posterior commissure level.  

They describe a technique of endoscopic obliteration of the posterior commissure defect. Initially, a test implant of starch and adrenaline was used, followed by permanent staged injections of Bioplastique to the posterior commissure.  

To find the landmarks of anterior commissure (AC) and posterior commissure (PC) in the midsagittal plane, we adopt two-step shape matching that properly finds locations of the corpus callosum (CC), and then AC and PC, respectively.  

We are reporting a case of a 61 year-woman with this diagnosis who presented a laryngeal stenosis due to sinequia on posterior commissure.  

METHODS: After identifying the accurate anterior border of the nucleus ventrocaudalis (Vc), deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes with four contacts were inserted into the Vim-Vop region at an angle of between 40 and 50 degrees from the horizontal plane of the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line.  

Fibrostic laryngoscopy showed a mass 1.5 x 2.0 cm(2) in size on the left aryepiglottic fold and posterior commissure.  

The most important features of homozygous mutants that we observed were the absence or malformation of the posterior commissure (PC) and of the subcommissural organ (SCO), the collapse of the cerebral aqueduct, and the development of hydrocephalus.  

The Msx1 mutants display severe hydrocephalus at birth, while the subcommissural organ, the habenula, and the posterior commissure fail to develop correctly. Our results implicate the Msx1 gene in the differentiation of the subcommissural organ cells and posterior commissure and that Msx1 protein may play a role in the pathfinding and bundling of the fasciculus retroflexus and in the structural arrangement of the paraventricular thalamic nucleus..  

METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was used to examine the WM integrity of frontal regions at seven levels from 25 mm above to 5 mm below the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) plane.  

sax2/nkx1.1 was expressed in the prospective extraocular muscles, mesencephalic neurons residing along the tract of the posterior commissure, ventral neurons in the hindbrain, and interneurons in the spinal cord..  

Zebrafish nrp1a is expressed in the neural tube including telencephalon, epithalamus, cells along the axonal trajectory of the posterior commissure and the medial longitudinal fascicle, hindbrain neurons, vagus motor neurons and spinal motoneurons. Zebrafish nrp2a is expressed in telencephalon, anterior pituitary, oculomotor and trochlear motor neurons, cells along the supra-optic and posterior commissures, hindbrain rhombomere 1, hindbrain neurons, cranial NCCs and sclerotome. Zebrafish nrp2b is expressed in telencephalon, thalamus, hypothalamus, epiphysis, cells along the anterior and posterior commissures, post-optic and supra-optic commissures and the olfactory axonal trajectory, hindbrain neurons, cranial NCCs, somites and spinal cord neurons..  

CONCLUSION: Established reconstructive procedures can be used to restore the labial folds, vestibulum, posterior commissure, and perineum.  

In the plane of the commissures, the optimal electrode location was determined statistically to be 6.3 mm anterior to the posterior commissure and 12.3 mm lateral to the midline, or 10.0 mm lateral to the third ventricle.  

We compared the maximal projection counts with ROI data from tomographic images in the anterior commissure-posterior commissure plane.  

Each activated cell was located relative to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line.  

Vertical eye movements are organized in the midbrain, with ipsilateral oculomotor (III) paralysis and contralateral paralysis of the superior rectus muscle when the third nerve nucleus is unilaterally damaged, supranuclear upward gaze paralysis when the posterior commissure is unilaterally damaged and supranuclear downward gaze paralysis (often coupled with upward gaze paralysis) when the mesencephalic reticular formations are bilaterally damaged.  

T1-weighted images were acquired in the coronal plane (perpendicular to anterior commissure-posterior commissure line) using a 3D-FLASH (fast low angle shot) sequence.  

The mean length of the anterior commissure-posterior commissure was 25.8 mm.  

Nuclei of the posterior commissure control the inhibitory modulation of LPS motor-neuronal activity and they are involved in the lid-eye coordination disorders such as lid retraction, which is observed in the Parinaud's syndrome and also in parkinsonism and progressive supranuclear palsy.  

OBJECTIVE: We surveyed retrospectively the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p53 in cases of T1-T2 glottis cancer involving the anterior (AC) or posterior commissure (PC) subsites to check for differences possibly explaining the different prognoses of cancer at these subsites.  

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed midline sagittal T2-weighted brain MR images of 126 consecutive patients to determine the mean angle subtended by the Talairach anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line and the hard palate.  

The 1.5-T MR images of 300 insulae were analyzed to determine the gyral and sulcal patterns displayed; their relationship to the Heschl gyrus, to the overlying opercula, and to the vertical planes perpendicular to the Talairach-Tournoux baseline at the anterior commissure (VAC) and posterior commissure (VPC); their continuity into the orbitofrontal cortex; and appropriate landmarks for the anterior border, apex, and posterior border of the insula.  

After identification of the anterior commissure (AC), posterior commissure (PC) and midcommissural point on a three-dimensional T1-weighted sequence, inversion recovery (IR) T2-weighted coronal slices were performed orthogonal to the AC-PC line.  

Phase reversal occurred at the horizontal level of the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line.  

In the early days of embryonic development, neurons are present in the posterior commissure and in the mesenchymal tissue outside the leptomeninges in addition to those in the tectal commissure (TC) and in the optic tectum.  

Preoptic structures (suprachiasmatic and preoptic nuclei) projected mainly to the anteromedial tectal zone, whereas thalamic (ventral and dorsal) and pretectal (central, superficial, and posterior commissure) nuclei projected to all divisions of the tectum.  

The MR images were reoriented to standard position parallel to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line and segmented into CSF, gray matter, and white matter tissue types.  

The tip of the anterior papillary muscle moved away from both the anterior and posterior commissures by 5.2 +/- 3.2 mm (p = 0.021) and 7.3 +/- 2.2 mm (p = 0.002), respectively. The distance from the tip of the posterior papillary muscle to the anterior commissure increased by 11.0 +/- 5.7 mm (p = 0.032) while the distance from the tip of the posterior papillary muscle to the posterior commissure remained constant.  

The nucleus of the posterior commissure is expanded in size, and marker genes of the forebrain and rhombomere 1 expand progressively into the misspecified midbrain primordium, eventually resulting in respecification of the midbrain primordium.  

Other retrogradely labeled neurons were found ipsilateral to the injection site, in the pretectum, the ventral tegmentum, the dorsal nucleus of the posterior commissure and the lateral habenular nucleus. Anterogradely labeled fibers projected from BON following three paths, a lateral bundle to the ipsilateral dorsal midbrain, an intermediate bundle to the ipsilateral pretectal area or the posterior commissure and a ventral fiber bundle to the tegmentum bilaterally. Fibers that coursed via the intermediate bundle to the posterior commissure were also seen reaching the contralateral pretectal area and the contralateral BON.  

For MRS imaging, oblique-axial sections (thickness, 15 mm; intersection gap, 2.5 mm) were recorded parallel to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line (TR/TE/NEX, 2300/272/1) with lipid and water suppression.  

Hamster SCO consists of the ependymal and hypendymal cell layers, the latter being arranged as rosette-like structure across the posterior commissure (PC) and often arranged with longitudinal axis parallel to the ventricle.  

Here, we focus on the cluster of the medial longitudinal fascicle (nMLF) and posterior commissure (nPC), located at the forebrain/midbrain (fore/mid) boundary, to address this issue.  

Images were nonuniformity corrected and reoriented along both the anterior-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line horizontally and the midsagittal plane sagittally.  

Neuroendoscopy confirmed a bulging of the posterior commissure, which caused stenosis of the entrance of the aqueduct.  

The tracts in the posterior commissure, optic tectum, and motor zone of the vagal lobes also demonstrated immunoreactivity.  

In patients with LPR, we found decreased levels of CAIII in vocal fold epithelium and increased levels in posterior commissure epithelium.  

The average electrode location was 5.65 mm anterior to the posterior commissure (AC-PC), 13.4 mm lateral from the midline, and 2.0 mm below the AC-PC line.  

In sheep, the anatomy and tissue characteristics in, and around, the native mitral valve's posterior commissure (12:00-3:00 quadrant) makes valve implantation technically challenging.  

They usually affect the supraglottic structure, and more frequently they are described in aritenoids, ariepiglottic folds, and posterior commissure.  

It was designed to locate subcortical nuclei by reference to an axis joining the anterior and posterior commissures. The coordinate system has difficulties, however, when applied to cortical locations: (1) it can be difficult to locate the posterior commissure (PC); (2) the fundamental axis is short, and errors in specifying the axis lead to large errors at the cortical surface; (3) there is no normalisation for brain size.  

METHODS: Triple oblique axial images obtained parallel to the Talairach anterior commissure (AC)-posterior commissure (PC) plane were reviewed in a prospective analysis of 126 consecutive patients.  

In each segment of the Drosophila embryonic nervous system, axons that display this projection pattern choose one of two distinct tracts: the anterior or posterior commissure. Here we show that Derailed keeps these axons out of the posterior commissure by acting as a receptor for Wnt5, a member of the Wnt family of secreted signalling molecules.  

METHODS: Six adult sheep had radiopaque markers placed on the left ventricle, mitral annulus, and anterior and posterior mitral leaflets at the valve center and near the anterior and posterior commissures. Delayed valve closure (anterior commissure, 58 +/- 29 vs 92 +/- 24 ms; valve center, 52 +/- 26 vs 92 +/- 23 ms; posterior commissure, 60 +/- 30 vs 94 +/- 14 ms; all P <.05) and increased leaflet edge separation distance during ejection (mean increase, 2.2 +/- 1.5 mm, 2.1 +/- 1.9 mm, and 2.1 +/- 1.5 mm at the anterior commissure, valve center, and posterior commissure, respectively; P <.05 for all) was seen during proximal left circumflex coronary artery occlusion but not during left anterior descending or distal left circumflex coronary artery occlusion.  

In posterior commissure tumors, larynx preservation was less frequent and apparently independent of type of therapy or T class.  

Data were reoriented in the image space to account for intersubject variations in head position before the midsagittal plane was defined by using midpoints of the anterior commissure (AC), posterior commissure (PC), and interhemispheric fissure (IF).  

METHODS: Nine sheep had radiopaque markers sewn to the mitral annulus, creating 8 distinct segments beginning at the posterior commissure (segments 1-4, septal mitral annulus; segments 5-8, lateral mitral annulus).  

Mean hippocampal angle was 29 degrees (range 17-42 degrees ) caudal to the anterior-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line.  

Fifteen contiguous slices covering the sensorimotor cortex parallel to the anterior (AC) and posterior commissure (PC) line were obtained with echoplanar magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5T.  

The coordinates of the tips of these electrodes were calculated three dimensionally and the results were normalized and corrected for individual differences by using intraoperative neurophysiological data (mean 5.13 mm caudal to the midcommissural point [ MCP], 8.46 mm inferior to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure [ AC-PC], and 10.2 mm lateral to the midline).  

RESULTS: Survival analysis with Cox's proportional hazards model revealed that lower fractional anisotropy of the right and the left frontal white matter regions 15 mm above the anterior commissure-posterior commissure plane was associated with a low remission rate after age was considered.  

At 4 d, higher order neurons were revealed in trigeminal, auditory, vestibular, and deep cerebellar nuclei (medial, interpositus, and lateral), oculomotor and visual-related structures (Darkschewitsch, nucleus of the posterior commissure, deep layers of superior colliculus, and pretectal area), lateral hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex (particularly in parietal areas).  

Such images of 35 patients served for retrospective morphometric analysis of different basal ganglia nuclei (STN, GP, red nucleus, and substantia nigra) and several anatomical landmarks (anterior and posterior commissure, maximum width of third ventricle, brain length and width).  

METHODS: Stereotactic coordinates of the STN were determined in 14 patients by using three different methods: direct identification of the STN on coronal and axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and indirect targeting in which the STN coordinates are referred to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line, which, itself, is determined either by using stereotactic ventriculography or reconstruction from three-dimensional (3D) MR images.  

During each epoch, 10 contiguous oblique axial-to-coronal slices covering the calcarine fissure region and parallel to a line through the anterior-posterior commissure (AC-PC) markers were acquired using a gradient-recalled echo planar imaging (GRE-EPI) sequence.  

The subcommissural organ is a gland located in the diencephalic plate caudal to the pineal organ that covers the anterior part of the posterior commissure.  

The physical examination findings felt to be most related to reflux included: arytenoid erythema (97.5%), vocal cord erythema (95.7%) and edema (95.7%), posterior commissure hypertrophy (94.9%), and arytenoid edema (94.0%).  

The intraoperative laryngomicroscopy showed that the laryngeal tumor had grown rapidly occupying the glottis except posterior commissure.  

The developing mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (nucleus of the fifth cranial nerve; Mes5) is composed of four neuron populations: 1) the medial group, located at the tectal commissure; 2) the lateral group distributed along the optic tectum hemispheres; 3) a group outside the neural tube; and 4) a population located at the posterior commissure.  

The primary components of the mammalian subcortical visual system are the superior colliculus, nucleus of the optic tract, anterior and posterior pretectal nuclei, nucleus of the posterior commissure, and an area within the mesopontine reticular formation that includes parts of the cuneiform, subcuneiform and pedunculopontine nuclei.  

A double chin has hooked over the posterior commissure, to which it remains tightly opposed.  

METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was employed to examine the WM integrity of frontal regions at four levels: 10 mm above, 5 mm above, 0 mm above, and 5 mm below the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) plane.  

Smaller numbers of cells were located in the periaqueductal gray matter, nucleus annularis, and magnocellular nucleus of the posterior commissure.  

They were translated into the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) coordinate system by using a matrix transformation process.  

The laterality of structures (measured from a point 2 mm anterior to midcommissural point and at a level 2-4 mm below anterior commissure-posterior commissure line) showed a wide range.  

Also consistent with anatomy, units belonging to integrators with opposite on-directions (up or down) are interconnected via the posterior commissure (again in a stochastically weighted manner) and they can be excitatory or inhibitory.  

Talairach, anterior commissure (AC)-posterior commissure (PC) referenced, stereotactic space has been widely embraced by the neuroscience community.  

RESULTS: In both patients, results of pathological examination revealed (1) Lewy bodies positive for ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein together with cell loss and gliosis in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and neocortex; and (2) similar findings in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the posterior commissure, and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (substrates for vertical gaze).  

Positive predictive power for successful outcome was highest for measures of the third ventricle; 73% and 68% for third ventricle width and height respectively, 88% for anterior to posterior commissure distance.  

In addition to its projection to the vestibular nuclei, the NOT has a prominent projection to the contralateral NOT via the posterior commissure. In order to evaluate the role of the commissural fibers between the NOTs in OKN, we cut the posterior commissure in three Macaca fuscata. After control data were gathered, the posterior commissure was transected with an operating knife.  

Average Euclidean distances between landmarks (MRI:transformed template) were 8.1 plus minus 3.7 mm in anterior-posterior commissure (ACPC) and 7.6 plus minus 3.7 mm in temporal lobe (TL) orientation.  

The success of the ESCM procedure depends on the following predictor factors: case selection (primary and secondary tonic-clonic seizures and atypical absences of the Lennox Gastaut syndrome), ventriculographic and electrophysiologic definition of the optimal stereotactic targets (based on the anterior commissure, posterior commissure, and the vertical line perpendicular to the posterior commissure and electrocortical recruiting responses), periodic electrophysiologic monitoring of the reliability of ESCM in the absence of the patient's subjective sensations and with totally internalized subcutaneous stimulation systems (by recording scalp electrocortical recruiting, desynchronizing, and direct current responses), quantitative evaluation of clinical and EEG improvement, and analysis of the ON and OFF effects, taking into account a long-lasting (possibly plastic) effect of ESCM.  

Using these electrodes, the authors were able to deliver current flow not only along the electrode trajectory, but also between the two electrodes in a direction parallel to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line.  

We show that the gene is specifically expressed in spinal cord Rohon Beard neurons, in nucleus of the posterior commissure neurons of the midbrain, in a set of hindbrain neurons that include RoL3 reticulospinal interneurons, and in the trigeminal, statoacoustic, anterior lateral line, glossopharyngeal, and vagal cranial sensory ganglia.  

PSA is transiently expressed on all cell bodies and, except for the posterior commissure, it is not found on axons. Enzymatic removal of PSA leads to a defasciculated growth pattern of the posterior commissure and also affects distinct subsets of commissural axons in the hindbrain, which fail to cross the midline. Whereas the disordered growth pattern of hindbrain commissures produced by PSA-removal could be mimicked by injections of soluble PSA, the growth of axons in the posterior commissure was unaffected by such treatment.  

During brain development, Pax6 is expressed in specific regions of the diencephalon including secretory cells of the subcommissural organ (SCO), a circumventricular organ at the forebrain-midbrain boundary that originates from the pretectal dorsal midline neuroepithelial cells beneath the posterior commissure (PC).  

To determine whether CRN is a disorder of vergence or of the saccadic system, the scleral search coil technique was used to record binocularly the three-dimensional components of CRN in a patient with a left mesencephalic infarction involving the nucleus of the posterior commissure and the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle.  

Leaflet coaptation was assessed as separation between leaflet edge markers in the midleaflet and near each commissure (anterior commissure, posterior commissure). Leaflet coaptation times were 79+/-17 and 87+/-22 milliseconds at the anterior commissure; 72+/-21, 72+/-19 milliseconds at midleaflet, and 71+/-12 and 75+/-8 milliseconds at the posterior commissure (p = NS) for Control and Cut2, respectively.  

Moreover, dorsally the posterior pretectum and posterior commissure were also present in the double mutants. In contrast, Otx2(+/Emx2) knock-in mutants displayed the majority of these diencephalic structures; however, the posterior pretectum and posterior commissure were specifically absent.  

Enlargement of the cricoid plate has proved excellent in cases of a high degree of stenosis of the posterior commissure (Type III and IV of the Cotton classification).  

AtlasPlan accurately corrected the localization of the tentative target point after measurements from the midpoint of the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line on the modified MRI, and enabled us to reduce the degree of an intraoperative correction to fix a final target.  

These dimorphisms are concerned with the position of the preoptic nucleus, nucleus lateralis tuberis, habenula, third ventricle, tectal ventricles, preoptic recess, recessus lateralis, horizontal commissure, posterior commissure, and toral commissure.  

In addition, Nr-CAM is found in crossing fiber pathways, including the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and posterior commissure, and in nondecussating pathways, such as the lateral olfactory tract and the habenulointerpeduncular tract.  

In the forebrain, two vertical tracts, the tract of the posterior commissure (appearing around 98 h post-fertilization) and the tract of the anterior commissure (detected at 110 h post-fertilization) project descending axons to the pre-existing axonal longitudinal pathway.  

RF proper has a wide range of activity on neuronal differentiation, including survival, aggregation, and disaggregation effects and neurite extension of cortical and spinal cord neurones "in vitro." Thus, the SCO/RF complex may interact with developmental processes of the central nervous system including the posterior commissure and spinal cord differentiation..  

This gland is localized in the roof of the third ventricle covering the posterior commissure.  

Respiratory tract fluid output (RTFO) was collected at the posterior commissure at 6-min intervals.  

No significant differences were observed (Wilcoxon paired-sample test) between the following: 1) pre- and postoperative coordinates of the anterior commissure (AC) (deltax = 0.3+/-0.29 mm and deltay = 0.34+/-0.32 mm) and posterior commissure (PC) (deltax = 0.15+/-0.18 mm and deltay = 0.34+/-0.25 mm); 2) pre- and postoperative AC-PC distance (deltaL = 0.33+/-0.22 mm); and 3) preoperative target and final electrode position coordinates (deltax = 0.24+/-0.22 mm; deltay = 0.19+/-0.16 mm).  

Thus, SCO-spondin is a favorable substrate for neurite outgrowth and may participate in the posterior commissure formation and spinal cord differentiation during ontogenesis of the central nervous system..  

Direct laryngoscopy with careful examination of the posterior commissure and laryngeal electromyography are the 2 main clinical diagnostic aids contributing to establish the diagnosis..  

The formation of the posterior commissure is also delayed, and errors in axonal pathfinding are frequent.  

This neuropathy is likely responsible for vocal cord adduction (stridor) and incomplete closure of the posterior commissure (aspiration) associated with acute cricoarytenoid arthritis.  

However, other zones such as the dorsal telencephalon, posterior commissure, optic tectum, torus semicircularis, reticular formation or inferior olive also displayed TH-ir fibers.  

The electrode tip center was 11.2 +/- 1.54 mm lateral to the third ventricular wall, 5.38 +/- 1.02 mm anterior to the posterior commissure and 2.9 +/- 3.57 mm inferior to the level of AC-PC line.  

Immunoreactive nerve fibers were observed in the pineal gland as well as in the posterior commissure and habenular areas.  

The posterior commissure (PC) is the route by which INC projects to ocular motoneurons.  

Histological analysis, expression patterns of diencephalic marker genes, and fiber trajectory of the posterior commissure indicated that Pax6 misexpression caused a caudal shift of the di-mesencephalic boundary.  

Neuroendoscopy confirmed a yellowish tumor inferior to the posterior commissure occluding the entrance of the aqueduct, an observation useful in planning biopsy of the lesion.  

The coordinates of the centers of the STNs were determined with reference to the patient's anterior commissure-posterior commissure line by using a new landmark, the anterior border of the red nucleus.  

The ventral-caudal region, which corresponds to the central MRF, the cMRF, or nucleus subcuneiformis, is the focus of this paper and is located lateral to the oculomotor nucleus and caudal to the posterior commissure (PC).  

Occasionally, a few resin particles in the vicinity of the epiglottic root traveled along the aryepiglottic folds toward the posterior commissure.  

The view is restricted (R) when the posterior glottic structures (posterior commissure or arytenoids) are visible or the epiglottis is visible and can be lifted; this includes some grade 2 and some grade 3 views as classified by Cormack and Lehane.  

Both reactions were detected in the oculomotor, trochlear, mesencephalic trigeminal nuclei, the nucleus of the posterior commissure, torus semicircularis, substantia nigra and ruber and isthmic nuclei of the mesencephalon.  

For example, in the Drosophila embryo axons cross the midline in one of two distinct tracts, the anterior or posterior commissure (AC or PC, respec tively).  

A perineal transverse skin incision was made on the midpoint between the posterior commissure and the anus, and the underlying tissue was dissected.  

Differences between 3D-MR imaging and ventriculography in X, Y, and Z coordinates of the anterior commissure (AC), posterior commissure (PC), and target area were calculated, as well as the 3D distance between the position of AC, PC, and target within stereotactic space as obtained using both methods.  

As the sagittal, frontal, and horizontal microscopic series were gathered from three different cerebral hemispheres, loci with the same ACPC (anterior commissure-posterior commissure) coordinates are not exactly anatomically corresponding.  

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