Paraventricular Nuclei Of Thalamus

MEF2A was particularly enriched in processes of neurons in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, as well as in several other limbic sites, including the central amygdala and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and thalamus.  

The dorsal hippocampus was dominated by activation of spike activity in response to administration of delta sleep-inducing peptide; Deltaran produced activation mainly in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.  

Pathology concentrated anteriorly and in the central lateral and paraventricular nuclei was related to the Braak stage of Parkinson's disease, ageing, and the presence of dementia.  

Bex immunoreactivity (ir) was primarily localized to neuronal cells within several regions of the brain, including the olfactory epithelium, bulb, peri/paraventricular nuclei, suprachiasmatic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, median eminence, lateral hypothalamic area, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum.  

PKR2 mRNA was expressed in the SCN and paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus and hypothalamus.  

Slow bursting activity of the cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain is described, with a special emphasis on the vasopressinergic neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei (SON/PVN).  

We now report that the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which contains the principal circadian clock, and the reuniens and paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus, each independently becomes refractory to melatonin.  

Ethanol-fed protein kinase C-epsilon null mutant mice also exhibited a decrease in the number of Fos-positive cells in the lateral septum, and an increase in the number of Fos-positive cells in the dentate gyrus, mediodorsal thalamus, paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus and hypothalamus, and substantia nigra compared to ethanol-fed wild-type mice.  

In the vasopressin-secreting supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, the site where B/K cDNA was originally isolated from, all of the neurons showing vasopressin immunoreactivity also expressed B/K protein, suggesting an overlap of their expression patterns..  

Most of these afferents came from both sides of the brain, except for hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.  

Numerous galanin-immunoreactive fibres were also observed in the preoptic area, the mediobasal hypothalamus, the periphery of the supraoptic and the paraventricular nuclei.  

By in situ hybridization, we have found the highest expression of AC8 mRNA within the olfactory bulb, thalamus, habenula, cerebral cortex, and hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.  

Labeled varicose axonal processes were distributed most densely in the agranular insular cortex and the paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus and hypothalamus (PVH).  

We observed increased expression of c-Fos after alcohol administration in the central nucleus of amygdala, paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus and thalamus, and several other brain areas.  

Some fibers were also observed in the optic tract, and the lowest density was found in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.  

By contrast, regional [ (125)I]PYY binding was significantly increased in hypothalamic lateral and dorsal areas, hypothalamic arcuate and dorsomedial nuclei, amygdaloid medial and centromedial nuclei, thalamic centromedial and paraventricular nuclei of dietary obese rats versus controls.  

In the hypothalamus a subpopulation of parvocellular neurons in the peri- and paraventricular nuclei was most heavily labelled.  

Using quantitative autoradiography, 2-(125)I-melatonin binding was investigated throughout the light:dark cycle in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), paraventricular nuclei (PVT), and pars tuberalis (PT) of adult female Siberian hamsters kept for 10 weeks in either long or short photoperiods (LP or SP, respectively).  

In contrast melatonin binding is only expressed in the paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus at the age of 21-23 days and is always present in adult animals.  

Fos positive neurons were demonstrated in areas 23 and 24, the anterior limbic area, insular cortex, midline and paraventricular nuclei in the thalamus, paraventricular nucleus and other areas in the hypothalamus, and in many nuclei in the brainstem in both the formalin-injected group and the control group (anesthesia only).  

The absence of hypertrophy of the AG cells in compensatory function of degenerating cells in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei indicates a functional diversity of these nonapeptidergic cells..  

For example, almost only calretinin-stained cells were found in the central medial and paraventricular nuclei.  

These areas include the substantia innominata, the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, the anterior amygdala, the posterior hypothalamus, the reuniens and paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus, and the pontine periaqueductal gray lateral to the fourth ventricle.  

Only the higher dose of medetomidine (300 micrograms/kg) produced a suppression by 29% and 46% in centromedian and paraventricular nuclei, respectively.  

A dense innervation was also evident in both paraventricular nuclei, and in the anterior, lateral and mediobasal hypothalamus on the side contralateral to the injection.  

Thirty minutes after absence-like seizures, some fos-immunoreactive cell nuclei were found in bilateral thalamic paraventricular nuclei (PV).  

Hypophysectomy induced the appearance of VIP-immunoreactive fibers in the internal zone of the median eminence and perikarya in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in addition to the suprachiasmatic nucleus.  

The effects of lesions of the suprachiasmatic (SCN) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of the hypothalamus on photoperiodic responses were examined in adult Siberian hamsters.  

The results also indicate that parts of the medial hypothalamus, even those that are more caudal than the paraventricular nuclei, react to hyperosmolarity..  

On E15 and E16, additional labeled cells appeared medially in the developing dorsomedial and paraventricular nuclei, respectively, followed on E17 by cells in the preoptic area.  

Very few neurons were found to express CCK in the parafascicular and paraventricular nuclei (2% and 10%, respectively), whereas the other intralaminar and midline nuclei had intermediate levels of CCK transcripts (75% of the neurons).  

With the exception of the paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus, no desipramine-induced change in the binding of [ 125I]IPIN to beta-2 adrenoceptors was observed in any region of the brain.  

Inputs were defined according to the lateral, central or medial segments of the nucleus injected, and controlled by additional injections into the habenula, central medial and paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus.  

Specifically, VP immunoreactive fibers originating from transplanted SCh were identified in the medial preoptic area, the periventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei, the paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus and hypothalamus, and in the retrochiasmatic area, arcuate nucleus, and suprachiasmatic nucleus of the host brain.  

In the thalamus, high activity was present in the anterodorsal, anteroventral, laterodorsal and reticular nuclei, while low activity was found in the mediodorsal and paraventricular nuclei.  

Moderate to large numbers of cholecystokinin (CCK)-positive fibers were present in the paraventricular nuclei, the reticular nucleus, the anteroventral, anteromedial, and central medial nuclei, and in the rostral extension of the internal medullary lamina between the parataenial and anteroventral nuclei.  

Other projections from the thalamus originate in the intralaminar and midline nuclei, including the central lateral, central dorsal, central medial, paracentral, reuniens, and paraventricular nuclei, and the ventral medial and ventral anterior nuclei.  

Other relatively sparse projections from the SCh were also described to the preoptic region, lateral septal nucleus, parataenial and paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus, and ventral lateral geniculate nucleus.  

At the other extreme, the anterodorsal, ventroposteromedial, and paraventricular nuclei were almost devoid of immunoreactive varicosities.  

CNS regions where there were detectable densities of binding sites for iodinated eledoisin, neuromedin K, and substance K and few or no sites for iodinated substance P included cortical layers IV-VI, mediolateral septum, supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, interpeduncular nucleus, ventral tegmental area, and substantia nigra pars compacta.  

The results indicate that the magnocellular perikarya in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei contain prodynorphin rather than proenkephalin as had been suggested by earlier investigators.  

Labelled fibres and "terminal-like" labelling were found in the anterior pretectal area, in the thalamic parafascicular nucleus, in the posterior nucleus and the ventroposterior complex, in the zona incerta and in the fields of Forel, but none were observed in the supraoptic or paraventricular nuclei.  

In the hypothalamus the medial preoptic area as well as the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei receive a strikingly dense NPY innervation.  

Mast cells varied greatly in number among brains, but their distribution was almost exclusively thalamic; within thalamus, the ventral complex, medial dorsal, lateral, and paraventricular nuclei contained the most mast cells.  

Substantial activity also existed in the globus pallidus, the median eminence, the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, the lateral habenular nucleus and the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis.  

The AII immunoreactive cell bodies were localized, in the order of their relative preponderance, in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cortex.  

It also innervates the intralaminar (centromedian, centrolateral, paracentral, parafascicular), the midline (paraventricular, reuniens), and the ventromedial basal (VMb) thalamic nuclei as well as much of the hypothalamus, including the dorsomedial, the ventromedial, the arcuate and the paraventricular nuclei, the lateral hypothalamic and the lateral preoptic areas.  

Fibers could be traced dorsally from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to the dorsomedial and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and the periventricular nucleus of the thalamus.  

The bed nucleus also projects to the anterior nuclei of the thalamus, the parataenial and paraventricular nuclei, and the medial habenular nucleus, and through the stria terminalis to the medial and central nuclei of the amygdala, and to the amygdalo-hippocampal transition area..  

Thus, the anterior and lateral parts of the LHA also appear to project substantially to the anterior hypothalamic area, the ventromedial and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei, the parataenial and paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus, and the medial part of the lateral habenular nucleus.  

Measurable, but lesser amounts, than in the above cited nuclei, were present in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.  

Visualized by immunocytochemistry vasopression and neurophysin are observed in perikarya of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and their fibers going to the neurohypophysis.  

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