Optic Nerve

To achieve this, cat and human optic nerves (ON) were subjected to varied preparation protocols, and the resultant neuroglial staining profiles correlated to generate an antigenic phenotype for OP applicable to human autopsy specimens.  

The main causes of these disturbances are neuropathological changes in the visual cortex, although abnormalities in the retina and optic nerve cannot be excluded. Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) tests are commonly used in ophthalmology to estimate bioelectrical function of the retina and optic nerve. The aim of this study was to determine whether retinal and optic nerve function, measured by PERG and PVEP tests, is changed in individuals in the early stages of AD with normal routine ophthalmological examination results. In patients with the early stages of AD and normal routine ophthalmological examination results, dysfunction of the retinal ganglion cells as well as of the optic nerve is present, as detected by PERG and PVEP tests.  

The optic nerve head is involved in many ophthalmic disorders, including common diseases such as myopia and open-angle glaucoma.  

CONCLUSIONS: For lower-grade abnormalities, OCT compares favorably with clinical staging of optic nerve photographs.  

Results From comparisons with matched controls, procedures involving retina and optic nerve were associated with an increased risk at a latency of >/=1 year OR (95% CI) 5.53 (1.08 to 28.0).  

To correlate retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT) with the Scoring Tool for Assessing Risk (STAR) threshold in patients with ocular hypertension (OH).  

Optic neuropathy (ON) is defined as the reduction of vision due to inflammatory lesion of the optic nerve.  

To investigate the biomechanical response of the optic nerve head (ONH) connective tissues to IOP elevation in 3 pairs of monkey eyes in which one eye had early experimental glaucoma (EG).  

The structural changes in the iridocorneal angle presumably caused a continuous increase in intraocular pressure leading to degenerative changes of optic nerve axons and to glaucoma.  

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed swelling and enhancement of intracanalicular and pre-chiasmatic segments of the right optic nerve and right side of the optic chiasm.  

After complete resection with decompression of the optic nerve, the neuropathological examination revealed a lambda positive plasmacytoma.  

However, measurement of the CFF is a valuable test in the clinical routine to estimate potential visual acuity in the presence of media opacity and to screen for lesions of the optic nerve.  

CONCLUSIONS: OSAS seems to lead to reduced sensitivity in the visual field by diffuse rarefaction of nerve tissue in the retina, optic nerve, or both.  

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene that controls neural stem cell renewal and differentiation and is a potential target for regeneration in the optic nerve.  

We investigated whether the extent of initial inflammatory demyelination in optic neuritis correlates with the remyelinating capacity of the optic nerve. optic nerve lesions tend to remyelinate at a particular rate irrespective of the size of the initial demyelinated zone with smaller lesions accomplishing recovery more completely.  

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) are white calcareous deposits, seen either superficially on the optic nerve head or buried within it. Diagnosis of ONHD is made by one or more ways: clinical exam, autofluorescence, ultrasound of the optic nerve, CT scan and/or visual field examination. The reflectivity can be distinctly differentiated from the blood vessels on the optic nerve.  

In optic nerve axons, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated cation (HCN) channels, which bind cGMP or cAMP directly, were recently suggested to be a target.  

Glaucoma as understood today could not have been detected before the means to see the optic nerve and reliably measure the intraocular pressure were available after the mid-1850s.  

However, recurrence as an isolated optic nerve lesion without involving CNS has never been reported in the pediatric age group. We report a case of systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a 2-year-old female, which primarily occurred as suprapubic mass and later recurred in the form of isolated optic nerve infiltration, after remission of the primary disease.  

RESULTS: CSF signal intensity surrounding the optic nerves was diminished in at least 2 of the 4 positions used for measurements so that decreased diameters of the ONSs were observed in all patients (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 97%).  

The high-resolution images can be used to evaluate diabetic macular edema and optic nerve damage quantitatively in patients with diabetic retinopathy.  

The study aimed at investigating the therapeutic effect of the cerebrolysin on partial optic nerve atrophy in children. The positive effect of the drug, in particular with the following optic nerve stimulation, has been shown.  

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between functional eye examinations (visual evoked potentials: VEPs; pattern electroretinogram: PERG) and structural measurements of the optic nerve (optical coherence tomography: OCT; scanning laser polarimetry: GDx) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).  

PURPOSE: To investigate the three-dimensional (3D) fast-recovery fast spin-echo accelerated (FRFSE-XL) sequence as a new application for measuring the intraorbital optic nerve (ION) mean cross-sectional area in vivo and to determine its value within a commonly used high resolution imaging protocol.  

AIMS: To characterise the optic nerve head (ONH) configurations of superior segmental optic hypoplasia (SSOH) using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).  

Aim To describe the histological changes in the optic nerve (ON) after experimental segregation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).  

Cases with tumor extension to the anterior clinoid process and superior orbital fissure and those with extension medial to the axis of the optic nerve require a transcranial approach..  

Discovery and description of heritable optic nerve head (ONH) phenotypes has been haphazard.  

We investigated whether an epigenetic change in active chromatin, specifically histone H4 deacetylation, was an underlying mechanism of gene silencing in apoptotic retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following an acute injury to the optic nerve. RESULTS: Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) translocates to the nuclei of dying cells shortly after lesion of the optic nerve and is associated with an increase in nuclear HDAC activity and widespread histone deacetylation. Inhibition of retinal HDAC activity with trichostatin A (TSA) was able to both preserve the expression of a representative RGC-specific gene and attenuate cell loss in response to optic nerve damage.  

The goal of this study was to test whether, following a remote episode of optic neuritis (ON), breakdown of myelin and axons within the optic nerve could be detected by alterations in DTI parameters, and whether these alterations would correlate with visual loss. METHODS: Seventy subjects with a history of ON > or =6 months prior underwent DTI of the optic nerves, assessment of visual acuities (VA) and contrast sensitivities (CS), and laboratory measures of visual evoked potentials (VEP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). CONCLUSIONS: Increased optic nerve radial diffusivity (RD) detected by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was associated with a proportional decline in vision after optic neuritis. optic nerve injury as assessed by DTI was corroborated by both optical coherence tomography and visual evoked potentials..  

These tumors most commonly arise in the brain and spinal cord; however, they also may arise from the optic nerve. We, herein, report a rare case of malignant nonteratoid medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve with intraocular extension..  

Methods: Wet-SEM, conventional SEM and TEM were used to explore the surface of the optic nerve of the pig. Samples of perfused optic nerve head were cryosectioned and observed with the confocal laser microscope (lectin) or resin embedded and observed under TEM (gold). Conclusions: Interchange of fluid between the optic nerve and the vitreous cavity in the pig is facilitated by fenestrations of varied sizes in the basal membrane and preferential flow routes through the prelaminar tissue. Escape routes may be instrumental in preventing edemas of the optic nerve head, but they could also serve as entrance doors for fluids from the vitreous and aqueous humor and play a pathogenic role in aging and glaucoma..  

OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of malignant transformation of a medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve. A benign non-teratoid medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve was surgically removed. RESULTS: Medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve is extremely rare. This is the first case described of a benign medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve, later transforming into a malignant tumour. One third of patients with medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve have died from direct intracranial spread or metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS). CONCLUSIONS: Medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve should be considered malignant despite morphology with tendency to spread to the CNS. Furthermore; it should be considered as a differential diagnosis when observing a tumour of the optic nerve in a child..  

METHODS: The histomorphometric study included 55 non-glaucomatous globes (55 patients; mean age: 41.6 +/- 13.6 years) enucleated due to a malignant choroidal melanoma without involvement of the optic nerve or trabecular meshwork. RESULTS: The mean central corneal thickness (500 +/- 68 mum) was statistically not significantly associated with the thickness of the central lamina cribrosa (207 +/- 60 mum) (P = 0.62), peripheral lamina cribrosa (P = 0.61), peripapillary sclera close to the optic nerve canal (P = 0.18), peripapillary sclera just outside of the optic nerve meninges (P = 0.11), nor with the shortest distance between the prelaminar space and cerebrospinal fluid space (P = 0.09). These histomorphometric data do not support a relationship between central corneal thickness and thickness of structures of the optic nerve head, and thus do not support an association between a thin cornea and increased structural glaucoma susceptibility..  

Using longitudinal confocal scanning multilaser ophthalmoscopy, we identified the production of superoxide within retrograde-labelled rat retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve transection. Together, these results are consistent with superoxide being an upstream signal for retinal ganglion cell apoptosis after optic nerve injury.  

Aim To characterise the influence of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a vasoactive peptide, and its receptors (endothelin B (ETB) and endothelin A (ETA)) on rat optic nerve head astrocyte (ONHA) proliferation.  

PURPOSE: To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), optic nerve head (ONH), and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using the RTVue spectral domain optical coherence tomograph. optic nerve head, RNFL thickness, and macular thickness scans were obtained during the same visit.  

In the mammalian retina, glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) is a major glutamate transporter, and the loss of GLAST leads to optic nerve degeneration similar to normal tension glaucoma (NTG). ASK1 deficiency protected RGCs and decreased the number of degenerating axons in the optic nerve.  

RESULTS: Seven patients had leptomeningeal disease and one patient had only direct extension to the CNS via the optic nerve.  

The later included postlaminar optic nerve involvement (PLONI) (n = 23), tumor at resection margin of optic nerve (n = 5) or isolated scleral invasion (n = 2). Group 3: CNS relapse (n = 1) in a patient with tumor at the resection margin of optic nerve.  

Purpose: To analyze vasculature and extracellular matrix changes in the prelaminar region (PreLR) of the optic nerve head (ONH) and in the peripapillary sclera of eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and age matched controls.  

Pathogenic OPA1 mutations cause autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA), a condition characterized by the preferential loss of retinal ganglion cells and progressive optic nerve degeneration.  

The second patient had mild subretinal fluid around the right optic nerve head tracking into the macula.  

In the anterior part of the optic nerve, the sheath is distensible and can inflate in the case of raised pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid. Measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter using ocular sonography or MRI has been shown to correctly estimate the risk of raised ICP in various settings, including traumatic brain injury.  

The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution and expression of the tight junction membrane proteins, claudin-5 and occludin, in rat blood-optic nerve barrier after borneol treatment. The bilateral optic nerve from the retrobulbar region to the optic chiasma was collected from the rats in the two groups before gastric lavage and at 30 min, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after gastric lavage. It was concluded that claudin-5 and occludin translocate within cells of the rat blood-optic nerve barrier after borneol treatment, and this translocation was reversible. Claudin-5 may play a potential role in permeability of the blood-optic nerve barrier following borneol treatment..  

A 12-year-old girl with clinically established tuberous sclerosis complex, and without signs of neurofibromatosis type 1, developed a right retro-ocular optic nerve tumor. After rapid growth for 1 year after its discovery, the optic nerve tumor demonstrated modest progression. Although her left ventricular subependymal giant cell tumor demonstrated a 49% reduction in volume, the optic nerve tumor did not respond, and even underwent slight (6%) growth during the 16-month treatment. The quality of this child's vision has remained normal in both eyes, and she is otherwise asymptomatic with regard to the optic nerve tumor..  

This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of EGCG in an optic nerve crush (ONC) model in rats. Two days after the first injection, an ONC injury was performed by using a micro optic nerve clipper with 40g power at approximately 2mm from the optic nerve head for 60s. These findings suggest that there are protective effects of EGCG on RGCs after ONC, indicating EGCG might be a potential therapeutic agent for optic nerve diseases..  

AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the involvement of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and optic nerve in patients with vitiligo (N.=40, 12 males and 28 females, age 12-82 years; average 45.8). Pattern VEP and EOG offer useful tools to evaluate the evolution of vitiligo, because they can detect subclinical involvement of the optic nerve and RPE.  

Once validated, the transducer was utilized intraocularly, inserted through the optic nerve, to measure the pressure of the eye during blunt-projectile impacts.  

Digital retinal images are shown to provide a meaningful way of documenting and assessing some of the key elements inside the eye including the optic nerve and the tiny retinal blood vessels.  

We describe a rare case of an optic pit located over the nasal portion of the disc that was independent of a coexisting optic nerve cyst. Our examinations revealed a gray lesion located within the right disc cup that was associated with a round lesion at the retrobulbar optic nerve. Based on optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings, we believe that our patient exhibited an optic disc pit coexisting with a congenital optic nerve cyst.  

optic nerve head topographic analyses were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT II). Other changes in optic nerve head morphometric parameters were insignificant.  

BACKGROUND/AIM: Vascularisation of the distal, namely intracranial and intracanalicular parts of the optic nerve have not been explained in conventional textbooks of anatomy, while there have been explanations of proximal, that is intraorbital segment. The aim of this research was to study the pattern of arterial supply of the intracranial and intracanalicular part (the distal part) of human optic nerve. METHODS: The optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery (OA), predominately in their intracranial and intracanalicular parts, were investigated in 25 human specimens by three different methods: macroscopic, stereomicroscopic, and histological observations. RESULTS: OA passed through the optic canal within the dural sheath of the optic nerve. In 44% of our specimens the OA was on the inferomedial side of the optic nerve at the entrance point to the optic canal. The intracanalicular portion of the optic nerve receives arterial blood principally from the intracanalicular part of OA. OA gives one (72% of the specimens) to two branches that supply the intracanalicular part of the optic nerve. These arteries then terminate in a pial vascular network of continuous transverse centripetal arterioles and capillaries that surround each optic nerve. The rich anastomoses with branches of superior hypophyseal artery, from the cranial cavity, which take part in the optic nerve vascularization in its hole length, was observed.  

In this case report, we show sequential in vivo pathological changes seen in the inner retinal layers, in spite of clinical improvement, following the migration of an intraretinal embolus on the optic nerve head, which had previously resulted in symptomatic BRAO..  

The purpose of this review is to appraise and critically evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effects of combined treatment with topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol in patients with glaucoma with respect to ocular blood flow, visual function, and optic nerve head structure..  

A 1-year-old Mexican girl weighing 10 kg who had optic nerve glioma was initially scheduled to receive 12 cycles of 600 mg/ carboplatin (CBP) as two 300-mg/m intravenous infusions administered over 1 hour on 2 different days and a 1-hour intravenous infusion of 1.5 mg/m vincristine every 4 weeks.  

To examine the visual evoked potentials (VEP) and electroretinograms (ERG) generated during electrical stimulation of the human optic nerve using the optic nerve visual prosthesis (ONVP). Two volunteers, both blind with no light perception from retinitis pigmentosa (RP), were chronically implanted with the optic nerve visual prosthesis. Cortical evoked potentials were recorded using 16 scalp electrodes and antidromic ERGs were obtained using DTL electrodes whilst electrically stimulating the optic nerve. Finally, the antidromic ERG recordings obtained in our implanted volunteers show a unique inner retinal potential generated by retrograde stimulation of the eye from the optic nerve.  

Linear accelerator single-fraction radiosurgery (SRS) for skull base lesions is usually delivered with dynamic conformal arcs (DCAs), but intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) is another option when SRS dose is limited by proximity of the optic nerve and chiasm. Fourteen patients with parasellar lesions were treated with IMRS when standard DCA radiosurgery was limited by optic nerve tolerance. Prospective patient data included endocrine function, visual acuity and field testing, nonoptic nerve cranial neuropathy, and overall survival. IMRS allows for treatment of parasellar lesions when standard DCA SRS is limited by optic nerve tolerance.  

Histopathologically, severe epidermal degeneration and necrosis, hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, myositis, myelitis, encephalitis associated with heavy accumulation of scuticociliates in the periorbital cavity and optic nerve fiber were observed.  

During the vision loss, the MRI demonstrated a T2 hyperintensity and an enhancement of the prechiasmal left optic nerve, suggesting the existence of an inflammatory mechanism.  

Using in vivo imaging of the rat optic nerve after crush lesion we could now show that both mechanisms are linked and play an important role in acute axonal degeneration in vivo. Our data suggest that crush lesion of the optic nerve induces a rapid calcium influx through calcium channels, which results in a secondary induction of autophagy that participates actively in axonal degradation.  

CONCLUSIONS: Most of the variations in optic nerve morphologic characteristics between the AD and ED groups are due to differences in disc area.  

Then, using an in vivo model of RGC apoptosis after optic nerve transection, we demonstrated that intraocular injection of RGMa at 3 and 7 days after axotomy greatly reduced RGC death 14 days postaxotomy.  

That assumption may, however, be contradicted by the morphology of the optic nerve head. Eyes with normal-pressure glaucoma and glaucomatous eyes with high-intraocular pressure can show a strikingly similar appearance of the optic nerve head, including a loss of neuroretinal rim, a deepening of the optic cup, and an enlargement of parapapillary atrophy. the so-called intraocular pressure) which is of importance for the physiology and pathophysiology of the optic nerve head; (ii) that studies have shown that the anatomy of the optic nerve head including the intraocular pressure, the anatomy and biomechanics of the lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera, retrobulbar orbital cerebrospinal fluid pressure and the retrobulbar optic nerve tissue pressure may be of importance for the pathogenesis of the highly myopic type of chronic open-angle glaucoma; (iii) that studies have suggested a physiological association between the pressure in all three fluid filled compartments, i.e. This model could explain why patients with normal (intraocular) pressure glaucoma tend to have a low systemic blood pressure, and why eyes with normal (intraocular) pressure glaucoma and eyes with high-pressure glaucoma, in contrast to eyes with a direct vascular optic neuropathy, show profound similarities in the appearance of the optic nerve head..  

BF was measured in the choroid and in the optic nerve head (ONH) using laser-Doppler flowmetry and in retinal vessels combining laser-Doppler velocimetry with retinal vessel analysis before and 30, 60 and 90 min after start of drug administration.  

In vivo real-time confocal imaging of retinas after optic nerve transection assessed the superoxide production within individual rat retinal ganglion cells.  

To date, treatment of glaucoma has focused on lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) though there are other mechanisms that might damage the optic nerve, leading to characteristic visual field loss.  

Superimposed inflammatory attacks to the optic nerve may cause additional axonal damage with a temporal preponderance.  

We decided to manage the patient conservatively, in the absence of complications such as proptosis with corneal exposure, optic nerve compression, or esthetically unacceptable appearance.  

The location of OPG as demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot be used as a prognostic indicator because visual outcomes were similar between optic nerve/chiasmal and retrochiasmal tumors..  

In sharp contrast, the RGC of lower vertebrates, such as fish, are capable of re-growing injured optic nerve axons, and achieve, through a complex multi-factorial process, functional vision after injury. METHODS: The expression of sema-3A and its effect on regenerative processes in injured gold fish retina and optic nerve were investigated in this study. Unilateral optic nerve axotomy or crush was induced in goldfish. Retinas and optic nerves were collected at intervals of 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after the procedure. RESULTS: We found a decrease in sema-3A levels in the retina at an early stage after optic nerve injury, but no change in sema-3A levels in the injured optic nerve. Intravitreal injection of sema-3A to goldfish eye, shortly after optic nerve injury, led to destructive effects on several pathways of the regenerative processes, including the survival of retinal ganglion cells, axonal growth, and clearance of myelin debris from the lesion site by macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous administration of sema-3A in fish indirectly interferes with the regeneration process of the optic nerve. The findings corroborate our previous findings in mammals, and further validate sema-3A as a key factor in the generation of a non-permissive environment after transection of the optic nerve..  

BACKGROUND/AIMS To report the outcome of primary radiotherapy in patients with progressive optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM).  

BACKGROUND: The vitreous interface of the optic nerve has been studied to delimit the covering of Elschnig's astrocytes and interstitial pathways of flow through the prelaminar region. The prelaminar region of the optic nerve and adjacent retina was fixed and flatmounted or frozen and cryosectioned and examined with the confocal laser microscope. RESULTS: The surface of the vitreous surface of the optic nerve is covered by a cobblestone-like pavement made of astrocytic projections. Some pathogenic mechanisms can be related to fluid interchange in the optic nerve head..  

Specific side-dominant distribution asymmetry of the decreased MVEP amplitudes indicated that the temporal side of the optic nerve (ON) was severely involved.  

PURPOSE: To examine the influence of different signal strength on measurements made using optical coherence tomography (OCT) on macular, optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters. METHODS: 2092 children mostly aged 12 years were examined during 2003-5 and macular, optic nerve head and RNFL parameters were measured using Stratus OCT (Carl Zeiss, Dublin, CA). RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between measurements obtained at 'excellent' signal strengths compared with those obtained at 'moderate' and 'good' signal strength categories for both macular and optic nerve parameters. Differences in optic nerve head parameters were much greater (up to 32% difference), with larger measurements recorded for most parameters with increasing signal strength category. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly larger macular and optic nerve head OCT measurements were obtained with increasing signal strength measurements, although absolute differences in macular measurements were small and of questionable clinical importance.  

PURPOSE: To identify and quantify the time course of fluorescein leakage of the optic nerve head in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and controls.  

Unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve were confirmed by fundoscopy, flourescein angiography, visual evoked potential and electroretinogram. The optic nerve and extraocular muscles (superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscle) were enhanced by gadolinium-DTPA on MRI of the orbit. This is the first case report of permanent monocular blindness with confirmed unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve, combined with third cranial nerve palsy after methanol ingestion..  

CONTEXT: Meningiomas represent approximately 4% of all intraorbital tumors and can arise from the optic nerve or extend into the orbit from adjacent structures. In 21 patients, the tumor was associated with the optic nerve.  

In the chicken retina, protocadherin-19 was expressed as early as embryonic day 5 and was localized in the ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, and optic nerve layer. Chicken protocadherin-19 was co-localized with syntaxin 1 in inner plexiform layer and was also expressed in the optic nerve and in specific layers of optic tectum. These results suggest that protocadherin-19 plays a role as an adhesion protein in optic nerve fiber bundling, optic nerve targeting, and/or synapse formation..  

Little is known about the expression of Pax2 in mature retina or optic nerve. We find two distinct Pax2 isoforms expressed by cells within the retina and optic nerve. At the optic nerve, Pax2 is expressed by peripapillary glia, at the junction of the neural retina and optic nerve head and by glia within the optic nerve. Pax2-expressing cells are found in the optic nerve and astrocytes within the mouse retina. By comparison, Pax2-positive cells are not found within the guinea pig retina; Pax2-expressing glia are confined to the optic nerve. In dog and monkey (Macaca fascicularis), Pax2 is expressed by astrocytes that are scattered across inner retinal layers and by numerous glia within the optic nerve. We conclude that the expression of Pax2 in the vertebrate eye is restricted to retinal astrocytes, peripapillary glia, and glia within the optic nerve..  

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic assessment of optic nerve heads (ONH) by stereophotography (SP) and Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP).  

PURPOSE: To investigate the hypotheses that the topography of the optic nerve head (ONH) significantly changes during the day in untreated primary open-angle glaucoma (uPOAG) and healthy volunteers; and that there is a significant association with diurnal variations of intraocular pressure (IOP) and mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP).  

We have reported that nerve growth factor (NGF) reaches retinal cells and the optic nerve (ON) when applied to the eye.  

PURPOSE: To evaluate the repeatability and between-methods differences of optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measurements as made with the automatic, operator-adjusted, and manual disc-definition functions of the RTVue-100 Fourier-domain optical coherence tomograph.  

Gold-standard was clinical diagnosis of glaucomatous optic nerve damage.  

In patients with the most common type of ischemic optic neuropathy, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), the microvascular ischemia predominantly affects the intraocular portion of the optic nerve.  

Methods: Participants underwent reliable standard automated perimetry testing and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging with optic nerve head (ONH) mode and GCC mode within a single day.  

Hemorrhages were also found in the anterior chamber (11%), vitreous (5%), and optic nerve (disc 8%, nerve sheath 57%). Conclusions: optic nerve sheath and ciliary body hemorrhages were common in piglets that experienced a single, rapid head rotation.  

Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) arise from the optic nerves, optic chiasm, and/or hypothalamus and most commonly occur in childhood.  

BACKGROUND: Children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) are at high risk for early-onset congenital central hypothyroidism (CH); however, reports of evolving, late-onset CH are rare and poorly documented.  

We report a case of a unilateral nasal hemianopia that was caused by compression of the left optic nerve by a sphenoid wing meningioma.  

Examination of the fundus revealed tractional membranes over the optic nerve and nasal retina.  

The objective of this study was to detect interleukin-17 (IL-17), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3) protein and gene expression of the optic nerve and to further explore the role of T helper cell subsets such as Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg in the pathogenesis of optic neuritis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). At days 11, 15 and 19 post-immunization, optic nerves were dissected for morphological study to detect IL-17, IFN-gamma and IL-4. Concentrations of IL-17 protein in the optic nerve were significantly up-regulated at 11 days post-immunization, and IFN-gamma protein concentrations at 19 days. Concentrations of IL-4 protein in the optic nerve declined slightly in 19 days. Decreased expression of Foxp3 mRNA and Treg in the optic nerve may play a key role in the development of optic neuritis.  

Using a newly developed diffusion-weighted single-shot STEAM MRI sequence, we were able to track the thin optic nerve including the nasal optic nerve fibers, which cross the optic chiasm, and to dissect the optic radiation into the anterior ventral bundle (Meyer's loop), the central bundle, and the dorsal bundle.  

Intravitreal injection of Norrin significantly increased the number of surviving RGC axons in the optic nerve and decreased apoptotic death of retinal neurons following NMDA-mediated damage.  

METHODS: Crush injury of the optic nerve at 0.5-1.0 mm from the eyeball was induced in rats, which received subsequent KBP injection into the vitreous cavity (experimental group) and PBS injection (control group). The optic nerves were collected for Western blotting to assess the effect of KBP on the RGCs and axonal regeneration. CONCLUSION: KBP offers protection on RGCs and promotes regeneration of the optic nerve axons after optic nerve injury in rats..  

Electrophysiological recordings and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the compound action potential (CAP) and morphology, respectively, of the optic nerve in the Siberian hamster. We conclude that the CAP recorded from hamster optic nerve displays four distinct peaks; however, morphological analysis failed to reveal a similar distribution of axon sizes..  

To evaluate the contribution of ganglion cells to mfERG changes, one monkey of each species had previously underwent unilateral optic nerve transection (ONT).  

Visual prosthesis can elicit phosphenes by stimulating the retina, optic nerve, or visual cortex along the visual pathway.  

In contrast to peripheral nerve axons, lesioned optic nerve (ON) axons in vivo developed focal swellings asynchronously within 6 hours, long before there is any axon fragmentation.  

To define the prevalence and natural history of this optic nerve disorder, we performed a population-based epidemiologic and molecular study of presumed DOA cases in the north of England.  

PURPOSE: To analyze the influence of OPA1 gene mutations on the optic nerve head (ONH) morphology in patients with dominant optic atrophy (DOA).  

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of donepezil hydrochloride, an agent for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), on the cerebral and optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow, visual field defect in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients with decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) that demonstrates an AD-like perfusion pattern.  

But vision later worsened to no light perception, and MRI revealed bilateral optic nerve enhancement with dural enhancement and thickening in the anterior skull base, sella, and retroclival areas, findings initially interpreted as inflammatory.  

Conversely, patients with reduced binocularity and stereoacuity should be carefully evaluated for macular or optic nerve anomalies, if not associated with strabismus, anisometropia and eccentric fixation.  

This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm.  

We tested the hypothesis that glaucoma disrupts electrophysiological conduction properties and axon function in optic nerve as a function of intraocular pressure (IOP) levels and age in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. Changes in the physiological function of the optic nerves were accentuated with aging, leading to loss of compound action potential in an entire population of fibers: small, slow conducting axons. This loss was accompanied with loss of small fiber axon counts and declining metabolic reserve by demonstrating IOP-dependent ATP decrease in mouse optic nerves.  

Similar to optic glioma-induced RGC apoptosis, the increased RGC neuronal death in Nf1+/- mice after optic nerve crush injury is also attenuated by rolipram treatment in vivo.  

This article examines three films by legendary experimental filmmaker Barbara Hammer that deal with the sick, aging, or dying body: optic nerve (1985), Sanctus (1990), and A Horse is Not a Metaphor (2008).  

1990) and light neurofilament subunit transport within the optic nerve (Jung and Shea 1999).  

They had neurological symptoms due to cranial nerve involvement including optic nerve (3 patients), oculomotor (3), trigeminal (6), abducens (1), facial (4), acoustic (1), and lower cranial nerves (1).  

Fundus examination revealed bilateral temporal optic nerve pallor in both patients with otherwise normal retinal findings. The electrophysiological findings were consistent with bilateral retinal ganglion cell/optic nerve dysfunction.  

Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases.  

AIM: The main purpose of this report is to demonstrate the effects of fractionated radiosurgery regimens in the management of optic gliomas MATERIALS and METHODS: Two patients suffering from progressive loss of vision due to optic nerve gliomas were treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery in three fractions within three consecutive days instead of a single dose regimen.  

CONCLUSION: The vitreous hemorrhage may be caused by a large amount of blood, originally formed by Terson's syndrome, entering the subarachnoid space around the optic nerve and from there infiltrating the intraocular space through the perivascular space around the central retinal vessels within the optic nerve..  

PURPOSE: To provide the long-term outcomes of patients treated with fractionated conformal radiotherapy (FCRT) for presumed optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSMs). All 9 patients had evidence of optic nerve dysfunction in the affected eye, characterized by reduced visual acuity, a visual field defect, and a relative afferent pupillary defect.  

RESULTS: Accurate, reproducible, and clinically relevant measurements of blood flow within the optic nerve head and associated capillary beds are not fully achievable with current methodology. Autoregulation of blood flow in the retina and optic nerve head occurs over a large range of intraocular pressures and blood pressures. For these reasons and with present evidence it is unlikely that safe and effective glaucoma treatments based on altering optic nerve perfusion will soon be available..  

We describe a patient with optic nerve fenestration by a carotico-ophthalmic artery aneurysm and discuss its likely pathophysiology.  

The biomechanical environment of the optic nerve head (ONH), of interest in glaucoma, is strongly affected by the biomechanical properties of sclera.  

The extent of nerve injury varied and involved the olfactory nerve (66 cases), optic nerve (78 cases), oculomotor nerve (56 cases), trochlear nerve (8 cases), trigeminal nerve (4 cases), abducent nerve (12 cases), facial nerve (48 cases), acoustic nerve (10 cases), glossopharyngeal nerve (8 cases), vagus nerve (6 cases), accessory nerve (10 cases) and hypoglossal nerve (6 cases).  

METHODS AND FINDINGS: We first determined morphologically that beta-elemene therapy markedly suppressed the inflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis optic nerve. We found that beta-elemene treatment modulated immune balance in both the periphery and the inflamed optic nerve by promoting less downregulation in Treg cells, inhibiting Th17 and Th1 polarization. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our finding reveals an important new locus where beta-elemene induces substantial protection in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis optic nerve through signaling to several critical subsets of immune cells that reside in the peripheral and central nervous system..  

optic nerve assessment is important for many blinding diseases, with cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) assessments commonly used in both diagnosis and progression monitoring of glaucoma patients. Direct sequencing of ATOH7 in 12 patients with optic nerve hypoplasia, one of the leading causes of blindness in children, revealed two novel non-synonymous mutations (Arg65Gly, Ala47Thr) which were not found in 90 unrelated controls (combined Fisher's exact P=0.0136).  

After lateral orbitotomy and orbital mass exposure with direct tumor visualization, a long optic nerve stump was cut and the orbital component of the tumor was completely (macroscopically) removed along with the globe in all cases.  

METHODS: Consecutive patients with serial digital optic nerve photographs at least 1 year apart were included.  

optic nerve (ON) cross sections were subnormal, but rectus pulley locations normal.  

Although R-CHOP therapy was immediately started, prolonged optic nerve compression resulted in irreversible blindness.  

After 16 months, histological abnormalities were exclusively observed in the retina of E50K mutant mice with loss of RGCs and connecting synapses in the peripheral retina leading to a thinning of the nerve fiber layer at the optic nerve head at normal IOP.  

optic nerve pathfinding is a useful model for investigating neural network formation in the central nervous system (CNS). Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying optic nerve pathfinding will lead to progress in regenerative therapy for acquired CNS damage such as glaucoma and spinal cord injury in humans. To investigate why retinal ganglion cells extend their axons toward the brain, we focused on the role of proteoglycans in optic nerve guidance. The Ext 1 mutant mice in which Ext 1 was selectively disrupted in the CNS exhibited severe guidance errors in optic nerve and brain commissural axons when the axons crossed the midline. When the optic nerve crossed the midline at the chiasm, the vast majority of axons projected ectopically into the contralateral optic nerve. The data suggest that heparan sulfate proteoglycans in optic nerves probably modulate the activity of Slit during the optic chiasm formation.  

Both naturally occurring and genetically-manipulated animal models of human retinal and optic nerve diseases have been studied in this manner. We used ERGs to analyze the visual functions of animal models of human retinal and and optic nerve diseases. Thus, ERGs have proven to be quite useful for objectively studying the visual functions in various animal models of human retinal and optic nerve diseases..  

Among the four techniques, IMSRT spared the greatest number of OARs, namely brainstem, temporal lobes, optic chiasm, and optic nerve, and had the smallest normal tissue volume in the low-dose region.  

Although intellectual deficit is generally absent in MPS VI, central nervous system findings may include cervical cord compression caused by cervical spinal instability, meningeal thickening and/or bony stenosis, communicating hydrocephalus, optic nerve atrophy and blindness.  

Two patients, both with pituitary deficiency and transient cholestasis, had severe unilateral visual impairment caused by optic nerve hypoplasia.  

To illustrate the complexity of expression, we have assayed non-glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptor mRNA in isolated rat optic nerve, a preparation devoid of neurons and neuronal synapses and from which relatively pure "glial" RNA can be isolated.  

CONCLUSIONS: Diseases of the optic nerve affect color vision earlier and more profoundly than other diseases.  

BACKGROUND: In a previous report, we found that the occurrence and amount of meningothelial cell nests in the subarachnoid space are significantly increased in glaucomatous optic nerves compared to normals. In order to allow research into the role of meningothelial cells during diseases of the optic nerve, an in vitro model is necessary. For this purpose, we developed a culture method for porcine meningothelial cells from the arachnoid layer covering the optic nerve. METHODS: Meningothelial cells were scraped from the arachnoid layer of porcine optic nerves and cultured for 2-3 weeks until the cells formed a monolayer. CONCLUSIONS: The technique described in this paper for the primary culture of meningothelial cells from the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve and using magnetic beads for the removal of fibroblasts is effective in obtaining a highly enriched meningothelial cell culture..  

The length of the optic nerve was 9.7 +/- 1.9 mm on the left side and 9.5 +/- 1.9 mm on the right side. The angle between the optic nerve and the midline was 34.5 degrees +/- 5.7 degrees on the left side and 36.0 degrees +/- 6.3 degrees on the right side.  

MRI demonstrated truncation of the perineural space of the affected optic nerve as well as focal optic nerve enhancement.  

For much of the 19th century, even after the discovery of the ophthalmoscope, the diagnostic clinical signs and the identity of primary optic nerve disease were confused and inaccurate.  

Purpose: The goal of this work was to investigate the role of myosin light chain kinase (MYLK) and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) receptor pathways in optic nerve head (ONH) astrocyte migration.  

This study determines the expression pattern of gap junction protein connexin43 in the human retina and optic nerve. Dense connexin43-immunoreactivity was present between adjacent cells of the retinal pigment epithelium and there was diffuse connexin43-immunoreactivity on GFAP-positive astrocytes in the optic nerve. Conclusions: In the human retina and optic nerve connexin43 is present on glia, blood vessels, and epithelial cells. An understanding of the distribution of connexin43 in the normal retina and optic nerve may be used to evaluate changes associated with retinal and optic nerve disease..  

The reasons for postvitrectomy vitreous hemorrhage in PDR mainly included fibrovascular ingrowth at sclerotomy sites (9 eyes), residual or recurrent neovascular membrane on the optic nerve (6 eyes), insufficient retinal photocoagulation (7 eyes), residual and recurrent epiretinal proliferative membrane (3 eyes), retinal vein occlusion (2 eyes), postoperative low intraocular pressure (2 eyes), and ocular trauma (3 eyes).  

Aim The aim of this study was to study systematically social, communication, and repetitive/restrictive (SCRR) behavioural difficulties and clinical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) and/or septo-optic dysplasia (SOD), and to investigate the relationship between visual impairment, SCRR difficulties, ASD, and cognition.  

The notion of glaucoma comprises a number of diseases which are all characterized by optic nerve damage. It was estimated that nearly 70 million people all over the world suffer from glaucoma and 10% of them have lost their sight because of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy.  

BDNF induces axonal sprouting through Dock-dependent Rac activation, and adult transgenic mice overexpressing Dock3 exhibit enhanced optic nerve regeneration after injury without affecting WAVE expression levels.  

Information about the visual world is transmitted to the brain in sequences of action potentials in retinal ganglion cell axons that make up the optic nerve.  

METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients with choroidal melanoma within 0 to 1 disc diameter (DD) of the optic nerve and at least 2 DD away from the fovea treated with proton beam irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: Even in eyes receiving high doses of radiation to the optic nerve for treatment of intraocular tumors, approximately two thirds of patients develop radiation papillopathy.  

PURPOSE: Factors contributing to the development of normal tension glaucoma (NTG), degenerative optic neuropathy characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells, optic nerve axons, and visual fields, have not been determined.  

Foveal cysts and optic nerve head drusen were present in two of the four families.  

OS affects both TM and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and may be involved in the neuronal death affecting the optic nerve in glaucoma.  

We proposed that in the initiation of glaucoma (POAG) an alteration in the quality of blood flow dynamics in the optic nerve head results in sustained or intermittent ischemia of a defined nature. Other insults to the ganglion cells might come from substances such as glutamate, prostaglandins and nitric oxide released from astrocytes and microglia in the optic nerve head region. Such cascades of events initiated by ischemia to the optic nerve head region ultimately cause ganglion cells to die at different rates..  

Papillorenal syndrome also known as renal-coloboma syndrome (OMIM 120330) is an autosomal dominant condition comprising optic nerve anomaly and renal oligomeganephronic hypoplasia. Ocular examination disclosed bilateral optic nerve coloboma. The 18-week gestation fetus presented the papillorenal syndrome including hypoplastic kidneys and optic nerve coloboma.  

BACKGROUND: Photobiomodulation by red to near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been reported to accelerate wound healing, attenuate degeneration of an injured optic nerve, and promote tissue growth.  

The septum pellucidum was absent in 5 cases; however, optic nerve hypoplasia was not found in these patients.  

However, exogenous BDNF does not provide retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with long-lasting neuroprotection in vivo during optic nerve axotomy or glaucoma rat models of neurodegeneration. Methods: animal models of acute neurodegeneration (complete optic nerve axotomy) and chronic neurodegeneration (ocular hypertension, glaucoma) were used. This work contributes to understanding neurotrophic mechanisms underlying RGCs death in glaucoma and optic nerve axotomy..  

To investigate the effect of chronically elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) on expression of water channel aquaporins (AQPs) 1, 4 and 9 in the optic nerve and retina in rats. At two and four weeks after surgery, eyeballs with the attached optic nerve were enucleated for cryosectioning with immunohistochemistry, or dissected retinas and de-sheathed optic nerves were subjected to gene expression analyses. In the control optic nerve, the unmyelinated portion showed only AQP9 immunoreactivity, whereas the myelinated portion expressed both AQP4 and 9 immunoreactivities, which were co-labeled for glial fibrillary acidic protein, but not for neurofilament. Elevated IOPs substantially reduced AQP9 expression in the optic nerve head (ONH) and the GCL and decreased the retinal gene expression, but not immunoreactivity, of AQP1.  

Purpose: To compare the effects of a topical alpha agonist (vasoconstrictor) and a prostaglandin receptor (FP) agonist (vasodilator) on circulation in the optic nerve head (ONH) in experimental glaucomatous and normal eyes of monkeys.  

In optic nerve, TBARS values were 6.9 +/- 0.5 nmoles/mg protein* (7 days), 9.4 +/- 0.4 nmoles/mg protein* (15 days), 18.0 +/- 1.2 nmoles/mg protein* (30 days) 43.1 +/- 5.3 nmoles/mg protein* (60 days) (control 6.2 +/- 0.4 nmoles/mg protein * p < 0.001).  

This same compound promotes regeneration of dorsal column axons after acute lesions and potentiates regeneration of optic nerve axons after nerve crush in vivo.  

Current knowledge on glaucoma progression relates elevation of the intraocular pressure (IOP) to optic nerve damage and hence visual impairment.  

However, MRI showed a lesion in left intraorbital and intracanalicular optic nerve and several cerebral lesions with imaging features of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs).  

Intraorbital transection of the optic nerve (ON) always induces ultimate apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and consequently irreversible defects of vision function.  

Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy.  

It exceptionally compresses the optic nerve.  

PURPOSE: To improve understanding of vision loss and clinical findings, we studied gross and microscopic pathology of retinas and optic nerves of individuals with Terson's syndrome. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Abnormalities in retina and optic nerve. Continuous and noncontinuous blood occurs along optic nerves, within nerve sheaths, and in the subdural and subarachnoid spaces. Patterns of hemorrhages of optic nerve contribute to understanding mechanisms of Terson's syndrome.  

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Intraocular hemorrhages (IOH), perimacular retinal folds, traumatic retinoschisis and optic nerve sheath hemorrhages have been reported as cardinal signs of AHT. optic nerve sheath hemorrhages had a sensitivity and specificity for AHT of 72% and 71%, respectively. optic nerve sheath hemorrhages are significantly more common in AHT than in other conditions, in autopsy studies.  

Purpose: To evaluate the factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of the stereometric optic nerve head (ONH) parameters of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) to glaucomatous progression in stereoscopic ONH photographs.  

Early treatment of the orbital traumatic encephalocele is necessary in order to avoid the increase of the intra orbital pressure that might damage the optic nerve.  

An external approach may be required when critical structures such as the ICA, cavernous sinus, or optic nerve are involved by lesions that are persistent after previous treatment; such a situation may prevent safe and radical dissection with a pure endoscopic approach.  

This article reviews the historical and current concepts of 'tobacco optic neuropathy' (TON) a rare disorder of optic nerve function related to the toxic effects of an unidentified constituent of tobacco.  

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), revealed the absence of the right eye, left microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, aplasia of the optic chiasm, and tracts.  

Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral optic neuritis and a Gd-DPTA-enhanced cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickened enhancement of the dura and optic nerve sheath.  

Cystic formation of the optic meninges may occur after optic nerve sheath decompression surgery for the management of pseudotumor cerebri. A case with a cyst-like structure of the distal optic nerve sheath at the operation site in the late surgical period after nerve sheath decompression surgery is reported..  

A 75 year-old female with optic nerve head damage secondary to chronic open angle glaucoma developed macular schisis and a separate area of retinoschisis nasal to her optic disk. Glaucoma related structural defects offer a plausible explanation for multiple cavities of retinoschisis in favor of multiple occult congenital pits of the optic nerve head..  

Funduscopic examination revealed a congenital optic disc anomaly that was atypical in appearance, but most likely a variant of optic nerve coloboma, the entrance coloboma, in which the defect is limited to the junction of the optic nerve and its sheaths with the sclera alone.  

The aim of this study was to screen genes related to the development and injury of the mouse optic nerve so as to provide possible target genes for gene-engineering therapy of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Gene expression was profiled by cDNA microarrays in the mouse superior colliculus at 8-time points during the development or following injury of the optic nerve; consequently, 1,095 highly expressed genes (ratio >/=2) were identified. These genes may play key roles in the development, injury, and repairment of the optic nerve..  

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of repeated administrations of three prostaglandin F(2alpha) analogs (tafluprost, latanoprost, and travoprost) on optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow in normal rabbits.  

INVESTIGATIONS: Neurological examination; routine laboratory testing; MRI of the spine and brain; lumbar puncture; electromyography; sensory, motor and visual evoked potentials, optic nerve optical coherence tomography; immunoelectrophoresis; cryoglobulins; immunological and infection tests; screening for onconeural antibodies; measurement of serum metabolic values, including vitamins B(12) and E, folates, homocysteine, copper, zinc and pyruvic acid; transketolase activity; gastrointestinal endoscopies; and the glucose breath test.  

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