Olfactory Tubercle

The Olfactory Tubercle (OT) is a cortical component of the olfactory system involved in reward mechanisms of drug abuse.  

Compared to control, vAChT was lowered (up to 50%) at each time point after trauma, with reductions in Olfactory Tubercle, basal forebrain, motor cortex, putamen, thalamic and hypothalamic areas and the gigantocellular reticular nucleus. Time-dependent reductions of about 20% of nAChR-density in the thalamus, hypothalamus, Olfactory Tubercle, gigantocellular reticular nucleus and motor cortex were observed post-TBI at 24 and 72 h.  

However, ethanol-sensitized mice showed reduced levels of D2 binding in the Olfactory Tubercle when compared to the other groups. Our data suggest that D2 receptor changes in the Olfactory Tubercle seem to play an important role in the expression of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization..  

The comparative distribution of LGR8 (receptor protein) was examined by autoradiography of [ (125)I]-human INSL3 binding sites, with high densities detected in the thalamus, especially in Pf, and in the entire striatum-the caudate putamen (CPmu), islands of Calleja, Olfactory Tubercle, nucleus accumbens-with lower levels in distinct layers of cerebral cortex.  

A small decrease in D1 receptor binding was seen in the dorsal striatum and Olfactory Tubercle, and a small decrease of in tyrosine hydroxylase in the Olfactory Tubercle, but no change was seen in D2 receptor binding.  

RG-15, similar to haloperidol and amisulpride, dose-dependently inhibited in vivo [ (3)H]raclopride binding in mouse striatum, enhanced dopamine turnover and synthesis rate in mouse and rat striatum and Olfactory Tubercle.  

Following tracer injections into the thalamus, retrogradely labelled neurons were found in the depth of the Olfactory Tubercle (particularly the hilus of the Callejal islands and the insula magna), in subdivisions of the diagonal band complex, the peripeduncular region and the thalamic reticular nucleus.  

However, in striatum and Olfactory Tubercle, it was maintained through P0-P10 and P0-P5, respectively.  

Increases in D2 binding sites, presumably involving GABAergic projection neurons, were measured in the nucleus accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle and ventral tegmental area of the 5-HT1B KO.  

RATIONALE: Behavioral and anatomical data suggest that the ventral striatum, consisting of the nucleus accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle, is functionally heterogeneous. Cocaine and D: -amphetamine appear to be more rewarding when administered into the medial Olfactory Tubercle or medial accumbens shell than into their lateral counterparts, including the accumbens core. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether rats self-administer the popular recreational drug (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) into ventrostriatal subregions and whether the medial Olfactory Tubercle and medial accumbens shell mediate MDMA's positive reinforcing effects more effectively than their lateral counterparts. RESULTS: Rats receiving 30 mM MDMA into the medial Olfactory Tubercle, medial accumbens shell, or accumbens core, but not the lateral tubercle or lateral shell, showed higher self-administration rates than rats receiving vehicle. The medial shell supported more vigorous self-administration of MDMA at higher concentrations than the core or medial Olfactory Tubercle. Together with previous data, our data also suggest that unidentified actions of MDMA interfere with the positive reinforcing effects of dopamine in the medial Olfactory Tubercle..  

Based on its striatal output, it has been subdivided in a caudomedial part which targets the ventromedial striatum, and a lateral part which targets the ventrolateral striatum [ Ikemoto S (2007) Dopamine reward circuitry: two projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the nucleus accumbens-Olfactory Tubercle complex.  

The resulting anterograde labeling includes the Olfactory Tubercle, the islands of Calleja and sparse terminal fields in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. The analysis of the distribution of neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and substance P in the ventral striato-pallidum of rats, and the anterograde tracing of the vomeronasal amygdaloid input in the same material confirm that, similar to reptiles, the ventral striatum of mammals includes a specialized vomeronasal structure (Olfactory Tubercle and islands of Calleja) displaying dense neuropeptide Y-, tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-immunoreactive innervations.  

Anatomical studies have shown that the vomeronasal amygdala gives rise to important projections to the Olfactory Tubercle and the islands of Calleja, suggesting that these amygdalo-striatal pathways might be involved in the reinforcing value of sexual pheromones..  

Interestingly, there were some early (P0) projections from the olfactory epithelium to the medial septal region and lamina terminalis (by the terminal nerve) and to Olfactory Tubercle and basal forebrain.  

These include the infralimbic, prelimbic, dorsal agranular insular, and entorhinal cortices, the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus, dorsal tenia tecta, claustrum, lateral septum, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens (core and shell), Olfactory Tubercle, bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), medial, central, cortical, and basal nuclei of amygdala, and the suprachiasmatic, arcuate, and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus.  

Vacuoles were located primarily in the myelinated areas close to cerebellar roof nuclei, but were also seen in the Olfactory Tubercle, thalamus, cerebral cortex, septum and basal ganglia.  

No such changes were obtained from the Olfactory Tubercle suggesting that these effects might be specific for the striatum.  

The posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus mainly projects to other amygdaloid nuclei; other seemingly minor outputs are directed to the ventral striatum, in particular to the Olfactory Tubercle and the islands of Calleja. RESULTS: Although the olfactory projections have been previously described in the literature, injection of dextran-amines into the rat main olfactory bulb was performed with the aim of delimiting the Olfactory Tubercle and posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus in our own material. Injection of dextran-amines into the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus of rats resulted in anterograde labeling in the ventral striatum, in particular in the core of the nucleus accumbens, and in the medial Olfactory Tubercle including some islands of Calleja and the cell bridges across the ventral pallidum. CONCLUSION: The present results extend previous descriptions of the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus efferent projections, which are mainly directed to the core of the nucleus accumbens and the medial Olfactory Tubercle. Our data indicate that the projection to the core of the nucleus accumbens arises from layer III; the projection to the Olfactory Tubercle arises from layer II and is much more robust than previously thought. This latter projection is directed to the medial Olfactory Tubercle including the corresponding islands of Calleja, an area recently described as critical node for the neural circuit of addiction to some stimulant drugs of abuse..  

Dopamine loss and serotonin elevation in the striatum and Olfactory Tubercle were confirmed.  

In situ hybridization analysis of NEP mRNA levels showed decreased expression at stage II in CA1, CA2, Olfactory Tubercle and medial mammillary nucleus, and increased at stage V in CA1 and CA2 cells. APN mRNA levels, semi-quantified by RT-PCR, were decreased at stage II and increased at stage V, in frontal cortex-Olfactory Tubercle, and hippocampus.  

The present studies further revealed that the levels of active phosphorylated forms of p38MAPK and CREB were significantly higher in the SIB(+) group than in the SIB(-) group in the striatum, but not in cortex or Olfactory Tubercle.  

RESULTS: High enzyme activity was observed in regions rich in cholinergic innervation such as the Olfactory Tubercle, basal forebrain, putamen and superior colliculi.  

Those originating in the ventral domain of this structure occupy the thickness of the Olfactory Tubercle (OT), whereas cells from the rostral LGE migrate tangentially into the most anterior telencephalon, at the level of the prospective olfactory bulb (pOB).  

However, the olfactory bulb also projects to other targets, including the rarely studied Olfactory Tubercle, a ventral brain region recently implicated in regulating cocaine-related reward behavior.  

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have monitored the expression of c-fos protein in the parietal cortex (R3 and T3) and in the Olfactory Tubercle (R4 and T4), regions which are supplied with blood by different arteries.  

In male rats, neurons expressing MCH are found in the lateral hypothalamic area and medial zona incerta, as well as, sparsely, in the Olfactory Tubercle and pontine reticular formation.  

From the perspective of comparative morphology, the distribution of non-monoaminergic neurons in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was investigated using an immunohistochemical method with specific antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC).TH-immunoreactive (IR) neurons (but not AADC-IR) neurons were observed in the Olfactory Tubercle, preoptic suprachiasmatic nucleus, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray matter, medial longitudinal fasciculus, substantia nigra, and nucleus solitaris.In contrast, AADC-IR (but not TH-IR), small, oval and spindle-shaped neurons were sparsely distributed in the following areas: the hypothalamus from the anterior nucleus to the lateral nucleus, the dorsomedial nucleus, the dorsomedial area of the medial mammillary nucleus and the arcuate nucleus; the midbrain, including the stria medullaris and substantia nigra; and the medulla oblongata, including the dorsal area of the nucleus solitaris and the medullary reticular nucleus.  

Present experiments suggest that dopaminergic neurons localized in the posteromedial ventral tegmental area (VTA) and central linear nucleus raphe selectively project to the ventromedial striatum (medial Olfactory Tubercle and medial nucleus accumbens shell), whereas the anteromedial VTA has few if any projections to the ventral striatum, and the lateral VTA largely projects to the ventrolateral striatum (accumbens core, lateral shell and lateral tubercle). A review of the literature suggests that (1) the midbrain has corresponding zones for the accumbens core and medial shell; (2) the striatal portion of the Olfactory Tubercle is a ventral extension of the nucleus accumbens shell; and (3) a model of two dopamine projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the ventral striatum is useful for understanding reward function.  

Transcript levels for 5-HT6 in the Olfactory Tubercle inversely correlated with the level of locomotion in a novel environment.  

Our results showed that mPMAT mRNA and protein are broadly expressed in the mouse brain and are particularly abundant in forebrain cortex, Olfactory Tubercle, hippocampus, cerebellum and epithelial cells of the choroid plexus.  

Treatment of acutely ovariectomized rats with raloxifene alone increased the density of SERT sites in the mid-frontal cortex and decreased the density of 5-HT(2A)R in the posterior Olfactory Tubercle.  

In situ hybridization revealed high expression of DBZ mRNA in the hippocampus, Olfactory Tubercle, cerebral cortex and striatum in rats.  

The highest labeling was observed in monoaminergic neuron regions (caudate putamen, Olfactory Tubercle, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, dorsal raphe and locus coerules).  

Olfactory Tubercle), relatively high expression was found in hippocampus and olfactory bulb and low/no expression in cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus and brain stem.  

anterior group), a number of brainstem nuclei, and darkly stained neurons in the Olfactory Tubercle/piriform cortex.  

The results show that the RLi heavily innervates the Olfactory Tubercle (mainly the polymorph layer) and the ventrolateral part of the ventral pallidum, but largely avoids the accumbens. Overall, the data suggest that the RLi is a distinct VTA component in that it projects primarily to pallidal regions of the Olfactory Tubercle and to their diencephalic targets, the central division of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and the lateral part of the lateral habenula.  

In contrast, activity in the Olfactory Tubercle was associated with type, and not valence, of odors.  

Retrograde tracer experiments showed that some NOS positive tufted cells, which were also CCK positive, constitute the intrabulbar association system and the projection system to the Olfactory Tubercle.  

Voluntary ethanol consumption altered mu-opioid receptor function in the cingulate cortex, caudate-putamen (CPu), nucleus accumbens core (Acb C) and shell (Acb S), the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra, proenkephalin (PENK) in the piriform cortex, Olfactory Tubercle, CPu, Acb C and Acb S, ventromedial nucleus (VMN) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in PVN, cannabinoid CB(1) receptor (CB1-R) in the CPu, hippocampus and VMN, and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei.  

From the mid-fetal period onward, a thin TN fiber bundle with some intermingled perikarya connects M to the brain by penetrating its wall rostral to the Olfactory Tubercle.  

BSTL also connects reciprocally with two main regions: 1) the same continuum as for PoAc projections, except the piriform cortex and 2) rostral areas of the hemisphere, including the Olfactory Tubercle and nucleus accumbens.  

Concerning (3)H-DAMGO binding, high values were found in several cortices, medial amygdala nucleus, dorsal dentate gyrus, and periaqueductal gray, whereas reduced binding was detected in anterior Olfactory Tubercle, cingulated cortex, thalamus, basolateral amygdala, substantia nigra, and dorsal and ventral CA fields. High (3)H-DPDPE binding was noticed in CA1 field from dorsal hippocampus, while reduced values were found in cingulate cortex, Olfactory Tubercle, thalamus, and substantia nigra.  

The medial and intralaminar nuclei also projected heavily upon the Olfactory Tubercle.  

Finally, we examined the effects of bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of nucleus accumbens core, medial shell or anteromedial Olfactory Tubercle on the rewarding and locomotor stimulant effects of methylphenidate. Instead, conditioned place preference magnitude was associated with dopamine innervation in the anteromedial Olfactory Tubercle. As well, they suggest that different ventral striatal subregions mediate the rewarding (anteromedial Olfactory Tubercle) and locomotor stimulant (accumbens core) effects of methylphenidate..  

Administration of biotinylated dextran amine into the vitreous body resulted in nerve cell body labeling in several structures: the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, the hippocampus (CA1, CA3), the dentate gyrus, the indusium griseum, the Olfactory Tubercle, and the medial habenula, all of them belong to the limbic system.  

Dopamine transporter density was significantly lower in putamen, nucleus accumbens, and Olfactory Tubercle in males, but not female rats while the serotonin transporter was significantly different from control animal density in five of 14 brain regions.  

Both sensitized and nonsensitized mice showed higher D4 binding densities than saline-treated controls in the posterior caudate-putamen and the Olfactory Tubercle (p < .02), but only sensitized mice presented higher D4 binding than controls at the lateral septal nucleus (p < .02).  

RESULTS: No effects were found in the prefrontal cortex, Olfactory Tubercle and amygdala, whereas the pharmacological impact induced a slight but significant DA hyperinnervation in the nucleus accumbens.  

Thus, we focused on G(olf) protein, a stimulant alpha-subunit of G protein that is coupled with the dopamine D1 receptor and specifically expressed in the striatum (nucleus accumbens, caudate/putamen and Olfactory Tubercle) in the rat brain.  

During the acute period of lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, EAAC1 transporter expression increased in the pyramidal neurons of cornus ammonis (CA)1, CA2 and CA3 (fields of the hippocampus), in dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells and in Olfactory Tubercle (Tu).  

In a subsequent study, we investigated the effects of Olfactory Tubercle versus medial shell lesions on cocaine-conditioned place preference and locomotor activity (0.5 mg/kg i.v.). Finally, the Olfactory Tubercle was identified as an additional site contributing to conditioned place preference produced by i.v.  

We find LRRK2 is highly expressed in the striatum, cortex and Olfactory Tubercle; however, little or no expression is found in the substantia nigra, where dopaminergic neurons preferentially degenerate in Parkinson's disease.  

As in other species, small, intensely nNOS-immunoreactive cells were seen within the Olfactory Tubercle, caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens and amygdala.  

Dopamine D1 receptor binding was decreased in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle and ventral pallidum of D2 receptor knockout mice. All dopamine receptor knockout mice examined exhibited increased A2A receptor binding in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle.  

CB2 immunoreactivity was also observed in Olfactory Tubercle, islands of Calleja, cerebral cortex, striatum, thalamic nuclei, hippocampus, amygdala, substantia nigra, periaqueductal gray, paratrochlear nucleus, paralemniscal nucleus, red nucleus, pontine nuclei, inferior colliculus and the parvocellular portion of the medial vestibular nucleus.  

In WKY rats, the binding of [ 3H]-GBR12935 to DAT sites was increased in the basolateral, central and lateral nuclei of the amygdala, lateral nucleus of the hypothalamus, Olfactory Tubercle, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra (P < 0.05) and decreased in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and the CA1 region of the hippocampus.  

Among the regions displaying the most intense labelling were the Olfactory Tubercle, lateral septum (LS), caudate putamen (Cpu), central amygdaloid nucleus (Ce), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SO), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), lateral reticular nucleus (LRt) and solitary tract nucleus (NTS).  

In the Olfactory Tubercle, neither ovariectomy nor treatments changed D(2) receptor binding.  

Although the reduction in the number of DAergic neurons was comparable between the SNc and the VTA, we found an unexpected selectivity in the deinnervation of the terminal fields affecting preferentially the ventral striatum and the Olfactory Tubercle.  

This study was undertaken to determine whether the Olfactory Tubercles of two monotremes (platypus and echidna) showed cyto- or chemoarchitectural differences from the tubercles of therian mammals. The Olfactory Tubercle is a poorly laminated structure in the echidna, despite the pronounced development of other components of the echidna olfactory system, and the dense cell layer of the Olfactory Tubercle was found to be discontinuous and irregular. In Golgi impregnations of the echidna Olfactory Tubercle, the most abundant neuron type was a medium-sized densely spined neuron similar to that seen in the Olfactory Tubercle of some therians. In the platypus, the Olfactory Tubercle was very small but showed more pronounced lamination than the echidna, although no granule cell clusters were seen. In both monotremes, the development of the Olfactory Tubercle was poor relative to other components of the olfactory system (bulb and piriform cortex). The small Olfactory Tubercle region in the platypus is consistent with poor olfaction in that aquatic mammal, but the tubercle in the echidna is more like that of a microsmatic mammal than other placentals occupying a similar niche (e.g., insectivores)..  

the calbindin-poor part of the shell anterior to the core) and striatal parts of the Olfactory Tubercle, than those arising in the shell and projecting to the core.  

Both isoforms were expressed in neuronal subgroups outside the hippocampus, such as in the cerebral cortex layer VI, or the neurons in the Olfactory Tubercle.  

Accordingly, mice showed no NKB in the projection areas of these nuclei, such as the Olfactory Tubercle, whereas a clear NKB signal was present in rat tissues.  

In both 3-week- and 1-year-old rats, RGS9 is expressed abundantly in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and Olfactory Tubercle. Quantitative analysis showed that the intensities of RGS9 expression in 1-year-old rats are higher than those in the 3-week-old rats in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle, periaqueductal gray, and gray matter of the spinal cord.  

Chronic MTEP also caused a significant decrease in mGlu5 gene expression and a significant increase in dopamine transporter and dopamine D(2)-like receptor binding within the Olfactory Tubercle.  

High levels of expression were detected in brain regions involved in olfaction, feeding behavior, sensorimotor integration, and learning and memory, for example, the olfactory bulb, the Olfactory Tubercle, the caudate putamen, the thalamus and hypothalamus, the nucleus accumbens, the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus formation, and the cerebellum.  

Ethanol administration markedly increased DOC levels in plasma, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and Olfactory Tubercle of na├»ve rats.  

Film autoradiograms showed intense GAD65 labeling in many structures of the basal telencephalon, such as the medial and lateral striatum, the septum, the Olfactory Tubercle, the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the intrapeduncular nucleus, while the pallial telencephalon showed only a low level of labeling.  

RESULTS: Using anterograde and retrograde tracer techniques in the Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec (Afrosoricidae, Afrotheria) it was shown in this study that the dentate hilar region gave rise to a faint, but distinct, bilateral projection to the most rostromedial portion of the Olfactory Tubercle, particularly its molecular layer. CONCLUSION: The dentate hilar neurons projecting to the Olfactory Tubercle cannot be considered displaced cells of CA3 but represent true dentato-tubercular projection neurons. The rostromedial Olfactory Tubercle might represent a distinct ventral striatal target area worth investigating in studies of the parallel processing of cortico-limbic information in tenrec as well as in cat and monkey..  

In contrast, several brain regions were highly conserved between prairie and meadow voles, including many subnuclei examined within the hypothalamus and Olfactory Tubercle.  

ID males also had a 20-30% reduction in 5-HT transporter binding in several areas (nucleus accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle, colliculus) while in ID females there was 15-25% increased serotonin transporter binding in the Olfactory Tubercle, zona incerta, anteroventral thalamic nucleus and vestibular nucleus.  

When projection analyses placed the nucleus accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle in the striatal system, functional links between these sites began to emerge. The accumbens has been implicated in the rewarding effects of psychomotor stimulants, whereas recent work suggests that the medial accumbens shell and medial Olfactory Tubercle mediate the rewarding effects of cocaine. Here, we report results suggesting that the current division of the ventral striatum into the accumbens core and shell and the Olfactory Tubercle does not reflect the functional organization for amphetamine reward.  

METHODS: To determine the effect of acute ethanol on DAT function in vivo, we measured dopamine uptake in real time using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry in the Olfactory Tubercle of anesthetized rats. RESULTS: Ethanol (2.5 and 4 g/kg, intraperitoneally) decreased the electrically stimulated dopamine signal in the Olfactory Tubercle by 35-55%.  

In contrast, MSK1 is expressed at highest levels in striatal and Olfactory Tubercle neurons and to a lesser degree in cerebellar Purkinje cells.  

Analyses were performed in brain regions that express Pdyn mRNA and/or KOP-R and that might participate in seizure circuitry: the piriform cortex, Olfactory Tubercle, nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, claustrum, dorsal endopiriform nucleus, and cingulate cortex.  

The highest levels of hybridization are observed in Olfactory Tubercle, islands of Calleja, dentate gyrus, caudate-putamen and some thalamic nuclei. By double in situ hybridization histochemistry, we found that 74% and 79% of the cells expressing PDE7B mRNA in striatum and Olfactory Tubercle, respectively, were GABAergic cells (expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA), in contrast with the lack of expression in the few cholinergic cells (expressing choline acetyltransferase mRNA) present in those two areas (around 0.4% in Olfactory Tubercle).  

Therefore, the differences between the two regions in the reactions to the drugs to a large extent could be explained by a high and low synthesis of D(A), under controlled conditions in the Olfactory Tubercle and the corpus striatum..  

In this reported line, recombination of an R26R reporter allele occurred postnatally in the majority of medium-size spiny neurons of the dorsal and ventral striatum (caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens/Olfactory Tubercle), as well as in the piriform cortex and choroid plexus.  

RT-PCR indicates that all three variants are widely distributed, with 5-HT4(b) mRNA being present in all regions examined (Olfactory Tubercle, striatum, hippocampus, inferior colliculus, substantia nigra, parietal cortex) and 5-HT4(a) and 5-HT4(e) showing a somewhat more restricted distribution.  

A high level of uptake in the striatum was also shown at all time points in the Olfactory Tubercle, which is known to have dopaminergic neurons. On the other hand, radioligand uptake in both the striatum and the Olfactory Tubercle was significantly blocked (80%) by ligand 1.  

Immunolabeling for caspase-substrate cleavage, using an antibody directed at the caspase derived fragment of alpha-spectrin, was observed in discrete cell populations of the rostral dentate gyrus, dorsal striatum, extreme paramedian CA1 hippocampus, indusium gresium, Olfactory Tubercle, and thalamus.  

Projections from the anterior frontal cortex, on the other hand, terminated extensively upon the caudate-putamen and also involved the nucleus accumbens and the Olfactory Tubercle. The entorhinal cortex also projected heavily to the Olfactory Tubercle but unlike other species it scarcely involved the nucleus accumbens.  

In C57BL/6J and 129OlaHsd mice, [ (125)I]-GAL binding sites were detected throughout the brain, including moderate-high relative densities in the basal ganglia (caudate putamen, nucleus [ n.] accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle, substantia nigra), limbic regions (septum, bed n.  

We examined the role of conditioning trial duration in CPP with cocaine injections into the medial Olfactory Tubercle.  

In contrast, D1-like and D2-like receptor binding were significantly higher within the Olfactory Tubercle, ventral tegmental area, and NAc core and shell of ko mice.  

Whereas a temporal subregion comprising temporal piriform cortex (PirT) responded equally across conditions, a frontal subregion comprising frontal piriform cortex (PirF) and the Olfactory Tubercle responded preferentially to attended sniffs as opposed to unattended sniffs.  

(5) Fibre connections between the Olfactory Tubercle and the olfactory bulb, as well as those to the amygdaloid nuclei, forebrain septum, and hippocampus, develop during and after stage 17.  

[ 35S]GTPgammaS responses to deltorphin II were strongest in the extended striatum (caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle) and cerebral cortex.  

Within the ventral striatum, immunoreactivity was more pronounced within the Olfactory Tubercle and the shell region of the nucleus accumbens than in the nucleus accumbens core and was especially marked within the lateral striatal stripe.  

Stress reduced cingulate cortex NMDA receptor binding and increased Olfactory Tubercle kainate receptor binding only in C-sectioned animals, but not in controls.  

By using quantitative receptor autoradiography, it was found that PTZ kindling led to a decrease in DA D2 receptor density (about 20%) in all regions of the neostriatum (NS) as well as in the Olfactory Tubercle (OT), the nucleus accumbens (NA) and the globus pallidus, which persisted 24 h and 7 days after the kindling procedure.  

Hippocampus, cerebral cortex, amygdala, thalamus, striatum, nucleus accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle and dopaminergic cell groups of substantia nigra, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb showed strong labeling with anti-sGi2.  

The present experiment examined the effect of the dopamine transporter blocker nomifensine on subsecond fluctuations in dopamine concentrations, or dopamine transients, in the nucleus accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle. Moreover, nomifensine increased the frequency of detected dopamine transients, both during baseline conditions and at the presentation of stimuli, but more profoundly in the nucleus accumbens than in the Olfactory Tubercle.  

Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a lack of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, not only in the substantia nigra, caudate nucleus and putamen but also in the Olfactory Tubercle. The olfactory disturbance observed in these animals may be due to the lack of dopamine in the Olfactory Tubercle..  

On the other hand, the cDR mice had significantly lower 5-HT transporter binding than the cDIO and LF mice, respectively, in the nucleus accumbens (-44%, -38%, both p<0.02), central nucleus of the amygdaloid nucleus (-40%, -44%, p=0.003 and 0.009), and Olfactory Tubercle nucleus (-42%, -42%, both p=0.03).  

These cells give rise to granule neurons in the Islands of Calleja and Olfactory Tubercle pyramidal layer, respectively.  

The expression of exon 11-like immunoreactivity (-LI) was seen primarily in the Olfactory Tubercle, caudate-putamen, globus pallidus and substantia nigra.  

Additional HCt efferents are directed to the subcallosal septum (presumed septohippocampal nucleus), the Olfactory Tubercle and the islands of Calleja.  

Additionally, the rostroventral part of what was called the lobus parolfactorius was acknowledged as comparable to the mammalian nucleus accumbens, which, together with the Olfactory Tubercle, was noted to be part of the ventral striatum in birds.  

No significant differences were detected in the claustrum, parietal cortex, piriform cortex, caudate putamen, Olfactory Tubercle, nucleus accumbens, shell and core.  

alpha and beta subunits gave similar widespread staining throughout the CNS, which was strongest in neostriatum, Olfactory Tubercle, and supraoptic nucleus.  

As an initial step towards understanding the odor processing functions of these secondary olfactory structures, we recorded evoked field potentials in response to lateral olfactory tract stimulation in vivo in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats in the following brain structures: anterior olfactory nucleus, ventral and dorsal tenia tecta, Olfactory Tubercle, anterior and posterior piriform cortex, the anterior cortical nucleus of the amygdala, and lateral entorhinal cortex.  

There was also an increase in c-fos mRNA expression in the medial-dorsal striatum and Olfactory Tubercle, which was more evident in juvenile rats.  

Mouse BREK mRNA is expressed predominantly in brain, especially in olfactory bulb, Olfactory Tubercle, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex.  

Layer II projects chiefly ipsilaterally to the olfactory bulb and anterior olfactory nucleus, bilaterally to the anterior piriform cortex, dwarf cell cap regions of the Olfactory Tubercle and lateral shell of the accumbens, and contralaterally to the lateral part of the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure.  

Neurons containing VGLUT3 transcript are essentially observed in the caudate-putamen, the Olfactory Tubercle, the nucleus accumbens, the hippocampus, the interpeduncular nucleus and the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei. The distribution of the VGLUT3 protein, as determined with specific antisera, overlaps with that of the transcript in the caudate-putamen, Olfactory Tubercles, hippocampus, cortex, interpeduncular nucleus, and raphe nuclei, suggesting that VGLUT3 is essentially present in local projection neurons in these regions.  

The main targets of septal projections comprised the ipsi- and contralateral septal nuclei, including the nucleus of the diagonal band, basal ganglia, including the ventral paleostriatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, and Olfactory Tubercle, archistriatum, piriform cortex, and anterior neostriatum.  

Oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons were also found in other structures such as the olfactory bulb, Olfactory Tubercle, primary and secondary motor cortex, fronto-parietal cortex, piriform cortex and the nucleus of the internal capsule.  

The activity of cholinergic innervations of and/or interneurons in the Olfactory Tubercle, caudate putamen, diagonal band-pre-optic region, ventral pallidum, lateral and medial hypothalamus, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area and visual cortices reflected by the turnover rates of acetylcholine were significantly altered in rats self-administering cocaine compared to yoked cocaine infused controls.  

PDE2 mRNA was distributed more widely, with highest levels in medial habenula, and abundant expression in olfactory bulb, Olfactory Tubercle, cortex, amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus.  

Main projection sites of PL are: the agranular insular cortex, claustrum, nucleus accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle, the paraventricular, mediodorsal, and reuniens nuclei of thalamus, the capsular part of the central nucleus and the basolateral nucleus of amygdala, and the dorsal and median raphe nuclei of the brainstem.  

We now report that cocaine (60 or 200 mm in 75 nl/infusion) is readily self-administered into the Olfactory Tubercle, the most ventral portion of the ventral striatum.  

Previous experiments have demonstrated that OBX leads to increased expression of the preproenkephalin (ENK) gene in the Olfactory Tubercle (OT) portion of the ventral striatum in rats.  

Within the context of the new anatomy of the basal forebrain, structures such as the accumbens, the Olfactory Tubercle, and the amygdala have lost legitimacy as independent functional-anatomical units at the same time as the major components of the last uncharted territory of the human brain, the substantia innominata, have been identified..  

Furthermore, strong staining was detected in areas such as cortical layer V, Olfactory Tubercle, caudate putamen and hippocampal pyramidal and granule cells.  

GIR was highly expressed in the nucleus accumbens, striatum, Olfactory Tubercle and nuclei of the hypothalamus. Three hours following acute dexamethasone treatment (0.05 mg/kg, p.o.), levels of GIR mRNA were found to be significantly decreased in striatum (25%, P<0.05), nucleus accumbens (19%, P<0.05), Olfactory Tubercle (19%, P<0.05) and CA2 sub-region of the hippocampus (30%, P<0.05) compared with vehicle.  

accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle), indicating that PDE10A is expressed by the striatal medium spiny neurons.  

These consisted of nuclear staining for huntingtin and huntingtin-containing nuclear and neuropil aggregates that first appeared in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, and Olfactory Tubercle.  

Projection neurons in the ventral striatum, the accumbens nucleus and Olfactory Tubercle, were examined by combining the retrograde tracing method and immunocytochemistry with antibodies against C-terminals of the preprodynorphin (PPD), preproenkephalin (PPE), preprotachykinin A (PPTA) and preprotachykinin B (PPTB). Although no Olfactory Tubercle neurons projected fibers to the mesencephalic regions, 60% and 40% of Olfactory Tubercle neurons projecting to the ventrolateral portion of the ventral pallidum were immunoreactive for PPD and PPE, respectively, as were the accumbens nucleus neurons. About 70% of accumbens nucleus and Olfactory Tubercle neurons projecting to the ventral pallidum and all accumbens nucleus neurons projecting to the ventral mesencephalic regions showed PPTA immunoreactivity.  

Effects were similar in the Olfactory Tubercle.  

Numerous PVs occupy all structures currently regarded as having a striatal composition, including the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and Olfactory Tubercle, as well as structures that receive outputs from these, including the globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, entopeduncular nucleus and substantia nigra reticulata.  

Dense fiber staining was observed within the islands of Calleja, Olfactory Tubercle, hippocampal complex, amygdala; moderate to light fiber staining was seen in iso- and limbic cortices.  

High basal expression of the heteronuclear transcript that appeared unchanged by the immune stimulus was seen in regions not primarily involved in the immune response, such as the striatum, the Olfactory Tubercle, and the islands of Calleja and in the immune activated central nucleus of the amygdala.  

In situ hybridization experiments were conducted to determine the expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunit mRNAs, z1, epsilon1 and epsilon2, in striatum, nucleus accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle and cerebral cortical regions of 26-day-, 3- and 6-month-old weaver mice.  

The local inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission remained normal in the OC of SOX1-deficient brains, but there was a severe developmental deficit of OC postsynaptic target neurons, mainly GABAergic projection neurons within the Olfactory Tubercle and the nucleus accumbens shell.  

Dopamine D(1) receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle did not differ between strains and was not affected by chronic binge cocaine.  

The Olfactory Tubercle also showed a significant increase, but only in sNAC1 expression and at only one time period.  

DA, DOPAC and HVA concentrations in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle and midbrain were reduced but most markedly in the striatum. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations were elevated in the striatum, nucleus accumbens (not 5-HIAA) and Olfactory Tubercle..  

In the cat the deep branches running through the area of the olfactory trigone arose from the beginning part of the middle cerebral artery in numbers 5-10 and entered the brain in the Olfactory Tubercle.  

Mice lacking both Gsh1 and Gsh2 have severe hypoplasia of the striatum, Olfactory Tubercle, and interneurons that migrate from the dorsal LGE to the olfactory bulb.  

Ethanol treatment significantly increased CYP2E1 in olfactory bulbs (1.7-fold), frontal cortex (2.0-fold), hippocampus (1.9-fold) and cerebellum (1.8-fold), while nicotine induced CYP2E1 in olfactory bulbs (2.3-fold), frontal cortex (3.0-fold), Olfactory Tubercle (3.1-fold), cerebellum (2.5-fold) and brainstem (2.0-fold).  

Moderate labeling was seen in the CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, thalamus, Olfactory Tubercle, amygdala, and substantia nigra reticulata.  

Data were collected from several key limbic (nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, Olfactory Tubercle, amygdala, hippocampus, ventral pallidum, and septum), basal ganglia, cortical (medial prefrontal, frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, entorhinal, piriform, and cingulate), and subcortical (thalamus, habenula, and superior colliculus) structures.  

In control mice, [ (3)H]rauwolscine binding was most abundant in the Olfactory Tubercle, accumbens and caudate putamen nuclei, and in the CA1 field of the hippocampus. alpha(2C)-AR are thus present in brain regions involved in the processing of sensory information and in the control of motor and emotion-related activities such as the accumbens and caudate putamen nuclei, the Olfactory Tubercle, the lateral septum, the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the frontal and somatosensory cortices.The current results may help in specifying an anatomical framework for the functional roles of the alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-AR subtypes in the mouse CNS..  

Spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal produced time-related significant alterations in gene transcription: (i) decreased (20%) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area and increased (50%) in substantia nigra; (ii) increased proenkephalin (PENK) gene expression more than 100% in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle and piriform cortex; (iii) increased (20-40%) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

In contrast, SJW resulted in a region-specific alteration of [ (3)H]mazindol binding to dopamine transporters, such as increased binding of [ (3)H]mazindol in the Olfactory Tubercle and decreased binding in the ventral tegmental area.  

In addition to the well-known local effects, direct stereotaxic injection of KA into the CP produced distant effects in the ipsilateral Olfactory Tubercle (OT).  

In one study, normal male mice were maintained either in aggregate (i.e., normal, intraspecies social behavioral controls) or isolated (i.e., developed, non-social intraspecies aggressive 'fighter' behavior) housing environments, and the accompanying changes in both Olfactory Tubercle (OT) and hypothalamic (HYPOTH), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) concentration indices quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for analysis of behavior-related alterations in localized bioamine deposition loci.  

TUNEL positive cells were widely distributed in mice at age 13-14 months, and obvious in the Olfactory Tubercle, anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, and amygdala.  

On the other hand, no detectable effect on spontaneous or amphetamine-induced locomotion was found when procaine was injected into the medial ventral striatum, including the medial shell and medial Olfactory Tubercle.  

Instead of reaching the olfactory bulb, these cells migrated ventrally into the Olfactory Tubercle, where they expressed a mature neuronal phenotype (MAP-2). These findings reveal that the RMS in New World monkeys is mitotically robust and markedly extended and suggest that Bcl-2 might play a role in the survival and/or differentiation of newborn neurons destined to olfactory bulb and Olfactory Tubercle in primates..  

The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is important in the reward and reinforcing properties of many addictive drugs: however, the effect of nicotine by cigarette smoking itself on the expression of DA receptors in the caudate-putamen (CPu), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and Olfactory Tubercle (OTu) has not been elucidated completely.  

Their brains were removed after a 20 min session and tissue punches taken from the nucleus accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle, anterior striatum, or central striatum.  

The ventral striatum is the ventral conjunction of the caudate and putamen that merges into and includes the nucleus accumbens and striatal portions of the Olfactory Tubercle.  

A dense hybridization signal was also observed in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, Olfactory Tubercle, pineal gland, and cerebellar cortex.  

caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core and shell, Olfactory Tubercle). The DAT-associated proportion of total [ 125I]epibatidine binding was 36+/-2% (caudate-putamen), 28+/-3% (accumbens core), 27+/-4% (accumbens shell) and 44+/-5% (Olfactory Tubercle).  

Ovariectomy decreased dopamine D(2) receptor specific binding (20%) in the dorsolateral part of the anterior striatum and these receptors were left unchanged in the other parts of the striatum as well as in the Olfactory Tubercle and the nucleus accumbens.  

At 30 days, there was a decrease in M1 receptors in the Olfactory Tubercle (with and without heat), and, with heat stress, M1 sites also decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the frontal cortex, anterior olfactory nucleus, and hippocampus. In the presence of heat stress, there was an upregulation in binding site densities in the frontal cortex, Olfactory Tubercle, anterior nucleus, and striatum immediately after exposure, and these effects persisted at 30 days.  

There is also consensus that A(2A)R are present in the nucleus accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle where they have been postulated to interact with prostaglandins in the regulation of sleep. Binding was also found in the nucleus accumbens and the Olfactory Tubercle, but was not detected in extra-striatal brain regions..  

Further anterograde labelling was found in the endopiriform nucleus deep under the prepiriform cortex and within an anterolateral strip of the Olfactory Tubercle. However, control injections into the Olfactory Tubercle suggest that the marmoset Olfactory Tubercle receives a bisynaptic olfactory input only. Retrograde labelling after bulb injections revealed that, except for the Olfactory Tubercle, all primary olfactory cortices contributed to an ipsilateral bulbopetal feedback projection.  

In addition, serotonin transporter densities were increased in the ventromedial caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens shell, and the Olfactory Tubercle in cocaine-treated adult rats compared to vehicle-treated adult rats.  

In the present study, we investigated the distributions and colocalizations of immunoreactivities for those prepropeptides in the ventral striatum, such as the accumbens nucleus (Acb) and Olfactory Tubercle (OT).  

In addition, increased BDNF immunoreactivity was found in fibers of many projection targets of the basolateral amygdala--the central extended amygdala, Olfactory Tubercle, medial nucleus accumbens, and in small zones resembling striosomes in the dorsal medial striatum.  

Hippocampal efferents terminated most densely in the medial and ventral portions of nucleus accumbens, along with light label in the adjacent Olfactory Tubercle. The entorhinal projections were more evenly distributed between the medial nucleus accumbens and the Olfactory Tubercle, whereas the perirhinal projections were primarily to the Olfactory Tubercle.  

Infusion of unlabelled mirtazapine markedly displaced [ N-methyl-11C]mirtazapine from binding sites in the basal ganglia, thalamus and frontal cortex, but not in reference regions (cerebellum and Olfactory Tubercle).  

In situ hybridization examined preprotachykinin A mRNA levels in the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the islands of Calleja, the Olfactory Tubercle, the dorsal and ventral caudate-putamen, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the medial preoptic area, the medial habenular nucleus and in the postero-dorsal part of the medial amygdala. Higher levels of preprotachykinin A mRNA were found in the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, in the islands of calleja, in the Olfactory Tubercle, in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, in the medial habenular nucleus and the postero-dorsal part of the medial amygdala, compared to control animals.  

However, injections of mixtures of the D(1)- and D(2)-type agonists SKF 38393 and quinpirole or cocaine into the medial Olfactory Tubercle or the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens induced marked locomotion and rearing, while these injections into the core induced little or no locomotion or rearing. Similar to the nucleus accumbens, the Olfactory Tubercle, particularly the medial portion, also mediates these behaviors induced by dopaminergic compounds.  

We compared the effects of lesions in four sites: the medial and lateral caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and Olfactory Tubercle.  

NMDAR1 content was measured by quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry in prefrontal cortex, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle, and piriform cortex immediately after cessation of the last session of cocaine self-administration (Day 0) and 1, 5, and 10 days after the extinction period. NMDAR1 levels of contingent animals decreased progressively in the absence of cocaine, and the decrement persisted 10 days after the extinction of cocaine self-administration behavior in all the forebrain areas, with the exception of Olfactory Tubercle.  

Significant reductions in nociceptin peptide levels were seen in the frontal cortex and Olfactory Tubercle of these rats.  

In the rabbit Olfactory Tubercle, citalopram (1-10 microM) inhibited [ (3)H]5-HT uptake; however, the maximal degree of inhibition achieved was 70%. These results suggest that in the rabbit Olfactory Tubercle, where there is coexistence of 5-HT, NE, and DA neurons, inhibition of the 5-HT transporter led to accumulation of 5-HT in catecholaminergic terminals.  

Paroxetine increased micro-opioid receptor binding site density in cingulate and insular cortices, dorsal endopiriform nucleus (4 days) and Olfactory Tubercle (21 days) and decreased it in thalamus (21 days).  

The inhibition curves demonstrated that in three regions, striatum, nucleus accumbens, and Olfactory Tubercle, [ (3)H]dopamine was taken up exclusively by dopaminergic terminals.  

High levels of specific binding occurred in the corpus striatum, nucleus accumbens, Islands of Calleja and the Olfactory Tubercle. The 5-HT(6) receptor ligand binding seen here in the striatum, accumbens, Olfactory Tubercle, Islands of Calleja, cerebral cortex and hippocampus are in concordance with previous immunohistochemical studies, and suggest a possible involvement of 5-HT(6) receptors in locomotor control, cognition, memory, and control of affect.  

Markedly intense TH-, CaM- and CaMKII-like immunoreactivities were distributed in the anterior dorsolateral and posterior areas of the neostriatum, nucleus accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle.  

WGA protein was further conveyed via the lateral olfactory tract to the olfactory cortical areas including the anterior olfactory nucleus, Olfactory Tubercle, piriform cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex.  

Electron microscopy shows that the immunoreactivity is located mainly in the neuronal cytoplasm, but also occurs in the cell nucleus in some cells of the caudate putamen and Olfactory Tubercle.  

accumbens) and Olfactory Tubercle (OT).  

(iv) The meandering dense layer (DL) of Olfactory Tubercle (OT) forms longitudinal gyrus- and sulcus-like structures converging in its rostral pole.  

The chronic dns-PQRa-treated (13 mg/kg, i.p., b.i.d.) rats caused a significant increase in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the Olfactory Tubercle compared to the vehicle-treated controls. There was also an increase in the turnover of serotonin in the Olfactory Tubercle, nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex.  

In contrast, VGluT1 immunoreactivity was intense in the Olfactory Tubercle, layers I-III of the neocortex, piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and subiculum.  

In striatum and Olfactory Tubercle, CB1 is coexpressed to a high extent with D1, D2 and 5-HT1B.  

The [ (11)C]-labeled R enantiomer of GR89696, also known as GR103545, demonstrated high affinity in mouse brain with region to cerebellar ratios at 90 minutes of 11.4 and 8.7 for the hypothalamus and Olfactory Tubercle, respectively.  

Therefore, to examine mGluR3-selective distribution, we used mGluR2-deficient mice as well as wild-type mice.Strong immunoreactivity for mGluR3 was found in the cerebral cortex, striatum, dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, Olfactory Tubercle, lateral septal nucleus, lateral and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei, and nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract.  

We show that LGE cells migrate ventrally and anteriorly, and give rise to the projecting medium spiny neurons in the striatum, nucleus accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle, and to granule and periglomerular cells in the olfactory bulb.  

LCGU rates were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in several limbic (e.g., ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens shell, Olfactory Tubercle, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral hypothalamus), cortical (e.g., parietal, temporal, occipital, cingulate, piriform, and entorhinal), and subcortical (e.g., thalamus, habenula, preoptic area, and striatum) regions in P rats, compared with NP and Wistar rats, whereas rates in Wistar rats were higher in a few regions (e.g., CA1 and CA3 regions of the posterior hippocampus) than NP rats.  

The projections of the BLA are totally different from those of the Ce as they terminate in the dorsal striatum, the accumbens nucleus, the Olfactory Tubercle, the nucleus of olfactory tract and the rostral pole of the cingulate/frontal cortex.  

In the adult brain, SHIP2 was mainly restricted in structures containing neural stem cells such as the anterior subventricular zone, the rostral migratory stream and the Olfactory Tubercle.  

In several limbic regions (e.g., ventral tegmental area, Olfactory Tubercle, medial prefrontal cortex, ventral pallidum and lateral septum), no recovery of LCGU rates was observed after 2 weeks of alcohol deprivation.  

In contrast, ethanol consumption increased preproenkephalin mRNA in the central and intercalated nuclei of the amygdala but decreased preproenkephalin mRNA in the nucleus accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle.  

Olfactory information is projected from the olfactory bulb to the primary olfactory cortex, which is composed of the anterior olfactory nucleus, the Olfactory Tubercle, the piriform cortex, the amygdala, the periamygdaloid region, and the entorhinal cortex.  

High-affinity choline transporter-immunoreactive cell bodies were demonstrated in the Olfactory Tubercle, basal forebrain complex, striatum, mesopontine complex, medial habenula, cranial nerve motor nuclei, and ventral horn and intermediate zone of the spinal cord.  

Acute administration of morphine enhanced DA metabolism in the caudate-putamen in the AA, but not in the ANA, rats; in the nucleus accumbens and in the Olfactory Tubercle the acute effect of morphine was similar in rats of both lines.  

Light projections end in the Olfactory Tubercle, lateral septal nucleus, posterior basolateral amygdalar nucleus, supramammillary nucleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract.  

Despite the administration of haloperidol and D-amphetamine to elicit and enhance neurotensin/neuromedin N messenger RNA expression in striatum, including the nucleus accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle, no double-labeled neurons were observed there.These results identify a novel brain substrate for control of midbrain dopamine levels, which affect reward mechanisms and motivation..  

Ovariectomy in rats decreased L-[ 3H]glutamate specific binding to NMDA receptors in CA1 and dentate gyrus but not CA2/3 regions of hippocampus and was without effect in cortex, striatum, nucleus accumbens, and Olfactory Tubercle.  

The purpose of this study was to examine the time course effects of extinction of cocaine self-administration behavior on proenkephalin (PENK) gene expression in caudate-putamen nucleus (ST), nucleus accumbens (Acc), Olfactory Tubercle (Tu), piriform cortex (Pir), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), and central amygdala (Ce) as measured by in situ hybridization histochemistry.  

However, in the Olfactory Tubercle, A2A mRNA and receptor binding decreased significantly.  

We have exploited the complementary arrangement of afferents in a coronal slice (300-400 microm) of the rat Olfactory Tubercle (OT) maintained in vitro to investigate transmission in two separate synaptic pathways.  

FMRFamide perikarya were located along the ventral surface of the vomeronasal nerve, in the olfactory peduncle mediobasally, as well as in the anterior olfactory nucleus and Olfactory Tubercle.  

Levels of 5-HIAA were reduced in the Olfactory Tubercle and cortex. HVA levels were lower in Olfactory Tubercle, but were elevated in the hippocampus.  

A reduction of the NMDA receptor density was observed in the cerebral cortex and amygdala 16 days after OBX, but not in the striatum, Olfactory Tubercle, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus.  

No significant interline differences were found in the prefrontal, cingulate, frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital or entorhinal cortices, Olfactory Tubercle, nucleus accumbens, lateral septum, ventral tegmental area, hypothalamus, caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, claustrum, central gray, or superior colliculus.  

RESULTS: Data were collected from several key limbic (nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, Olfactory Tubercle, amygdala, hippocampus, ventral pallidum, and septum), basal ganglia, cortical (medial prefrontal, frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, entorhinal, pyriform, and cingulate), and subcortical (thalamus, habenula, and superior colliculus) structures.  

Increased dopamine D1 receptor binding was found in the nucleus accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle following twice daily cocaine injections, but not after single daily injections of the same total daily dose.  

At the lower dose of the chronic phase, for example, significant increases of 21-42% were measured at the caudal level of the ventral caudate, ventral putamen, Olfactory Tubercle, and accumbens core and shell.  

The highest levels of hybridization were observed in the olfactory bulb, Olfactory Tubercle, hippocampus, cerebellum, medial habenula nucleus, pineal gland, area postrema, and choroid plexus.  

The striatum, the nucleus accumbens, and the Olfactory Tubercle displayed strong, diffuse staining for the subunits alpha2, alpha4, beta3, and delta presumably located on dendrites of the principal medium spiny neurons.  

High densities of binding sites were observed in the cingulate, insular, temporal, occipital, enthorhinal cortex, amygdaloid complex, septohippocampal nuclei, medial thalamus, mammillary bodies and superior colliculi; a moderate labelling was observed in the anterior and medial hippocampus, Olfactory Tubercle, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray matter, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, septum, lateral thalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus and cerebellum; finally, a low labelling was apparent in the ventral tegmentum area and substantia nigra.  

These were the Olfactory Tubercle, nucleus accumbens, ventral mesencephalon, periventricular gray from the hypothalamus to the pons, facial nucleus, subdivisions of the inferior olive, and the intermediolateral nucleus in the spinal cord.  

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