Nucleus Taeniae

We predicted that similar effects would occur in Japanese quail after repeated sexual experience within brain areas involved in sexual behavior, namely, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), and the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA), an avian homolog of medial amygdala.  

In 17-day-old embryos, ERbeta was highly expressed in the preoptic area, the nucleus taeniae of the Amygdala (TnA) and the BSTm.  

Significant group differences in the number of FOS-immunoreactive (FOS-ir) cells were found in two brain regions, the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA) and the hippocampus (Hp).  

We investigated the sex differences in the mRNA expression of androgen receptors, estrogen receptor alpha, and aromatase in two brain nuclei involved in reproductive and aggressive behavior in the black coucal, the nucleus taeniae and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In the nucleus taeniae, however, we show for the first time, that females have a higher mRNA expression of androgen receptors than males.  

mRNA expression of ERalpha in the preoptic area and AR in the nucleus taeniae were elevated in male spotted antbirds during the nonbreeding season when circulating T concentrations were low.  

mRNA expression of ERalpha in the preoptic area and AR in the nucleus taeniae were elevated in male spotted antbirds during the nonbreeding season when circulating T concentrations were low.  

The neural pathways indicate that the hippocampal formation plays a central role in the limbic system, which also includes the dorsolateral corticoid area, nucleus taeniae of the amygdala, posterior pallial amygdala, septum, medial part of the anterior dorsolateral nucleus of the thalamus, and the lateral mammillary nucleus.  

The maximal CB(1) receptor density value (using [ (3)H]CP55,940 as radioligand) was found in the molecular layer of the cerebellum (Mol), and high binding values were observed in the nucleus taeniae amygdalae (TnA), nucleus preopticus medialis, and nucleus pretectalis.  

Two regions were recently recognized as subpallial amygdaloid nuclei in birds, the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA) and the newly identified subpallial amygdala (SpA).  

Prominent labeling was also evident in the nucleus taeniae and subpallial amygdala, but not in the arcopallium in film autoradiograms.  

In the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial nucleus, nucleus taeniae, and the caudomedial nidopallium, although cells containing either protein were easily detectable, the level of co-expression was minimal.  

Instead, brain regions involved in sexual motivation and arousal, including the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), nucleus taeniae (Tn), and area ventralis of Tsai (AVT) might regulate the motivation to sing, at least in a sexual context.  

The posterior part of the archistriatum has been renamed the posterior pallial amygdala, the nucleus taeniae recognized as part of the avian amygdala, and a region inferior to the posterior paleostriatum primitivum included as a subpallial part of the avian amygdala.  

Numerous CRF-ir perikarya and fibers were present in the hyperstriatum, hippocampus, neostriatum, lobus parolfactorius, and archistriatum, as well as in the nucleus taeniae, nucleus accumbens, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which exhibited the strongest immunolabeling in the telencephalon.  

The nucleus taeniae (TN) is theorized to be homologous to the medial amygdaloid nucleus.  

Neurochemical, hodological and functional criteria suggest that the nucleus taeniae and parts of the adjacent archistriatum represent the avian homologue of parts of the mammalian amygdaloid complex. It has been proposed in particular that the nucleus taeniae is the homologue of the mammalian medial amygdala. We investigated the effects of discrete lesions restricted to nucleus taeniae and of lesions to an adjacent part of the archistriatum (pars intermedium ventralis, AIv) on the expression of appetitive (ASB) and consummatory (CSB) aspects of male sexual behavior. Lesions confined to nucleus taeniae and to AIv did not influence the acquisition or the maintenance of the two responses indicative of ASB. In contrast, lesions of nucleus taeniae significantly increased the occurrence frequencies of MA and CCM when administered before the beginning of behavior testing and increased the frequency of MA only when performed on sexually experienced subjects. These findings indicate that there is a larger degree of functional heterogeneity in the nucleus taeniae than previously thought.  

In contrast, the dorsal part of the archistriatum intermedium, the nucleus taeniae, a medial part of the lobus parolfactorius and the dorsomedial part of the hippocampus displayed an extremely dense serotonergic innervation.  

Testosterone affected the oxidative metabolism in brain areas that are known to contain sex steroid receptors (such as the nucleus taeniae and the paraventricular and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus) but also in nuclei that are believed to be devoid of such receptors.  

The four types of receptors are broadly distributed in the brain, and, in particular, immunoreactive cells are identified within the major aromatase cell groups located in the medial preoptic nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, nucleus striae terminalis, and nucleus taeniae.  

However, biochemical and immunocytochemical measures reveal that in the manakin, several telencephalic loci, including the hippocampus, caudomedial neostriatum, nucleus taeniae, and the lateral neostriatum express aromatase.  

However, ERbeta mRNA was also found in many brain areas that are traditionally thought to be important in the regulation of reproductive functions such as the preoptic region, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the nucleus taeniae.  

Overall, aromatase activity was high in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and ventromedial telencephalon (containing nucleus taeniae, the avian homologue to the amygdala).  

Transcripts are present in many nuclei implicated in the control of reproduction such as the medial preoptic nucleus, the nucleus striae terminalis, and the nucleus taeniae, the avian homologue of the amygdala.  

AR+ cells were found in HVc and other song nuclei, hippocampus, nucleus taeniae (homologue to mammalian amygdala), and the hypothalamus.  

In situ hybridization with a 35S-labelled oligoprobe in sections through the preoptic area-rostral hypothalamus identified high expression in the medial preoptic nucleus, bed nucleus striae terminalis and nucleus taeniae.  

AR-ir material was detected in the nucleus of cells located in a variety of brain areas in the preoptic region and the hypothalamus including the medial preoptic (POM), the supraoptic, the paraventricular (PVN), and the ventromedial (VMN) nuclei, but also in the tuberculum olfactorium, the nucleus accumbens/ventral striatum, the nucleus taeniae, the tuberal hypothalamus, the substantia grisea centralis (GCt), and the locus ceruleus.  

nucleus taeniae (Tn) is a prominent cell group within the medial archistriatum of birds.  

Aromatase mRNA is distributed widely in several areas of the cowbird telencephalon including the hippocampus, caudomedial neostriatum (including Field L), and nucleus taeniae.  

Possible neural mechanisms or sites that could underly hormonal organization of sexual partner preference in birds and mammals include the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic area, the corticomedial amygdala, and its avian homologue nucleus taeniae of the archistriatum, the septum, and peripheral sensory processes..  

A lower density of NPY binding sites was found in the different subdivisions of the striatum, the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis, the paleostriatum, the archistriatum intermedium pars ventralis, the nucleus geniculatus lateralis, the nucleus taeniae, the locus ceruleus, the nucleus rotondus, the nucleus habenularis medialis, the nucleus dorsomedialis anterior (rostralis) thalami, the pituitary and the area of the hypothalamus with its nuclei such as the nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis and the nucleus preopticus medialis.  

They were also present in high numbers in the ventrolateral aspect of the neostriatum and in the nucleus taeniae.  

Moreover, the present study reveals that NCL is reached by a limbic projection from the nucleus taeniae.  

Dorsolateral injections gave rise to projections innervating the rostralmost extension of the HP, a laminar complex including the dorsal and ventral hyperstriata and the lamina frontalis superior, the rostral lobus parolfactorius, the medial and ventral paleostriatal regions, the lateral septal nucleus, the nucleus of the diagonal band, the dorsolateral corticoid area, the archistriatum posterius, and the nucleus taeniae in the telencephalon.  

Serotonin-IR fibers and terminals were found to be very broadly distributed within the brain and were particularly prominent in several structures of the telencephalon (archistriatum pars dorsalis, nucleus taeniae, area parahippocampalis, septum), diencephalon (nuclei preopticus medianus, magnocellularis, nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis, nucleus triangularis, nucleus pretectalis), mesencephalon-rhombencephalon (superficial layers of the optic tectum, nucleus ectomamillaris, nucleus isthmo-opticus and in most of the cranial nerve nuclei).  

The new cell groups identified by the antibody raised against quail recombinant aromatase were located in an area ventral to the fasciculus prosencephali lateralis, the nucleus accumbens, the paleostriatum ventrale, the nucleus taeniae, the area around the nucleus ovoidalis, the caudal tuber and the mesencephalic central gray.  

Specific labeling densities were associated with avian equivalents of the mammalian pyramidal system (hyperstriatum accessorium; archistriatum intermedium and tractus occipitomesencephalicus) and extrapyramidal system (paleostriatum augmentatum, paleostriatum primitivum and lobus parolfactorius), as well as several limbic structures (hippocampal formation, nucleus taeniae and the caudal part of the archistriatum).  

This allowed to identify new groups of immunoreactive cells, namely in the nucleus accumbens, in the area of the paleostriatum ventrale, in the nucleus taeniae, in the medial and caudal hypothalamus and in the medial part of the mesencephalon and of the pons.  

Neurons and processes were also observed in several regions of the hyperstriatum as well as in the archistriatal nucleus taeniae.  

Medial to the nucleus taeniae, an accumulation of stained cells was observed that appeared to merge with a band of stained neurons located dorsal to the occipitomesencephalic tract.  

ir-cGnRH II fibers were prominent in limbic structures (cortex piriformis, lateral to nucleus taeniae, hippocampus); olfactory areas (tuberculum olfactorium, nucleus subhabenularis lateralis, nucleus septalis lateralis); areas that in other avian species have steroid-concentrating cells or receptors (medial edge of lobus parolfactorius, nucleus septalis medialis, nucleus periventricularis magnocellularis, nucleus dorsomedialis posterior thalami); and areas containing ir-GnRH I cells or fibers but not in median eminence.  

In the two songbird species, labeled cells were also observed in various nuclei in the preoptic-hypothalamic region, in the nucleus taeniae, and in the nucleus intercollicularis.  

Immunoreactive fibres were observed throughout, particularly within the paraolfactory lobe, the lateral septum, the nucleus taeniae, the preoptic area, the periventricular hypothalamic regions, the tuberal complex, and the ventrolateral thalamus.  

Very noticeable was the presence of a very high aromatase activity in the hippocampal and parahippocampal region and in the nucleus taeniae and the absence of this enzyme in ICo.  

This was particularly the case for the nucleus taeniae, the nucleus intercollicularis and the central gray.  

Following 3H-T or 3H-E2 injection and autoradiography, labelled cells were found in nucleus septalis lateralis (SL), nucleus preopticus medialis (POM), nucleus paraventricularis (PVN), regio lateralis hypothalami (LHy), nucleus inferior hypothalami (IH), nucleus infundibuli (IN), nucleus intercollicularis (ICo), substantia grisea centralis (GCt), nucleus taeniae (Tn), and in the reticular formation near nucleus motorius nervi trigemini (MV).  

Brain regions ablated or isolated include the nucleus taeniae (Tn), piriform cortex (CPi), frontal archistriatum (FA) and ventral archistriatum (AV).  

Within the telencephalon, the following neural structures receive input from neurons in the LoC and subcoeruleus cell groups: the paleostriatal complex including the paleostriatum augmentatum and lobus parolfactorius, septal nuclei, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, hippocampus and parahippocampal area, nucleus taeniae, dorsal archistriatum, lateral neostriatum, hyperstriatum dorsale, hyperstriatum ventrale, and preoptic area.  

In addition to identified intrinsic connections within Hp and APH, both Hp and APH were found to be in receipt of ipsilateral forebrain afferents from each other, the hyperstriatum accessorium, nucleus of the diagonal band, nucleus taeniae, and area corticoidea dorsolateralis. Forebrain efferents from both Hp and APH were found to project ipsilaterally to the septum, the area of the fasciculus diagonalis Brocae, nucleus taeniae, and area corticoidea dorsolateralis.  

In turtles, olfactory bulb input encompasses the entire mediolateral and rostrocaudal extent of the amygdaloid region, while in pigeons the input is restricted to a small dorsomedial portion of the amygdala termed nucleus taeniae of the archistriatum.  

There was also a significant amount of labelling in the archistriatum (ARCH), particularly in the nucleus taeniae (Tn), and in the lateral septum.  

Major areas of concentration of labeled cells were found in (1) the preoptico-strial region: nucleus preopticus medialis and nucleus interstitialis of the dorsal olfactory projection, (2) the basal hypothalamic region: nucleus hypothalamicus posterior medialis and nucleus inferior, (3) the amygdaloid region: nucleus taeniae and adjacent portions of the archistriatum, and (4) the midbrain: substantia grisea surrounding the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis.  

Other areas containing hormone-concentrating cells are the medial preoptic area, nucleus periventricularis magnocellularis of the hypothalamus, dorsal infundibular layers, dorsomedial thalamus, lateral septum, magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum, periventricular medial neostriatum, nucleus taeniae of the archistriatum, and ventral paleostriatum augmentatum.  

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