Nucleus Of Posterior Commissure


One working model is that reduced PPI after infusion of NMDA into this region is mediated via its efferents to ventral forebrain structures, i.e., medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens.  

Object The authors discuss their method for placement of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes using interventional MR (iMR) imaging and report on the accuracy of the technique, its initial clinical efficacy, and associated complications in a consecutive series of subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS implants to treat Parkinson disease (PD).  

METHODS: We retrospectively fit a 3-dimensional brain atlas to MER points from 10 DBS surgeries targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN).  

OBJECT: High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with parkinsonian symptoms is often used to ameliorate debilitating motor symptoms associated with this condition. However, individual variability in the shape and orientation of this relatively small nucleus results in multiple side effects related to the spread of electrical current to surrounding structures.  

In rats and primates, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeN) is most known for its role in responses to fear stimuli. To examine how information flows through this key output region of the primate amygdala, we first placed small injections of retrograde tracers into the subdivisions of the central nucleus in Old world primates, and examined inputs from specific amygdaloid nuclei. The amygdalostriatal area and interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) were distinguished from the CeN using histochemical markers, and projections to these regions were also described. As expected, the basal nucleus and accessory basal nucleus are the main afferent connections of the central nucleus and transition zones. The medial subdivision of the central nucleus (CeM) receives a significantly stronger input from all regions compared to the lateral core subdivision (CeLcn). The corticoamygdaloid transition zone (a zone of confluence of the medial parvicellular basal nucleus, paralaminar nucleus, and the sulcal periamygdaloid cortex) provides the main input to the CeLcn. The IPAC and amygdalostriatal area can be divided in medial and lateral subregions, and receive input from the basal and accessory basal nucleus, with differential inputs according to subdivision. The piriform cortex and lateral nucleus, two important sensory interfaces, send projections to the transition zones. Like the CeN, the transition zones receive most of their input from the basal nucleus and accessory basal nucleus, however, inputs from the piriform cortex and lateral nucleus, and a lack of input from the parvicellular accessory basal nucleus, are distinguishing afferent features..  

OBJECTIVE: The optimal imaging modality for preoperative targeting of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for high-frequency stimulation is controversially discussed.  

CONCLUSION: Optimal electrode location for thalamic DBS in essential tremor corresponds to the anterior margin of the ventralis intermedius nucleus.  

During the first 2 weeks of postnatal development, numerous GATA3-expressing cells were found in the intergeniculate leaf, ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, pretectal nucleus, nucleus of the posterior commissure, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, periaqueductal grey, substantia nigra and raphe nuclei.  

The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a promising new target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in parkinsonian patients with gait disturbance and postural instability refractory to other treatment modalities. This paper reviews the anatomy of the human PPN and describes novel, clinically relevant methods for the atlas-based and MRI-based localization of the nucleus. The coordinates for each directly localized nucleus were measured in relation to third and fourth ventricular landmarks. For the directly localized nucleus, there was similar concordance for the rostral pole of the PPN in relation to third and fourth ventricular landmarks (P>0.05).  

Respective inversion and recovery times, which provided high T(1) contrast between the subthalamic nucleus and adjacent tissue, were 200 and 4000 ms. In studies of 3 volunteers and 2 patients, the subthalamic nucleus was clearly depicted in 3D phase sensitive IR images. The measured coordinates of the subthalamic nucleus agreed well with those calculated by conventional estimation from midpoint of the anterior and posterior commissure. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional phase sensitive inversion recovery was useful in visualizing the subthalamic nucleus for effective deep brain stimulation..  

The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is part of a group of midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei implicated in arousal and attention. The anterior and posterior regions of the PVT were found to send a dense projection to the nucleus accumbens. The posterior PVT was also found to provide a strong projection to the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), regions associated with the extended amygdala. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex were found to receive a relatively weak projection from the PVT, and other regions of the BST and amygdala were found to be poorly innervated by the PVT. The projection from the PVT to the nucleus accumbens and extended amygdala places the PVT in a key anatomical position to influence adaptive behaviors as well as the physiological and neuroendocrine responses associated with these behaviors..  

In the present study we therefore characterized CGRP-containing amygdaloid afferents by injecting the retrograde tracer FluoroGold (FG) into subnuclei of the amygdala and adjacent divisions of the extended amygdala, namely, the lateral (LA) and central (CE) amygdaloid nuclei, interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC), and the amygdalostriatal area (AStr). The analysis of the posterior thalamus revealed that about 50% of CGRP-containing neurons projected to the AStr, the projections originating in the medial part of the medial geniculate body, posterior intralaminar nucleus, parvicellular subparafascicular nucleus, and peripeduncular nucleus. CGRP-containing parabrachial neurons projected to the AStr and lateral, capsular, and medial parts of the CE, the projections originating in the external, crescent, and central parts of the lateral parabrachial nucleus and external part of the medial parabrachial nucleus.  

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a common target of functional stereotactic surgeries. High-field magnetic resonance imaging and sophisticated computer systems provide precise identification of the nucleus location in stereotactic space. The accuracy of AC-PC-based standard atlas coordinate targeting of the STN using 1.5-tesla images compared with direct visualization of the nucleus on fused 3-tesla images was examined.  

Electrical stimulation (ES) of the thalamic centromedian nucleus (CMN) has been proposed as a minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of difficult-to-control seizures of multifocal origin and seizures that are generalized from the onset. Experience has indicated that the most effective target for seizure control is the thalamic parvocellular centromedian subnucleus..  

OBJECT: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson disease is often very effective for treatment of debilitating motor symptoms.  

The occurrence of cell bodies positive for LENK in the dorsal nucleus of the rostral subpallium supports the hypothesis that this nucleus is homologous to the striatum in other vertebrates.  

METHODS: Thirty-one patients who had undergone bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) were included in this study.  

OBJECT: The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is currently recognized as the preferred target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD).  

The current study evaluated the role of the nucleus accumbens (NAC), bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), interstitial nucleus of posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC), and central amygdala (CeA) in the expression of antagonist-precipitated suppression of operant responding for food as a measure of withdrawal from acute opioid dependence. Thus, among the components of extended amygdala examined in this study, rapid neuroadaptation within the nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis appear to play the most prominent role in antagonist-precipitated suppression of operant responding during the early stages in the development of opioid dependence..  

Thus, the highest density of cell bodies containing d-glutamate was observed in the dorsal raphe nucleus, the ventral part of the mesencephalic central gray, the superior colliculus, above the posterior commissure, and in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus. A moderate density of immunoreactive cell bodies was observed in the dorsal part of the mesencephalic central gray, above the rostral linear nucleus of the raphe, the nucleus of Darkschewitsch, and in the medial habenular nucleus, whereas a low density was found below the medial forebrain bundle and in the posterior thalamic nuclear group.  

MRI revealed a unilateral midbrain infarct involving the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF) and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) and spared the posterior commissure (PC).  

The main areas shown to project to the optic tectum were the following: the caudoventral part of the medial pallium, the area of the ventral thalamus and dorsal thalamus, the nucleus of the posterior commissure, the torus semicircularis, the mesencephalic M5 nucleus of Schober, the mesencephalic reticular area, the ishtmic area, and the octavolateral nuclei. On the basis of these double-labelling experiments, it was shown that the optic tectum receives a GABAergic input from the caudoventral part of the medial pallium, the dorsal and ventral thalamus, the nucleus of M5, and the torus semicircularis.  

Following tectal injections, backfilled diencephalic cells were found bilaterally in: prethalamic eminence, ventral geniculate nucleus, periventricular prethalamic nucleus, periventricular pretectal nucleus, precommissural nucleus, magnocellular and parvocellular nuclei of the posterior commissure and pretectal nucleus; and ipsilaterally in: nucleus of Bellonci, periventricular thalamic nucleus, nucleus of the tuberculum posterior, and the subpretectal tegmentum, as well as in the pineal organ. In the hindbrain, tectal projecting cells were also bilaterally labeled in the dorsal and lateral isthmic nuclei, the octavolateral area, the sensory nucleus of the descending trigeminal tract, the dorsal column nucleus and the reticular formation.  

PURPOSE: We have discovered a method for localization of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) utilizing the supramammillary commissure (SMC) as reference point. A modified red nucleus and mustache method was applied. RESULTS: Modified red nucleus method using Surgiplan, and EBAL and BAGM electronic brain map atlas matched the target loci of 12 mm, -3 mm, -4 mm on an X-, Y-, and Z-coordinate system with zero at the mid-commissural point.  

The dorsal border of the subthalamic nucleus was located 0.6 +/- 1.2 mm (n = 27) below the AC-PC plane and the most effective electrode contact 1.2 +/- 1.3 mm (n = 27) below it. Conclusions: Stimulation around the dorsal border of the subthalamic nucleus, close to the AC-PC plane, produces greater improvement of parkinsonian symptoms than stimulation at more ventral or dorsal sites..  

At first we refer to the posterior commissure and coordinate of the standard atlas for approximately determining the lateral part of the ventral intermediate nucleus.  

Discrete cell patches of dopamine D1 receptor and mu-opioid receptor-1 IR were also identified in a distinct region of the extended amygdala, the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure, medial division (IPACM), which displayed sparse tyrosine hydroxylase or enkephalin/beta-endorphin IR nerve terminals.  

OBJECT: Implantation of a subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode is increasingly recognized as an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD).  

BACKGROUND: An understanding of the relationships between the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line (AC-PC), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and red nucleus (RN) is imperative if these structures are to be used for targeting in deep brain stimulation. The distances from the midcommissural point (mcp) to the centers of the STN and RN, the diameters for each nucleus, and the distances between the nuclei were calculated in the x-, y-, and z-axes.  

The highest density of fibers containing thiamine was observed in the pulvinar nucleus and in the region extending from the pulvinar nucleus to the caudate nucleus. Thus, immunoreactive fibers were found in nuclei close to the midline (centrum medianum/parafascicular complex), in the ventrolateral thalamus (medial geniculate nucleus, inferior pulvinar nucleus), and in the dorsolateral thalamus (lateral posterior nucleus, pulvinar nucleus).  

GnIH-ir cells were localized in the nucleus accumbens, paraventricular nucleus, and upper medulla, and GnIH-ir fibers from the paraventricular nucleus contacted the lateral processes of serotonin-ir neurons in the PVO. In addition, we found that serotonin-ir fibers from the PVO extended to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and the retrograde transport method confirmed the PVO projections to the SCN.  

OBJECTIVE: The optimal imaging modality for preoperative targeting of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for high-frequency stimulation is controversially discussed.  

In general, the vertical gaze center is thought to be present in the midbrain, including the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, posterior commissure and interstitial nucleus of Cajal.  

This work addresses construction of the PFA for the ventrointermediate nucleus (PFA-VIM).  

In other regions, immunoreactive cells are moderately stained (i.e., magnocellular nucleus of the posterior commissure, amygdaloid nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, lateral periaqueductal gray) or weakly stained (i.e., vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, hippocampus, inferior colliculus, reticular nucleus).  

The first DAir cell groups appeared in the spinal cord, the posterior tubercle nucleus and the dorsal hypothalamic nucleus of prolarval stages. In larvae, new DAir cell groups were observed in the caudal preoptic nucleus, the postoptic commissure nucleus, the postinfundibular commissure nucleus and the caudal rhombencephalon. All these DAir cell groups observed in larvae were also DA-positive in adults, which showed only one new DAir cell group found in the ventral hypothalamic nucleus.  

The probably vascular lesion was located at the mesodiencephalic junction, lying between the right border of the posterior commissure, the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal and the periaqueductal grey matter, accounting for the three ocular motor signs.  

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is a key part of a ring of cells extending between the centromedial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis referred to as the extended amygdala. The present study describes the architecture of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the connections of subnuclei in posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The hamster bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is readily allotted to anterior and posterior divisions separated by the fibers of the body of the anterior commissure. In hamsters, the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis contributes to male sexual behavior, particularly chemoinvestigation. Moreover, the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is part of a neural circuit essential for mating, including the medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area. The connections of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, posteromedial part, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, posterointermediate part and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, posterolateral part were visualized by co-injection of anterograde (Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin) and retrograde (cholera toxin B) tract tracers. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, posterointermediate part and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, posteromedial part have dense bidirectional connections with medial amygdaloid nucleus and cortical amygdala via the stria terminalis and ventral amygdalofugal pathway. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, posterointermediate part and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, posteromedial part receive projections from the subiculum and send projections to deep mesencephalic nuclei. By contrast, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, posterolateral part is connected with the central amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, subthalamic nucleus, nucleus accumbens, substantia innominata, substantia nigra and thalamus. Thus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, posterointermediate part and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, posteromedial part have similar connections with areas involved in social behaviors. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, posterolateral part maintains connections with areas involved in motivational circuits. This supports the concept of distinct circuits within the extended amygdala which differentially link the centromedial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis..  

We first report CGRP terminal fields in the olfactory-anterior septal region and also CGRP projections from the parabrachial nuclei to the olfactory-anterior septal region, the medial prefrontal cortex, the interstitial nucleus of the anterior commissure, the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, the anterior amygdaloid area, the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus, and the dorsolateral part of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus.  

Neuropathological findings included glial fibrillary lesions in the area of the posterior commissure and neuronal loss in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the MLF with preservation of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal and ocular motor complex.  

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is currently the preferred target for chronic electrical high-frequency stimulation in Parkinson's disease.  

Retinofugal terminals were located in 8 brain nuclei, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, nucleus pretectalis superficialis, nucleus dorsolateralis thalami, area pretectalis pars dorsalis (APd), area pretectalis pars ventralis (APv), nucleus of the posterior commissure (NPC), accessory optic nucleus, and the tectum opticum. Retinopetal neurons were identified in 6 brain nuclei, the ganglion of the terminal nerve, preoptic retinopetal nucleus, nucleus dorsolateralis thalami, APd, APv, and NPC. The trochlear nucleus was located contralaterally and dorsolaterally adjacent to the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis in the mesencephalon. The abducens nucleus was located ipsilaterally in a ventrolateral part of the rhombencephalic reticular formation.  

Corticotropin-releasing-factor (CRF) containing systems and monoaminergic afferents of the central amygdaloid nucleus (Ce) are crucial players in central nervous stress responses. In the present study, in situ hybridization for CRF mRNA and correlative immunocytochemistry for CRF and monoaminergic afferents revealed numerous CRF mRNA-reactive neurons in the lateral Ce subnucleus (CeL) codistributed with dense dopaminergic fiber plexus in mice as has been demonstrated in rats. CRF-ir terminal fibers overlap with the moderate serotonergic innervation of this subnucleus in mice. Additionally, CRF mRNA-reactive neurons were found immediately dorsal to the amygdala in the region of the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure/amygdalostriatal transition area in both species.  

In the ventral striatum, PPTB-producing neurons are collected mainly in the lateral stripe of the striatum (LSS) and cell clusters of the accumbens nucleus (Acb). After injection of Fluoro-Gold into the basal component of the SI (SIb) and medial part of the interstitial nucleus of posterior limb of the anterior commissure, many PPTB-immunoreactive neurons were retrogradely labeled in the LSS-associated cell clusters and LSS, respectively.  

The nucleus reuniens (RE) is the largest of the midline nuclei of the thalamus and the major source of thalamic afferents to the hippocampus and parahippocampal structures. nucleus reuniens has recently been shown to exert powerful excitatory actions on CA1 of the hippocampus. Few reports on any species have examined afferent projections to nucleus reuniens. The main sources of input to nucleus reuniens were from the orbitomedial, insular, ectorhinal, perirhinal, and retrosplenial cortices; CA1/subiculum of hippocampus; claustrum, tania tecta, lateral septum, substantia innominata, and medial and lateral preoptic nuclei of the basal forebrain; medial nucleus of amygdala; paraventricular and lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus; zona incerta; anterior, ventromedial, lateral, posterior, supramammillary, and dorsal premammillary nuclei of the hypothalamus; and ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray, medial and posterior pretectal nuclei, superior colliculus, precommissural/commissural nuclei, nucleus of the posterior commissure, parabrachial nucleus, laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, nucleus incertus, and dorsal and median raphe nuclei of the brainstem. The present findings of widespread projections to RE, mainly from limbic/limbic-associated structures, suggest that nucleus reuniens represents a critical relay in the transfer of limbic information (emotional/cognitive) from RE to its major targets, namely, to the hippocampus and orbitomedial prefrontal cortex.  

Tracer injections into either lobe of the CC labeled neurons in the ipsilateral area pretectalis pars anterior et posterior, nucleus paracommissuralis (NPC), nucleus accessorius opticus and nucleus tegmentocerebellaris. Labeled neurons were also present in the bilateral nucleus lateralis valvulae (NLV), nucleus raphes, nucleus reticularis lateralis and inferior reticular formation, and in the contralateral inferior olive. Injections into the CCd labeled only a few neurons in the area pretectalis pars anterior et posterior, nucleus accessorius opticus and nucleus tegmentocerebellaris, whereas many labeled cells were seen in these nuclei after CCv injections. The CCv injections labeled additional neurons in the ipsilateral torus longitudinalis and nucleus subeminentialis and in the bilateral nucleus subvalvularis and nucleus of the commissure of Wallenberg. After injections into the CCd, labeled neurons in the NPC were restricted to a medial portion of the nucleus.  

OBJECT: The tremor-suppression effect resulting from long-term stimulation of the thalamic nucleus ventralis intermedius (Vim) and the nucleus ventralis oralis posterior (Vop) was examined in the treatment of parkinsonian, essential, and poststroke tremor. METHODS: After identifying the accurate anterior border of the nucleus ventrocaudalis (Vc), deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes with four contacts were inserted into the Vim-Vop region at an angle of between 40 and 50 degrees from the horizontal plane of the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line.  

The subsequent axonal transport of Mn(2+) highlighted the principal extrinsic projections from the posterior hippocampal formation via the fimbria and the precommissural fornix to the dorsal part of the lateral septal nucleus.  

Besides, the fasciculus retroflexus deviates close to the subcommissural organ, while the paraventricular thalamic nucleus shows histological disorganization. Our results implicate the Msx1 gene in the differentiation of the subcommissural organ cells and posterior commissure and that Msx1 protein may play a role in the pathfinding and bundling of the fasciculus retroflexus and in the structural arrangement of the paraventricular thalamic nucleus..  

CONCLUSION: Optimal electrode location for thalamic DBS in essential tremor corresponds to the anterior margin of the ventralis intermedius nucleus.  

the lumbar parasympathetic nucleus or the dorsal commissure region, were activated to a similar degree by menthol and control infusions, indicating a response to bladder filling.  

OBJECT: The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key structure for motor control through the basal ganglia.  

Lateral eye movements are organized in the pons, with paralysis of adduction (and preservation of convergence) when the lesion affects the medial longitudinal fasciculus (internuclear ophthalmoplegia), paralysis of conjugate lateral eye movements when the lesion affects the abducens nucleus (VI) and the "one-and-a-half" syndrome when both these structures are involved. Vertical eye movements are organized in the midbrain, with ipsilateral oculomotor (III) paralysis and contralateral paralysis of the superior rectus muscle when the third nerve nucleus is unilaterally damaged, supranuclear upward gaze paralysis when the posterior commissure is unilaterally damaged and supranuclear downward gaze paralysis (often coupled with upward gaze paralysis) when the mesencephalic reticular formations are bilaterally damaged.  

OBJECT: The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a target in surgery for Parkinson disease, but its location according to brain atlases compared with its position on an individual patient's magnetic resonance (MR) images is incompletely understood. Subthalamic nucleus borders derived from MR imaging were highly variable: anterior, 4.1 to -3.7 mm relative to the midcommissural point; posterior, 4.2 to 10 mm behind the midcommissural point; medial, 7.9 to 12.1 mm from the midline; lateral, 12.3 to 15.4 mm from the midline; dorsal, 0.2 to 4.2 mm below the intercommissural plane; and ventral, 5.7 to 9.9 mm below the intercommissural plane.  

The efferent connections of the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) were examined in the rat with the Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) technique. Layer II projects chiefly ipsilaterally to the olfactory bulb and anterior olfactory nucleus, bilaterally to the anterior piriform cortex, dwarf cell cap regions of the olfactory tubercle and lateral shell of the accumbens, and contralaterally to the lateral part of the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure.  

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to validate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visual procedure to target the subthalamic nucleus (STN) based on surrounding anatomical landmarks. On the slice showing the anterior pole of the red nucleus (RN), the target was placed in the inferolateral portion of the subthalamic zone, limited superiorly by the thalamus, laterally by the internal capsule, inferiorly by the substantia nigra and medially by the midline.  

OBJECTIVE: To examine the location of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and determine the generators of the median nerve SEPs recorded in thalamus and subthalamic nucleus (STN). CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the thalamic SEP is generated by excitatory post-synaptic potentials in sensory relay neurons in nucleus ventrocaudalis.  

The normal development of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MesV) of the white Peking duck (Anas platyrhynchos) was studied from the 9th day of incubation until hatching and during adulthood. On the 16th day, the nucleus consists of a numerically larger medial division located in the TC and a smaller lateral division within the stratum griseum periventriculare as is found in the adult animal. The programmed cell death occurring in the MesV is discussed herein and correlated with the analogous apoptotic phenomena observed in the trigeminal motor nucleus..  

In the mesencephalon, the mesencephalic reticular formation, torus longitudinalis, torus semicircularis, and nucleus isthmi were, in the anteroposterior axis, topographically connected with the tectum.  

The nucleus of the posterior commissure is expanded in size, and marker genes of the forebrain and rhombomere 1 expand progressively into the misspecified midbrain primordium, eventually resulting in respecification of the midbrain primordium.  

Recent whole-cell recordings show that there are multiple synaptic inputs to the accessory optic system of the pond turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans (the basal optic nucleus, BON), suggesting a complex role in visual processing. Other retrogradely labeled neurons were found ipsilateral to the injection site, in the pretectum, the ventral tegmentum, the dorsal nucleus of the posterior commissure and the lateral habenular nucleus. However, other data indicate that the habenular cells were labeled by spread of the tracer from the BON to the adjacent fasciculus retroflexus and interpeduncular nucleus.  

Naloxone treatment in naive rats induced a slight increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the central amygdaloid nucleus, the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure.  

Numerous PVs occupy all structures currently regarded as having a striatal composition, including the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle, as well as structures that receive outputs from these, including the globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, entopeduncular nucleus and substantia nigra reticulata. In contrast to the situation in striatum, few PVs were observed in the central and medial divisions of the extended amygdala, including the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure and central and medial nuclei of the amygdala, or in mesopontine, peribrachial and medullary structures that receive extended amygdala output.  

BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the ventro-intermedius nucleus of the thalamus is the treatment of choice for drug-refractory essential tremor (ET).  

The interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) receives inputs from several autonomic/limbic regions in the forebrain, including the agranular insular cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdaloid complex, and the lateral hypothalamic area. We sought to identify the distribution of afferent sources to the IPAC and to determine whether these IPAC projection fibers issue collaterals to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the principal relay of primary visceral afferents.  

the central amygdaloid nucleus, field CA3 of the hippocampus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure, lateral globus pallidus, ventral pallidum and lateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

Relative to non-injection baseline tests, the injection of 0.5 or 1.0 microl of 4% lidocaine into the central EA structures of the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central sublenticular EA, and the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure frequently and substantially disrupted the rewarding effect of MFB stimulation, whereas comparable saline infusions did not.  

METHODS: Fifty-four DBS electrodes were localized in and adjacent to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) postoperatively by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a series of 29 patients in whom electrodes were implanted for the treatment of medically refractory PD, and for whom quantitative clinical assessments were available both pre- and postoperatively.  

The origin of the dopaminergic innervation of the central extended amygdala (EAc; i.e., the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis [ BSTl]-central amygdaloid nucleus [ Ce] continuum) and accumbens shell (AcSh) was studied in the rat by combining retrograde transport of Fluoro-Gold (FG) with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunofluorescence. Our results suggest that dopaminergic inputs to the EAc and AcSh arise from the ventral tegmental area-A10, substantia nigra, pars compacta-A9, and retrorubral nucleus-A8 groups as well as from the dorsal raphe nucleus and periaqueductal gray substance, housing the dorsocaudal part of A10 group (A10dc). In contrast, modest numbers of FG/TH double-labeled PP were seen in the A10dc group after injections in the sublenticular extended amygdala, interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure or AcSh.  

Virus uptake involved exclusively orbicularis oculi motoneurons in the dorsolateral division of the facial nucleus. At 3-3.5 d, transneuronal transfer involved premotor interneurons of trigeminal, auditory, and vestibular reflex pathways (in medullary and pontine reticular formation, trigeminal nuclei, periolivary and ventral cochlear nuclei, and medial vestibular nuclei), motor pathways (dorsolateral quadrant of contralateral red nucleus and pararubral area), deep cerebellar nuclei (lateral portion of interpositus nucleus and dorsolateral hump ipsilaterally), limbic relays (parabrachial and K├Âlliker-Fuse nuclei), and oculomotor structures involved in eye-eyelid coordination (oculomotor nucleus, supraoculomotor area, and interstitial nucleus of Cajal). At 4 d, higher order neurons were revealed in trigeminal, auditory, vestibular, and deep cerebellar nuclei (medial, interpositus, and lateral), oculomotor and visual-related structures (Darkschewitsch, nucleus of the posterior commissure, deep layers of superior colliculus, and pretectal area), lateral hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex (particularly in parietal areas).  

The two principle targets for deep brain stimulation or lesioning in patients with Parkinson's disease, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi), reveal a high degree of individual variability which is relevant to the planning of stereotactic operations. Such images of 35 patients served for retrospective morphometric analysis of different basal ganglia nuclei (STN, GP, red nucleus, and substantia nigra) and several anatomical landmarks (anterior and posterior commissure, maximum width of third ventricle, brain length and width).  

OBJECT: The goal of this study was to determine the most suitable procedure(s) to localize the optimal site for high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for the treatment of advanced Parkinson disease.  

New-preferring neurons were more abundant in the "association" region [ association striatum (AS); caudate nucleus and rostral putamen anterior to the anterior commissure], while the learned-preferring neurons were more abundant in the "sensorimotor" region [ sensorimotor striatum (SM); putamen posterior to the anterior commissure].  

The present study focuses on the basal forebrain region originally designated as fundus striati, but currently known as 'interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure' (IPAC).  

The present work is an analysis of the afferent projections to the thalamic nucleus rotundus in a lizard, both at the light- and electron-microscopic level, using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) as a neuroanatomical tracer. This study has confirmed previously reported afferent projections to nucleus rotundus in reptiles and has also identified a number of new cellular aggregates projecting to this dorsal thalamic nucleus. After BDA injections into nucleus rotundus, retrogradely labelled neurons were observed consistently within the following neuronal groups in the midbrain and the diencephalon: (i) the stratum griseum centrale of the optic tectum; (ii) the nucleus subpretectalis in the pretectum; (iii) the nucleus ansa lenticularis posterior, the posterior nucleus of the ventral supraoptic commissure, and the posteroventral nucleus, in the dorsal thalamus and (iv) the lateral suprachiasmatic nucleus and part of the reticular complex in the ventral thalamus. Tectal axons entering nucleus rotundus were fine and varicose and formed exclusively asymmetric synaptic contacts, mainly on small dendritic profiles. After comparing our results with those in other reptiles, birds and mammals, we propose that the sauropsidian nucleus rotundus forms part of a visual tectofugal pathway that conveys mesencephalic visual information to the striatum and dorsal ventricular ridge, and is similar to the mammalian colliculo-posterior/intralaminar-striatoamygdaloid pathway, the function of which may be to participate in visually guided behaviour..  

The developing mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (nucleus of the fifth cranial nerve; Mes5) is composed of four neuron populations: 1) the medial group, located at the tectal commissure; 2) the lateral group distributed along the optic tectum hemispheres; 3) a group outside the neural tube; and 4) a population located at the posterior commissure.  

The primary components of the mammalian subcortical visual system are the superior colliculus, nucleus of the optic tract, anterior and posterior pretectal nuclei, nucleus of the posterior commissure, and an area within the mesopontine reticular formation that includes parts of the cuneiform, subcuneiform and pedunculopontine nuclei.  

The majority of cells were found contralaterally in the superior colliculus and red nucleus, and ipsilaterally in and around the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC), in the cuneiform region, and in the fields of Forel. Smaller numbers of cells were located in the periaqueductal gray matter, nucleus annularis, and magnocellular nucleus of the posterior commissure. Dorsomedial injections in the ventral horn near the ventral commissure labeled only a subset of these projections, including cells in the mesencephalic reticular formation adjacent to the INC and in the nucleus annularis. Dorsolateral injections labeled some cells in the superior colliculus and were particularly effective at labeling cells in the red nucleus.  

Using immunohistochemical methods, we reveal the presence of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid R1 (NMDAR1) glutamatergic receptor subunit in the lumbosacral spinal network that controls urogenital and digestive functions: the dorsal horn; the area around the central canal including the dorsal grey commissure; the sacral parasympathetic nucleus; and pudendal motoneurones.  

Model units replicate the wide range of saccade-related discharge patterns encountered in the portion of the primate brain that is thought to house the vertical neural integrator (the interstitial nucleus of Cajal) while "lesions" of model units and/or their interconnections replicate the symptoms which follow insults to this brain area..  

RESULTS: In both patients, results of pathological examination revealed (1) Lewy bodies positive for ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein together with cell loss and gliosis in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and neocortex; and (2) similar findings in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the posterior commissure, and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (substrates for vertical gaze).  

Neuronal axons of the retrochiasmatic nucleus were the first of the accessory nuclei to ingrow in the posterior pituitary lobe (on days 16-17 of embryogenesis).  

The nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), an important visuo-motor relay between the retina and preoculomotor structures, is responsible for mediating horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) in monkeys, cats, rabbits and rats.  

The following two different modulatory procedures to control intractable epileptic seizures are presented: (1) chronic electrical stimulation of the centromedian-thalamic nucleus (ESCM) for control of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and atypical absences, and (2) subacute hippocampal stimulation (SAHCS) and chronic hippocampal stimulation for control of nonlesional temporal lobe seizures.  

Fos-positive neurons were found bilaterally in the lateral portion of superficial dorsal horn layers (Laminae I-III) and along the lateral edge of the dorsal horn accompanied by the lateral collateral pathway, fibers of Lissauer's tract, terminating at the sacral parasympathetic nucleus. Finally, a clearly expressed Fos-positivity was disclosed bilaterally in the neuropil of the nucleus Y in the anterior horn.  

In a patient with unilateral severe essential tremor, the authors implanted two electrodes side by side and parallel to each other in the unilateral thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus.  

A collection of 125 PHAL experiments in the rat has been analyzed to characterize the organization of projections from each amygdalar cell group (except the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract) to the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis, which surround the crossing of the anterior commissure. First, the central nucleus, and certain other amygdalar cell groups associated with the main olfactory system, innervate preferentially various parts of the lateral and medial halves of the bed nuclear anterior division, and these projections travel via both the stria terminalis and ansa peduncularis (ventral pathway). Second, in contrast, the medial nucleus, and the rest of the amygdalar cell groups associated with the accessory and main olfactory systems innervate preferentially the posterior division, and the medial half of the anterior division, of the bed nuclei. For comparison, inputs to the bed nuclei from the ventral subiculum, infralimbic area, and endopiriform nucleus are also described.  

We show that the gene is specifically expressed in spinal cord Rohon Beard neurons, in nucleus of the posterior commissure neurons of the midbrain, in a set of hindbrain neurons that include RoL3 reticulospinal interneurons, and in the trigeminal, statoacoustic, anterior lateral line, glossopharyngeal, and vagal cranial sensory ganglia.  

The correlation of the anatomical and clinical findings with those of the MRI are discussed, especially in relation to our understanding of the auditory and vestibular pathways within the brainstem (the auditory striae, the crossed auditory pathways and the nuclei of the corpus trapezoideum for the auditory effects, and the paramedian reticular nucleus and crossed inter-commissure pathways to the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei, together with the proximity of the direct midline vestibulo-spinal tract, for the vestibular effects)..  

To determine whether CRN is a disorder of vergence or of the saccadic system, the scleral search coil technique was used to record binocularly the three-dimensional components of CRN in a patient with a left mesencephalic infarction involving the nucleus of the posterior commissure and the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle.  

The interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) lies at the junction of the striatopallidal system and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-central amygdaloid nucleus continuum (i.e., the central extended amygdala; EAc). Its efferent connections were investigated in the rat with anterograde (Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin) and retrograde (Fluoro-Gold and cholera toxin B subunit) tracers and compared with those of the central amygdaloid nucleus. [ 1999] Neuroscience 94:1097-1123) and are very similar to those of the medial part of the central amygdaloid nucleus. Our retrograde tracing experiments confirm that IPAC projections to EAc components, parabrachial area, and nucleus of the solitary tract originate chiefly from the medial division, whereas both medial and lateral divisions innervate the retrorubral field. Moreover, in sections processed for choline acetyltransferase, the strong projections from caudal IPACm to the posterior basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and the amygdalopiriform transition area were found to arise chiefly from cholinergic cells.  

The lateral capsular division (CeLC) of the central nucleus (Ce) of the amygdala, in the rat, has been shown to be the main terminal area of a spino(trigemino)-parabrachio-amygdaloid nociceptive pathway [ Bernard & Besson (1990) J. The projections to the forebrain from the CeLC and adjacent regions were studied in the rat by using microinjections of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) restricted in subdivisions of the Ce and the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus anterior (BLA). They terminate in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the posterior hypothalamus (pLH). However, contrary to the case of the CeLC, both the CeL and the CeM extensively project to the ventrolateral subnucleus of the BST (BSTvl) with a few additional terminals found in other regions of the lateral BST. Only the CeM projects densely to both the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure and the caudal most portion of the pLH. The projections of the BLA are totally different from those of the Ce as they terminate in the dorsal striatum, the accumbens nucleus, the olfactory tubercle, the nucleus of olfactory tract and the rostral pole of the cingulate/frontal cortex.  

Image-guided stereotactic surgery of the ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus, globus pallidus, and subthalamic nucleus is a prevailing modality as a treatment of movement disorders.  

These dimorphisms are concerned with the position of the preoptic nucleus, nucleus lateralis tuberis, habenula, third ventricle, tectal ventricles, preoptic recess, recessus lateralis, horizontal commissure, posterior commissure, and toral commissure. As compared to "c"-pattern fish, the preoptic nucleus and nucleus lateralis tuberis were located more rostral, and the habenula was positioned further caudal, in "r"-type animals. With the exception of the preoptic nucleus, all of these were located further rostral in "r"-pattern females than in type "r" males.  

RESULTS: (1) In Houhai group the anterograde transganlionic labelling terminals were densely distributed in the dorsal horn and dorsal commissure nucleus. There were labelled cell bodies in the dorsal region of the ventral horn (lamina VII) or dorsal commissure nucleus.  

A large population of AMi neurons was located in the anterior preoptic area, suprachiasmatic nucleus and in the infundibular hypothalamus. Labeled cells were observed in the pretectal region, posterior tubercle and the mesencephalic anteroventral tegmental nucleus. Additional cells were located in the parabrachial region, principal trigeminal sensory nucleus, reticular nuclei medius and inferior, and the intermediolateral gray of the spinal cord.  

Surprisingly, no ir cell bodies were identified in the ventromedial thalamic nucleus, which exhibits a large number of TH-ir cells in other teleosts.  

SP-immunoreactive cell bodies were observed in the medial habenular nucleus. The obtained results point to this nucleus as one of the central sources of SP innervation in the pig pineal gland.  

RESULTS: Vertical saccades are generated by burst neurons lying in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF). Saccadic innervation from riMLF is unilateral to depressor muscles but bilateral to elevator muscles, with axons crossing within the oculomotor nucleus. The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) is important for holding the eye in eccentric gaze after a vertical saccade and coordinating eye-head movements in roll. Inactivation of PC causes vertical gaze-evoked nystagmus, but destructive lesions cause a more profound defect of vertical gaze, probably due to involvement of the nucleus of the PC.  

OBJECT: Several methods are used for stereotactically guided implantation of electrodes into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for continuous high-frequency stimulation in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The coordinates of the centers of the STNs were determined with reference to the patient's anterior commissure-posterior commissure line by using a new landmark, the anterior border of the red nucleus.  

The ventral-caudal region, which corresponds to the central MRF, the cMRF, or nucleus subcuneiformis, is the focus of this paper and is located lateral to the oculomotor nucleus and caudal to the posterior commissure (PC). This suggested that the observed changes in head movement and posture resulted from inactivation of the caudal MRF and not spread of the muscimol to the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC).  

Both reactions were detected in the oculomotor, trochlear, mesencephalic trigeminal nuclei, the nucleus of the posterior commissure, torus semicircularis, substantia nigra and ruber and isthmic nuclei of the mesencephalon. However, CO also occurred in the marginal nucleus and in the lateral funiculus.  

The interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure is, like the striatum, very rich in tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholinesterase, but on the basis of most other neurochemical criteria displays features that are typical of the extended amygdala (Alheid, de Olmos and Beltramino, 1995). Its afferent connections were examined in the rat with retrograde (cholera toxin B subunit) and anterograde (Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin) tracers and compared to those of the neighboring amygdalostriatal transition area and central amygdaloid nucleus. Deposits of cholera toxin B subunit in the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure result in retrograde labeling that is similar to that seen after cholera toxin B subunit injections in the central amygdaloid nucleus. Retrogradely labeled cells are found in insular, infralimbic, prelimbic, piriform, amygdalopiriform transition, entorhinal and perirhinal cortices, as well as in temporal field CA1 of Ammon horn and ventral subiculum, amygdala (nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, anterior amygdaloid area, anterior cortical, posterolateral cortical, anterior and posterior basomedial, intercalated cells, basolateral and lateral nuclei), and extended amygdala, primarily in its central division. The latter includes the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal portions of the sublenticular region, the lateral pocket of the supracapsular bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the central amygdaloid nucleus. Retrogradely labeled cells are also seen in midline thalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, retrorubral field, dorsal raphe nucleus, pedunculopontine and dorsolateral tegmental nuclei, locus coeruleus and parabrachial area. The central extended amygdala, lateral hypothalamus and parabrachial area display a substantial retrograde labeling only when the injection involves districts of the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure apposed to the pallidum, i.e. Our anterograde results confirm that projections from the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central amygdaloid nucleus to the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure target its medial part. They also indicate that structures which provide major afferents to the central extended amygdala (the lateral and posterior basolateral amygdaloid nuclei and the amygdalopiriform transition area) innervate chiefly the medial part of the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure and, to a much lesser degree, its lateral part. The piriform cortex, which has well-acknowledged projections to the ventral striatum, innervates only the rostral sector of the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure. Taken together, these data indicate that the medial part of the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure is closely related to the central extended amygdala. Rostral and lateral parts of the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure, on the other hand, appear as transitional territories between the central extended amygdala and ventral striatum. After cholera toxin B subunit injections in the caudoventral globus pallidus, a dense retrograde labeling is observed in the amygdalostriatal transition area and overlying striatum, but not in the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure. Our results suggest that the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure and the amygdalostriatal transition area are engaged in distinct forebrain circuits; the former is a dopamine-rich territory intimately related to the central ext.  

After iontophoretic injections of cobaltic-lysine complex into the posterior commissure, fibres and neurons were bilaterally labelled in the posterior thalamic nucleus, three other pretectal nuclei, the optic tectum, the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, and in the basal optic nucleus.  

The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus contributes oxytocinergic fibers to the dorsal horn and preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic cell columns. In rats, stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus induces penile erection, but the link between the nucleus and penile innervation remains unknown.  

The afferents to the red nucleus from visual and nonvisual forebrain centers have been investigated in the lizard Podarcis hispanica by using both retrograde and anterograde transport of tracers. Because the red nucleus constitutes a key structure in the limb premotor system, these sensory afferents probably are involved in visuomotor and other forms of sensorimotor integration. After tracer injections aimed at the red nucleus, retrograde labeling was found in the reticular thalamus, the subthalamus, the nucleus of the posterior commissure, as well as in two retinorecipient nuclei, namely, the ventral lateral and pretectal geniculate nuclei, where labeled cells are especially abundant. Moreover, small tracer injections into the optic tectum of Podarcis indicated that the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus also receives a precisely organized tectal afferent. Additional ventral thalamic, subthalamic, and pretectal afferents to the red nucleus are likely to subserve other kinds of sensorimotor integration.  

Thalamic labeling after cFr2 injections was present in anteromedial nucleus (AM), ventrolateral nucleus (VL), lateral segment, mediodorsal nucleus (MDl), centrolateral nucleus (CL), ventromedial nucleus (VM), posterior nucleus (Po) and lateral posterior nucleus (LP). A band of labeled cells involving CL, central medial nucleus (CM) and rhomboid nucleus (Rh) formed a halo around the periphery of submedial (gelatinosus) nucleus (Sm). Area Fr1 receives thalamic input from nuclei VL, anteroventral nucleus (AV), CL and Po, but none from mediodorsal nucleus (MD) or LP, and its input from VM is reduced.  

The extended amygdala is composed of the central and medial amygdaloid nucleus which through the sublenticular extended amygdala (SLEA) and the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) merge into the bed nucleus of stria terminals (BST). Acute administration of clozapine (10-20 mg/kg) induced FLI in the central amygdaloid nucleus, IPAC, SLEA, and BST lateral division and, as previously described, in areas connected to the extended amygdala, such as the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens shell. A small increase in FLI was observed in the central amygdaloid nucleus after 0.1 but not after 1 mg/kg of haloperidol.  

The connections of the precomissural nucleus (PRC) have been examined with anterograde and retrograde axonal tracing methods in the rat. Thus, we have shown that the nucleus receives substantial inputs from the prefrontal cortex, specific domains of the rostral part of the lateral septal nucleus, rostral zona incerta, perifornical region, anterior hypothalamic nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, dorsal premammillary nucleus, medial regions of the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus, and cuneiform nucleus. Moreover, the PRC also receives inputs from several PAG regions and from neural sites involved in the control of attentive or motivational state, including the laterodorsal tegemental nucleus and the ventral tegmental area. Notably, the PRC presents a projection pattern that resembles in many ways the pattern described previously for the rostral dorsolateral PAG in addition to projections to a number of targets that also are innervated by neighboring pretectal nuclei, including the rostrodorsomedial part of the lateral dorsal thalamic nucleus, the ventral part of the lateral geniculate complex, the medial pretectal nucleus, the nucleus of the posterior commissure, and the ventrolateral part of the subcuneiform reticular nucleus. Overall, the results suggest that the PRC might be viewed as a rostral component of the PAG, and the possible functional significance of the nucleus is discussed in terms of its connections..  

The diencephalon contained the highest number of 5HT-ir cell bodies, most of them of CSF-C type, located in the preoptic recess organ, paraventricular organ, posterior recess nucleus, and in the ventromedial thalamus. 5HT-ir non-CSF-C neurons appeared in the dorsal thalamic nucleus. The dorsal raphe nucleus contained 5HT-ir CSF-C cells, a type of serotoninergic cell that has not been described before in raphe nuclei of fishes or of other vertebrates.  

In the present study, we have evaluated the distribution of a number of dopaminergic parameters in the caudate, putamen and nucleus accumbens at separate coronal levels in a post mortem study in a series of elderly normal individuals aged 55-94 years, with analysis of the effect of post mortem variables. The dopamine D3 receptor was concentrated in the ventral striatum, particularly the nucleus accumbens, although there was no evidence of a rostrocaudal gradient. Levels of dopamine were similar in the caudate and putamen, and were significantly elevated at levels including the nucleus accumbens and the anterior commissure.  

In the forebrain, OFQ peptide and mRNA were prominent in the neocortex endopiriform nucleus, claustrum, lateral septum, ventral forebrain, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, central and medial nuclei of the amygdala, hippocampal formation, paratenial and reticular nuclei of the thalamus, medial habenula, and zona incerta. In the brainstem, OFQ was prominent in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra, nucleus of the posterior commissure, central gray, nucleus of Darkschewitsch, peripeduncular nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, tegmental nuclei, locus coeruleus, raphe complex, lateral parabrachial nucleus, inferior olivary complex, vestibular nuclear complex, prepositus hypoglossus, solitary nucleus, nucleus ambiguous, caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, and reticular formation.  

The target areas are the preoptic area, thalamus, area pretectalis, nucleus of posterior commissure, optic tectum, and nuclei of the accessory optic tract.  

Both citalopram and imipramine at the dose of 5 and 20 mg/kg, respectively, induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the central amygdaloid nucleus, lateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL), and interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC). The shell of the nucleus accumbens, which forms a continuum with the central extended amygdala, showed a decrease of FLI after administration of either citalopram or imipramine.  

OBJECTIVE: To optimize the accuracy of initial stereotactic targeting for movement disorders surgery, we performed stereotactic localization of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) using magnetic resonance imaging protocols in which the borders of these nuclei were directly visualized.  

Lesions commonly covered the rostral midbrain, including the rostral interstitial nucleus, dorsomedial to the red nucleus. The findings agree with recent experimental evidence that a neural substrate in eyelid control lies in the supraoculomotor area immediately dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus. This may be explained by partial damages of the descending fibers, some of which decussate through the posterior commissure before it reaches the oculomotor nucleus.  

The nuclei composing the central septal division (anterior, lateral, medial, dorsolateral, and ventrolateral nuclei) displayed differential projections to the basal telencephalon, preoptic and anterior hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamic area, dorsal hypothalamus, mammillary complex, dorsomedial anterior thalamus, ventral tegmental area, interpeduncular nucleus, raphe nucleus, torus semicircularis pars laminaris, reptilian A8 nucleus/substantia nigra and central gray. For instance, only the medial septal nucleus projected substantially to the thalamus whereas the anterior septum was the only nucleus projecting to the caudal midbrain including the central gray. The midline septal division is composed of the dorsal septal nucleus, nucleus septalis impar and nucleus of the posterior pallial commissure. The latter two nuclei projected to the lateral habenula and, at least the nucleus of the posterior pallial commissure, to the mammillary complex. The dorsal septal nucleus projected to the preoptic and periventricular hypothalamus and the anterior thalamus, but its central part seemed to project to the caudal midbrain (up to the midbrain central gray). Finally, the ventromedial septal division (ventromedial septal nucleus) showed a massive projection to the anterior and the lateral tuberomammillary hypothalamus.  

CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to adults, Parinaud's syndrome in our children was associated with a mass, mainly tumoral, which interrupted the afferent and efferent connections of the midbrain structures, such as posterior commissure, riMLF or the interstitial nucleus of Cajal..  

Motor activation was found mainly in the putamen posterior to the anterior commissure (10 of 10 subjects) and the globus pallidus (6 subjects), whereas the caudate nucleus was activated in only 3 subjects, and in a smaller area.  

We now describe results of stimulation through a microelectrode at microampere thresholds (threshold microstimulation; TMIS) in the region of the human thalamic principal sensory nucleus (ventral caudal; Vc) during operations for treatment of movement disorders or of chronic pain.  

The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is under the control of retinal ganglion cells projecting to the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN). The OPN has a major projection to the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus, which exerts its parasympathetic action on the iris musculature via the ciliary ganglion. The present study in rats aimed to elucidate the possible projections from the AON and PAG to the EW nucleus. The anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) was iontophoretically injected into the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC), the nucleus of the posterior commissure (NPC), the nucleus of Darkschewitsch (ND) and the rostral part of the PAG. The INC, NPC and ND have small projections to the EW nucleus, whereas the rostral part of the PAG densely projects to the EW nucleus. Without exception INC, NPC, ND and PAG varicosities are presynaptic to dendritic profiles in the EW nucleus and contain electron dense mitochondria, round vesicles and make asymmetric synaptic contacts. The present observations allow the conclusion that the parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the EW nucleus are not only controlled by the OPN-EW pathway but also by indirect pathways running via the AON and PAG.  

The fibers of these tracts could be followed to their different targets in the brain, namely the preoptic region, the rostral habenulae, the medial subhabenular and retrohabenular (post- and subcommissural) region, the medial thalamus, the dorsal hypothalamus, the pretectal area, and medial and dorsolateral tegmental mesencephalic regions (interstitial nucleus of Cajal, oculomotor nucleus, mesencephalic reticular area, nucleus profundus mesencephali, and central gray). A few fibers reach the interpeduncular nucleus and the rostral optic tectum.  

By use of Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin as an anterograde in vivo tracer, a direct projection from the dorsal raphe nucleus to the pineal complex of the rat was demonstrated. The nerve fibers extended from the dorsal raphe nucleus rostrally through the mesencephalic periaqueductal grey and entered the deep pineal from both the posterior commissure and the habenular area.  

It occurs as a consequence of a mesencephalodiencephalic lesion, either unilaterally or bilaterally, due to effects on structures such as the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, posterior commissure and rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal bundle.  

The embryo demonstrated substantial labeling in neurons of the caudate putamen, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, lateral hypothalamic area, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, magnocellular nucleus posterior commissure, and periaqueductal central gray. Additional neuronal labeling was observed postnatally in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, amygdala, various nuclei of the thalamus, interpeduncular nucleus, linear nucleus of the raphe, pretectal area and superior colliculus.  

It was conceivable that the PAG lesion might be contributory to fatigable blepharoptosis (pseudomyasthenia) and supranuclear upward gaze palsy in the present case, because the PAG controls levator palpebrae neurons of central caudal nucleus in oculomotor nucleus complex and receives afferents from the limbic system., reticular formation and posterior commissure..  

Clustering of intensely positive neurons was observed in discrete areas including the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, the islands of Calleja, the amygdala, the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, several hypothalamic nuclei, the lateral geniculate nucleus, the magnocellular nucleus of the posterior commissure, the superior and inferior colliculi, the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, the nucleus of the trapezoid body, the nucleus of the solitary tract and the cerebellum.  

Cells that are exclusively tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive are observed in the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus/nucleus accumbens region, the epichiasmatic portion of the preoptic nucleus, and in the pars intercalaris thalami, whereas cells that are only labelled by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase are seen in the anterior olfactory nucleus/nucleus accumbens region, the bed nuclei of the anterior commissure, the posterior portion of the preoptic nucleus, the ventral hypothalamus, and the pars intercalaris thalami. The presence of cells solely serotonin (5-HT)-immunoreactive is suggested for the nucleus infundibularis dorsalis.  

By using an in vitro tract-tracing technique, the neural connections between two diencephalic cell groups, the posterior subdivision of the nucleus preopticus periventricularis (PPp) and the preglomerular nucleus (PG), was examined in the weakly electric gymnotiform fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. Neurons of the PPp project to one area within PG, the ventromedial cell group of the medial subdivision of the preglomerular nucleus (PGm-vmc).  

Extensive groups of labelled perikarya were found in the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus and in the magnocellular periventricular nucleus. In addition, ir-perikarya were scattered throughout the lateral hypothalamic area and in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Immunoreactive fibres were detected in the hippocampus, the parahippocampal area, the hypothalamus, the region of the tractus corticohabenular and corticoseptal tracts, the median eminence, the region above the posterior commissure and in the intercollicular nucleus.  

In the limbic system, cadherin-8-positive regions are found in the septal region, habenular nuclei, amygdala, interpeduncular nucleus, raphe nuclei, and hippocampus. In the basal ganglia and related nuclei, cadherin-8 is expressed by parts of the striatum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, entopeduncular nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, and pedunculopontine nuclei. A third group of cadherin-8-positive gray matter structures has functional connections with the cerebellum (superior colliculus, anterior pretectal nucleus, red nucleus, nucleus of posterior commissure, inferior olive, pontine, pontine reticular, and vestibular nuclei).  

Stronger projections originate in the lateral preoptic area, the zona incerta, the nucleus of the posterior commissure and some other thalamic areas, the lateral substantia nigra, the deep layers of the superior colliculus, the dorsal and lateral central gray, the deep mesencephalic nucleus, the paralemniscal zone, the intercollicular nucleus, the external cortex of the inferior colliculus, the oral and caudal pontine reticular nucleus, the deep cerebellar nuclei, the gigantocellular and lateral paragigantocellular reticular nuclei, the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus, the spinal trigeminal nuclei, and the intermediate layers of the spinal cord. Most importantly, we disclosed strong auditory afferents arising in the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei and in the cochlear root nucleus. Moderate projections were seen to diencephalic reticular areas, the zona incerta, the nucleus of the posterior commissure, and to various other thalamic areas. The major VLTg projections terminate in the deep layers of the superior colliculus, the deep mesencephalic nucleus, the intercollicular nucleus and external cortex of the inferior colliculus, the oral and caudal pontine reticular nucleus, the gigantocellular and lateral paragigantocellular reticular nuclei, and in the medial column of the facial nucleus.  

The central septal division (anterior, lateral, dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and medial septal nuclei plus the nucleus of the posterior pallial commissure) receives a massive, topographically organized, cortical projection (medial, dorsal, and ventral areas) and widespread afferents from the tuberomammillary hypothalamus and the basal telencephalon. The ventromedial septal division (ventromedial septal nucleus) receives a massive projection from the anterior hypothalamus, dense serotonergic innervation, and a faint amygdalohypothalamic projection, but it is devoid of direct cortical input. The midline septal division (nucleus septalis impar and dorsal septal nucleus) receives a nontopographic cortical projection (dorsomedial and dorsal cortices) and afferents from the preoptic hypothalamus, the dorsomedial anterior thalamus, the midbrain central gray, and the reptilian A8 nucleus/substantia nigra.  

Radioligand receptor autoradiography has shown that oxytocin- and vasopressin-binding sites exist in numerous rat brain regions, among which the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) are especially prominent. Thus, we have reinvestigated the distribution of these sites in the rat extended amygdala, which is formed by a continuum of structures stretching from the BST to the centromedial amygdala, including parts of the accumbens nucleus, substantia innominata, and transition areas between the amygdala and the striatum. Compared with previously reported distributions, our reinvestigation describes novel oxytocin- and vasopressin-binding sites in the lateral and supracapsular BST, in the sublenticular extended amygdala, in the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure, in the marginal zone, in the central amygdaloid nucleus, and in the anterior amygdaloid area.  

PURPOSE: To report a method of electrode implantation in the ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus for the treatment of tremor using a 3-D stereotactic MR imaging technique.  

The areas where VIP message was found included the olfactory bulbs, posterior hippocampus, parahippocampal area, hyperstriatum, archistriatum/nucleus (n.) taenia (amygdala), medial part of the LSO, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, medial preoptic region, bed n.  

Involvement of the dorsal central gray nucleus, nucleus centralis pontis oralis, nucleus dorsal raphe interpositus, rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF), nucleus interstitialis of Cajal, nucleus of the posterior commissure, pedunculopontine nuclei and frontal cortex was observed in several of our PEP cases and may contribute to the oculomotor abnormalities in this disorder. Whether the dorsal tegmental nucleus, caudal to the supratrochlear nucleus, severely affected in all our PEP cases, has a role in vertical gaze needs to be further studied..  

Moderately stained cells correspond to cholinergic interneurones of the caudate and putamen, while intensely stained cells correspond to the cholinergic neurones projecting to the cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, located in the septum, diagonal band, and basal nucleus of Meynert. The distribution of cells of the diagonal band/basal nucleus complex is more extensive in the marmoset than in other primate species, extending into parts of the postcommissural fornix via the posterior septum, and by small projections dorsal to the anterior commissure and via the thalamic fasciculus from the basal nucleus; the posterior extent of the basal nucleus continues extensively into the lamina between the globus pallidus and the putamen..  

Three regions were found to evoke the accommodation response: the posterolateral pretectum, including the nucleus of the optic tract and the posterior pretectal nucleus; the posteromedial pretectum, including the nucleus of the posterior commissure (NPC) and adjacent commissural fibers; and the MRF area dorsolateral to the oculomotor nucleus. Pupilloconstriction was evoked by microstimulation of the posteromedial pretectum around the NPC and the anterior pretectum around the olivary pretectal nucleus..  

Cell bodies with cGnRH-I immunoreactivity (ir) were found in the terminal nerve ganglion, nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca, medial preoptic area, and the hypothalamus. Within the olfactory bulb, fibers were found in the internal plexiform, mitral and glomerular cell layers, as well as in the terminal nerve; within the forebrain, fibers were observed in the diagonal band of Broca, rostral and lateral septum, lateral pallium, retrobulbar region pars dorsomedialis, nucleus accumbens, medial preoptic area, hippocampal commissure, amygdala, posterior dorsal ventricular ridge, hypothalamus, median eminence, and the thalamus; within the midbrain, fibers were found in the interpeduncular nucleus and the stratum album periventricular of the optic tectum.  

Weakly stained neurons were observed in the thalamic dorsomedial posterior nucleus. A large population of positive neurons was observed in the substantia nigra, the ventral area of Tsai and the nucleus interpeduncularis.  

The dorsal branch (tom-d) projects bilaterally to a complex pattern of terminal fields, including the medial terminal field in V, the central terminal field in the dorsomedial forebrain (Dm), the caudal part of the lateral terminal field in the dorsoposterior telencephalon (Dp), and, finally, a hypothalamic terminal field at the lateral edge of the posterior nucleus tuberis. Here, both nerve terminals and cells were stained in the olfactory nucleus.  

At polus posterior levels nucleus tenia can be identified. More caudally, a supracommissural part (Vs), a commissural part (Vc), a posterior part (Vp), and nucleus entopeduncularis are identified.  

Calretinin-positive axons that innervate the MHb originated from neurons of the ipsilateral posterior septum, specifically those of the nucleus septofimbrialis and the nucleus triangularis. These data reveal that septal projections to the MHb, which are normally ipsilateral, respond to a unilateral deafferentation by extending contralateral fibers that cross the midline at the habenular commissure and reinnervate the caudal regions of the nucleus..  

Thirty-three coronal sections at 1-mm intervals from the spinomedullary junction to the rostral extreme of the caudate nucleus show most structures of the hindbrain, midbrain, and subcortical forebrain.  

the nucleus of posterior commissure (NPC), the nucleus of Darkschewitsch (NDK) and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC).  

At an intermediate level, the label spread obliquely from the ventrolateral edge of the putamen dorsomedially as far as the lateral edge of the caudate nucleus.  

The present study was carried out to determine whether, in the rat, the electric activation of the projection from the cerebellar lateral nucleus (LN) to the accessory oculomotor nuclei (AON; nucleus of posterior commissure, nucleus of Darkschewitsch, interstitial nucleus of Cajal) is capable of inducing c-fos expression.  

In accordance with previous studies, projections of subtelencephalic areas were revealed to originate from the thalamic posterior dorsolateral nucleus and nucleus subrotundus, as well as from the tegmental nucleus pedunculopontinus and locus coeruleus. Moreover, the present study reveals that NCL is reached by a limbic projection from the nucleus taeniae.  

Faint projections were demonstrated to the nucleus of the posterior commissure and the nucleus of Darkschewitsch. The corticobulbar fibers left the pyramid along its entire extent; the principal trigeminal nucleus and the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum were supplied by additional fibers of the corticotegmental tract.  

After injection of biocytin into the ipsilateral optic tectum, labeled terminals were seen in the rotund nucleus (Rt), neuropil part of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (GLnv), principal part of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, lateral part of the dorsolateral thalamic nucleus, triangular nucleus (T), superficial parvocellular nucleus (SPC), pretectal nucleus, pretectal area (PA), subpretectal nucleus, central gray matter (GC), isthimo optic nucleus (ION), magnocellular and parvocellular parts of the isthimo nuclei (Imc and Ipc), semilunar nucleus (SLu), lateral and medial pontine nuclei and reticular formation (FRM) of the medulla, ipsilaterally. Labeled fibers were seen in the septomesencephalic tract nucleus, FRM, interstitio-paraetecto-subpraetectal nucleus, and the dorsal and ventral tectoreticular tracts (TRd and TRv). FRM, PA and paramedian nucleus. The present findings of the labeled terminals of the SPC and the GC at the level of the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (MnT), and the topographic projection from optic tectum to the Rt in the thalamus, were original observations in the avian.  

Following the injection of biocytin, in the ascending projections, labeled terminals were seen mainly in the caudal portion of the nucleus of the optic tract, the nucleus of the posterior commissure, the posterior pretectal nucleus, the olivary pretectal nucleus, the mesencephalic reticular formation at the level of the oculomotor nucleus, and the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus on the ipsilateral side. Less dense terminals were seen in the anterior pretectal nucleus, the zona incerta, and the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus. In the descending projections, labeled terminals were observed mainly in the paramedian pontine reticular formation, the nucleus raphe interpositus, and the dorsomedial portion of the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis on the contralateral side. Less dense terminals were also seen in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus, the cuneiform nucleus, the medial part of the paralemniscal tegmental field, and the dorsolateral division of the pontine nuclei on the ipsilateral side. Following the injection of muscimol into the pretectum, including the nucleus of the optic tract, the posterior pretectal nucleus, and the nucleus of the posterior commissure, accommodative responses evoked by microstimulation of the superior colliculus were reduced to 33-55% of the value before the injections. These findings suggest that the accommodation area in the superior colliculus projects to the oculomotor nucleus through the ipsilateral pretectal area, especially the nucleus of the optic tract, the nucleus of posterior commissure, and the posterior pretectal nucleus, and also projects to the pupilloconstriction area (the olivary pretectal nucleus), the vergence-related area (the mesencephalic reticular formation), and the active visual fixation-related area (the nucleus raphe interpositus)..  

Lesions of the striatopallidal complex involved the putamen posterior to the anterior commissure in all patients and extended variably into the dorsolateral part of the caudate nucleus, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, or the lateral segment of the globus pallidus.  

The efferent projections of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (NIC) were studied in the squirrel monkey after iontophoretic injections of biocytin and Phaseolus Vulgaris leucoagglutinin into the NIC. The posterior commissure system gave rise to dense terminal fields in the contralateral NIC, the oculomotor nucleus, and the trochlear nucleus. It also gave rise to moderate or weak terminal fields in the vestibular complex, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, the inferior olive, and the magnocellular reticular formation, as well as cell groups scattered along the paramedian tracts in the pons and the pontine and medullary raphe. It also provided dense bilateral labeling of the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus and the fields of Forel, and moderate or weak bilateral labeling of the mediodorsal, central medial, and central lateral nuclei of the thalamus.  

Maps of the striatum, pallidum and subthalamic nucleus were established in two macaque species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) in stereotaxic coordinates. The closer a given nucleus is from a ventricular reference point, the more stable its outline.  

The anterior pretectal nucleus has been described as part of the visual pretectal complex. The efferents of the anterior pretectal nucleus have not been identified taking into account the different function of this nucleus in relation to the rest of the pretectal complex. In the study herein described, a sensitive anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin was used to trace the mesencephalic and diencephalic efferents of the anterior pretectal nucleus in the rat. Fibres with varicosities were observed in discrete areas of the thalamus (central lateral, posterior complex), hypothalamus (lateral, posterior and ventromedial), zona incerta, parvocellular red nucleus, intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus, central grey, deep mesencephalon, pontine parabrachial region, and pontine nuclei. These results show that the anterior pretectal nucleus projects principally to areas involved in somatosensory and motor control in a manner that permits sensory modulation at higher and lower levels of the brain. These connections may explain the antinociceptive and antiaversive effects of stimulating the anterior pretectal nucleus in freely moving animals..  

In axial view, the anterior commissure has the shape of bicycle handlebars, coursing posteriorly, inferiorly and laterally behind the head of the caudate nucleus and passes into the lateral nucleus of the globus pallidus into the inferior and middle temporal gyri.  

Horizontal medium lead burst neurons (EBNs) project to ipsilateral lateral rectus motoneurons directly, and could contact contralateral medial rectus motoneurons indirectly, through the internuclear neurons of the ipsilateral abducens nucleus. EBNs also project to the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi while vertical MLBs also project to the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (NIC).  

In recent experiments, it has been disclosed that the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) is the visut-motor relay between the retina and preoculomotor structures in the pathway mediating optokinetic nystagmus (OKN). Following biocytin injections into the NOT, labeled fibers were observed in each of the following efferent pathways: 1) those that project to the contralateral NOT via the posterior commissure; 2) those that course through the nucleus pontis orklis to terminate in the Edinger-Westphal complex and nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis; and 3) those that descend via the medical lemniscus to the level of the medulla to terminate in the dorsal cap of the inferior olive, during which their axons branch to the dorsolateral pontine nucleus, nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, and the nucleus pontis caudalis, superior and lateral. Furthermore, differences in the distribution of labeled cells in the NOT were observed following WGA-HRP injections into the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi and medial vestibular nucleus. The retrograde labeled cells in the NOT were distributed to the medial area at the rostral level following the tracer injections into the medial vestibular nucleus. On the other hand, labeled cells were recognized in the part of the caudal NOT following the tracer injections into the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. A recent neurophysiological study demonstrated that areas adjacent to the medial vestibular nucleus apparently to participate in the production of OKN, because both the slow component and after-nystagmus similar to OKN and optokinetic after nystagmus were elicited by stimulation of the vestibular nuclei.  

In steers, heifers and cows, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive perikarya was located throughout periventricular regions of the third cerebral ventricle, in both anterior and retrochiasmatic divisions of the supraoptic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and ventral and dorsolateral regions of the paraventricular nucleus, dorsal hypothalamus, ventrolateral aspects of the arcuate nucleus, along the ventral hypothalamic surface between the median eminence and optic tract, and in the posterior hypothalamus. These included intense tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity of perikarya within the retrochiasmatic division of the supraoptic nucleus (ventral A15 region), the absence of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive perikarya below the anterior commissure or within the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (absence of the dorsal A15 region), an abundance of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive perikarya within the ependymal layer of the median eminence, heavy innervation of the arcuate nucleus with dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers and varicosities, and the paucity of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunoreactive throughout the median eminence..  

These reactions delineate a coherent map of nine septal nuclei that are named with a topographical nomenclature: anterior, lateral, ventromedial, medial, dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and dorsal septal nuclei, nucleus septalis impar, and nucleus of the posterior pallial commissure. The anterior septal nucleus is characterized by intense reaction for zinc and the presence of fibers immunoreactive for GABA, 5-HT, and L-ENK, which form pericellular nests. The ventromedial septal nucleus shows intense AChase reactivity, a dense network of 5-HT-immunoreactive fibers, and virtually no labeling for the other histochemical stains. The medial septal nucleus is defined by heavy reactivity for zinc, dense DA/TH and L-ENK innervations, and the presence of L-ENK-immunoreactive cells. The dorsolateral septal nucleus shows intense AChase staining in the neuropile and a dense network of fibers immunoreactive for 5-HT and DA/TH, but it shows low staining for zinc. The ventrolateral septal nucleus shows L-ENK-immunoreactive cells and a dense L-ENK innervation, but low reactivity for zinc. The dorsal septal nucleus, intermingled with the fimbrial fibers, shows a dense population of GABA-immunoreactive cells and terminals, but it is unreactive for zinc. Two subdivisions can be established in this dorsal septal nucleus: the dorsal part, intensely reactive for AChase and innervated by 5-HT fibers, and the central part, which shows L-ENK-immunoreactive neurons and fibers without reactivity for either AChase or 5-HT. The nucleus septalis impar, traversed by the fibers of the anterior pallial commissure (mildly reactive for zinc), shows reaction for AChase but low (if present) reactivity for the remaining markers. The nucleus of the posterior pallial commissure shows a generally low reactivity for the histochemical reactions employed.  

BACKGROUND: Although the supranuclear pathways for vertical gaze control are not well defined, lesions of the mesencephalic reticular formation including the nucleus of Darkschewitsch, the rostral interstitial medial longitudinal fasciculus, the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, and the posterior commissure are known to produce vertical gaze palsies.  

Numerous GAL-IR perikarya were present along the rostrocaudal medial preoptic nucleus. The most numerous accumulation of GAL-IR cells was present in the ventral hypothalamus around the infundibular region, in the posterior tubercle and in the nucleus of the paraventricular organ. Immunostained cells were also present in the pretectal gray, solitary nucleus, gracil nucleus and in the spinal cord in the intermediate gray and in large motoneurons of the ventral horn.  

NPY-IR neurons of the thalamic precommissural nucleus, nucleus of the optic tract, and olivary pretectal nucleus are derived from the superior group. Those in the adult magnocellular nucleus of the posterior commissure and deep mesencephalic nucleus are from the dorsal group. An arcuate group contributes neurons to the arcuate nucleus and median eminence and a mammillary group transiently exists in the mammillary region. A medial group gives rise to two sets of neurons, one that migrates to the intergeniculate leaflet and another that develops in the medial nucleus reuniens. Groups of NPY-IR neurons also appear in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and centromedian thalamic nucleus.  

The connections of the lateral terminal nucleus (LTN) of the accessory optic system (AOS) of the marmoset monkey were studied with anterograde 3H-amino acid light autoradiography and horseradish peroxidase retrograde labeling techniques. Results show a first and largest LTN projection to the pretectal and AOS nuclei including the ipsilateral nucleus of the optic tract, dorsal terminal nucleus, and interstitial nucleus of the superior fasciculus (posterior fibers); smaller contralateral projections are to the olivary pretectal nucleus, dorsal terminal nucleus, and LTN. A second, major bundle produces moderate-to-heavy labeling in all ipsilateral, accessory oculomotor nuclei (nucleus of posterior commissure, interstitial nucleus of Cajal, nucleus of Darkschewitsch) and nucleus of Bechterew; some of the fibers are distributed above the caudal oculomotor complex within the supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray. A third projection is ipsilateral to the pontine and mesencephalic reticular formations, nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis and basilar pontine complex (dorsolateral nucleus only), dorsal parts of the medial terminal accessory optic nucleus, ventral tegmental area of Tsai, and rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus.  

In the nucleus accumbens, a partial overlap of secretoneurin-immunoreactive patches with enkephalin-immunopositive areas was found. In the globus pallidus, entopeduncular nucleus, and substantia nigra, secretoneurin immunoreactivity was oriented ventromedially preferentially in woolly fibers. The dense immunostaining in the medial nucleus accumbens was directly continuous with dense secretoneurin immunoreactivity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Two strongly secretoneurin-immunopositive bands, one in the sublenticular portion and a smaller one along the posterior limb of the anterior commissure, interconnected the highly secretoneurin-immunopositive centromedial amygdala with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Thus, the distribution pattern of secretoneurin immunoreactivity provides a marker of the extended amygdala that forms a continuum between the centromedial amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis..  

The intrinsic organization of the nucleus sphericus (NS) was studied in the striated snake using the rapid Golgi method. The AC fibers enter the nucleus from the rostromedial aspect and run in an arched course, emitting numerous fine short collaterals..  

These supplied the lateral hypothalamus and forebrain structures, including the preoptic area, the nuclei of the diagonal band, and the lateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The ventrolateral subregion preferentially innervated the parafascicular and central medial thalamic nuclei, the lateral hypothalamic area, and the lateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

These are innervated by the trunk lateral line nerves, and the afferents terminate bilaterally in the medial octavolateral nucleus, crossing the midline through the cerebellar commissure.  

Forebrain: lateral septum, lateral part of the anterior commissure, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; hypothalamus: floor of the anterior part of the hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus and adjacent perifornical area; thalamus: nucleus reuniens, an area internal to the mamillo-thalamic tract, and medial geniculate body; other areas: amygdala, lateral hippocampus, and central gray. No significant effect is found in the following areas: forebrain: nucleus accumbens, striatum, and medial septum; hypothalamus: lateral, ventro-medial, dorso-medial, and posterior nuclei; thalamus: centro-medial nucleus, lateral part of the zona incerta, and lateral geniculate body; hippocampus: dorsal and ventral parts; midbrain: central tegmentum, ventral tegmental area, and substantia nigra.  

The distribution of neurons projecting to the trochlear nucleus of goldfish (Carassius auratus) was studied by the electrophoretic injection of horseradish peroxidase into the nucleus. The location of the injection site was electrophysiologically determined by the antidromic field potential elicited from the trochlear nucleus after the electrical stimulation of its nerve. Retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in the following structures: (1) anterior, tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column--afferents to these nuclei were mainly ipsilateral for the former and exclusively contralateral for the other two; (2) cerebellum; (3) rhombencephalic reticular formation, near the abducens nucleus; and (4) nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. In addition, a few stained neurons were scattered in the nucleus of the posterior commissure and in nucleus pretectalis superficialis pars magnocellularis. These results are compared with the afferent sources to trochlear nucleus in mammals and with the set of structures projecting to the oculomotor and abducens nuclei in goldfish.  

Afferent projections to the lateral hypothalamic area and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus of the lizard Gekko gecko were studied after applications of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Other populations were labeled in the diencephalon, including the supraoptic nucleus and nucleus ovalis; in the medulla the medial reticular area was labeled. Injections into the lateral hypothalamic area labeled neurons in the rostrolateral dorsal cortex, anterior, lateral, and dorsal septal nuclei, the striatoamygdalar area, nucleus accumbens, vertical limb of the diagonal band, nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, the interstitial, ventral anterior, and ventral posterior amygdalar nuclei, several hypothalamic nuclei, and the posteroventral thalamic nucleus. Labeled brainstem populations included the ventral tegmental area, torus semicircularis, parvocellular and ventral isthmal nuclei, superior raphe, and the solitary nucleus. Injections in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus labeled neurons in the rostral and caudolateral poles of the dorsal cortex, anterior septal nucleus, horizontal limb of the diagonal band, nucleus of the anterior commissure, several hypothalamic areas, the lateral habenula, the posteroventral thalamic nucleus, and cells scattered around the dorsolateral anterior thalamic nuclei. Labeled brainstem populations included the torus semicircularis, ventral tegmental area, superior raphe, parvocellular and ventral isthmal nuclei, and the lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus.  

Neurons labeled at E19 formed the matrix surrounding clusters of unlabeled cells, except in the nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum), where E19-labeled cells formed clusters.  

The diencephalon contained the majority of the immunoreactive perikarya present in the lamina terminalis, nucleus periventricularis anterior, lateral preoptic area, nuclei hypothalamicus ventromedialis and posterior, nucleus basalis of the anterior commissure, and nucleus ventralis tuberis. In the rhombencephalon, immunopositive perikarya were restricted to a few cells in the nucleus tractus solitari. Immunoreactive nerve fibers were present in all regions containing labeled perikarya and in 1) telencephalon: septum, nucleus fasciculi diagonalis Brocae; 2) diencephalon: nucleus paraventricularis, nucleus supraopticus, nucleus suprachiasmaticus, subventricular grey, nucleus of the paraventricular organ, nucleus mamillaris, infundibular decussation, outer layer of the median eminence, posterior commissure and subcommissural organ region, habenula, nuclei dorsomedialis anterior, and dorsolateralis anterior of the thalamus; and 3) mesencephalon and rhombencephalon: stratum griseum periventriculare, stratum fibrosum periventriculare, laminar nucleus of the torus semicircularis, periventricular grey, nucleus interpeduncularis, nucleus ruber, substantia nigra, locus coeruleus, raphe nuclei, nuclei of the reticular formation, nucleus motorius nervi trigemini, cochlear and vestibular area, and nucleus spinalis nerve trigemini.  

In the nervus praeopticus, about 300 fibers contain NOS; they innervate the preoptic nucleus and continue their course through the diencephalon; many fibers cross in the commissure of the posterior tuberculum. Both nerves innervate the preoptic nucleus.  

the nucleus of posterior commissure, the nucleus of Darkschewitsch and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, was studied in adult rats. In addition, monosynaptic excitations induced by the stimulation of cerebellar lateral nucleus were abolished by microiontophoretic application of DNQX, but not of 2APV.  

In order to define central neurons projecting to the subcommissural organ (SCO) and to related areas in the postero-medial diencephalon, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) was injected into the lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat. Branches of fibres originating from this projection form a plexus of nerve terminals in the underlying precommissural nucleus and in the nucleus of the posterior commissure. A small number of PHA-L-immunoreactive nerve fibres penetrate from the precommissural nucleus into the lateral part of the SCO. These results were obtained only if the tracer was delivered into the intergeniculate leaflet of the lateral geniculate nucleus (IGL). The IGL innervates both the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the pineal organ; the connections between the IGL and the midline structures, including the SCO, suggest that these areas are influenced by the circadian system..  

While the olivary pretectal nucleus has been shown to be central to the pupillary constriction response in rats, it is not at all clear at which level the consensual response is generated. To examine this we have investigated the efferent projections of this nucleus, as well as the effect of unilateral lesions of the olivary pretectal nucleus, on the direct and consensual pupillary light reflexes. The results demonstrate that the olivary pretectal nucleus projects bilaterally to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, as well as to the nucleus of the posterior commissure, which itself projects bilaterally to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. The olivary pretectal nucleus also projects to the ipsilateral ventral lateral geniculate nucleus. Unilateral lesions of the olivary pretectal nucleus decrease, but do not abolish, the direct and consensual pupillary light reflexes by as much as 66%. Since some degree of consensual response remains, this is likely to be due to the bilateral projection from the olivary pretectal nucleus, either directly or indirectly through the nucleus of the posterior commissure, to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. These results show that while the bilateral projection from the olivary pretectal nucleus to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus contributes to the consensual pupillary light reflex, the bilateral retinal projection to the olivary pretectal nucleus is the more determinant component of the pathway.  

Anatomical and electrophysiological studies have indicated that a reciprocal projection from the ventral pallidum back to the nucleus accumbens exists and has functional relevance. In this study, the topographical projection from the ventral pallidum to the nucleus accumbens was examined by using retrograde tracing with fluoro-gold iontophoresed in subcompartments of the nucleus accumbens in rats combined with either in situ hybridization for glutamic acid decarboxylase and preproenkephalin mRNA or substance P immunoreactivity. Deposits made into the medial nucleus accumbens preferentially labeled neurons in the medial ventral pallidum, while deposits into the dorsolateral nucleus accumbens, at or lateral to the anterior commissure, labeled primarily cells in the dorsal and lateral ventral pallidum. These data demonstrate a topographically organized projection from the ventral pallidum to the nucleus accumbens that is primarily gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and reciprocal to the GABAergic projection from the nucleus accumbens to the ventral pallidum..  

Most afferents appear to originate from the lobus subhippocampalis and neighboring area, whereas the only efferents found coursed in the fasciculus retroflexus to the neuropil of the nucleus interpeduncularis.  

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase was also detected in the nucleus of the posterior commissure, superior colliculus, intermediate gray layer, periaqueductal gray and in the molecular, Purkinje and granular layers of the cerebellum. In the brain stem, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase was detected in the substantia nigra, nucleus locus coeruleus and raphe nucleus.  

In these mutant embryos, the growth cones projected by the neurons of the nucleus of the posterior commissure (nuc PC) are deprived of the two tracts of axons that they sequentially follow to first extend ventrally, then posteriorly.  

T1-weighted MR images revealed low intensity on the medial side of the right thalamo-mesencephalic junction, which impaired the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF).  

The distribution patterns of NADPH-diaphorase activity in the nucleus olfactorius anterior (NOA) and anterior commissure (AC) of the rat were described using an histochemical technique.  

the nucleus of posterior commissure (NPC), the nucleus of Darkschewitsch (NDK) and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) and the putative neurotransmitters subserving this pathway have been studied in adult rats. Following an injection of horseradish peroxidase conjugated with wheat germ agglutinin in this cortical area, we observed corticofugal labeled fibers reaching the accessory oculomotor nuclei and terminating as a fine dust-like terminal labeling in the NDK, in the dorso-lateral division of the INC and in the NPC, as well as in the medial oculomotor accessory nucleus, the red nucleus, the superior colliculus and, even though to a lesser extent, in the mesencephalic reticular formation and the central gray.  

In the mesencephalon, few immunoreactive neurons were observed in the ventral tegmental area, in the substantia nigra, and in the nucleus reticularis isthmi. These latter nuclei, the periventricular area, the posterior commissure, the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, the oculomotor nucleus, and the raphe nuclei contained a dense plexus of substance P immunoreactive fibers.  

Magnetic resonance imaging confirms that this unusual clinical combination, previously termed "the plus-minus lid syndrome," results from a lesion in the region of the nucleus of the posterior commissure with extension to the third nerve fascicle..  

With the aim to evaluate a possible neocerebellar control on eye movements, the projections from the cerebellar lateral nucleus (LN) to the accessory oculomotor nuclei (i.e., the nucleus of posterior commissure, the nucleus of Darkschewitsch, and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal), the putative neurotransmitters subserving this pathway, and the nature of the synaptic influences exerted by these projections were studied in adult rats. Electrical stimulation of the contralateral LN elicited changes in firing rate of a significant fraction of cells belonging to the accessory oculomotor nuclei (36.4% in the nucleus of posterior commissure, 47.1% in the nucleus of Darkschewitsch, and 44.6% in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal).  

Highly immunoreactive neurons and oligodendrocytes were observed, and stathmin immunoreactivity was localized to the perikaryon and all processes, but not the nucleus.  

The nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) serves as an important visuo-motor relay between the retina and preoculomotor structures that mediate optokinetic nystagmus. Following biocytin injections into NOT, labeled fibers were observed in each of the following efferent pathways: (1) those that project to the contralateral NOT via the posterior commissure; (2) those that course through the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis to terminate in the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis; and (3) those that descend via the medial lemniscus to the level of the medulla to terminate in the dorsolateral pontine nucleus, nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, medial vestibular nucleus and the inferior olive. Direct projections from the NOT to the medial vestibular nucleus may contribute to the residual optokinetic responses of the vestibular nucleus neurons following cerebellar or inferior olivary lesions..  

In order to investigate the possible routes linking the thalamus in the two sides of the brain, the connections of the reticular nucleus (RT), the major component of the ventral thalamus, with contralateral dorsal thalamic nuclei were systematically investigated in the adult rat. In particular, retrograde labeling findings indicated that the anterior intralaminar nuclei, as well as the ventromedial (VM) nucleus, are preferential targets of the contralateral RT projections.  


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