Nucleus Of Optic Tract

Using high-field fMRI in a group of human adults with amblyopia, we recently demonstrated that reduced responses are observable at a thalamic level, that of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) (Hess et al, 2009 EJN 29, 1064-70).  

Here we focus on the pretectal nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), which encodes retinal error information during SP.  

Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers-retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus), and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates; and retina, lamina, and medulla in fly.  

To approach these issues, we analyzed synaptic function in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS), the principal site for integration of primary visceral afferent inputs to central autonomic pathways and a region in which we found markedly reduced levels of BDNF in Mecp2 mutants.  

A similar but seemingly less disordered pattern is detected in the retina-to-dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and dLGN-to-V1 projections.  

Nuclei and axonal tracts from a single section of brain stem at the level of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve were scored for intensity and distribution of PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and degree of spongiform degeneration.  

For the population as a whole, neuronal activity in the VA/VL thalamus was strongly enhanced during antisaccades compared with prosaccades, while activity in the MD nucleus was not.  

A selective increase in subthalamic nucleus (STN) activity was found when the status quo was rejected in the face of heightened decision difficulty.  

In this study we identify a novel reflex circuit necessary for bright light to excite nociceptive neurons in superficial laminae of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc/C1). Microinjection of lidocaine into the superior salivatory nucleus diminished light-evoked Vc/C1 activity and lacrimation suggesting that increased parasympathetic outflow was critical for light-evoked responses. The reflex circuit also required input through accessory visual pathways since both Vc/C1 activity and lacrimation were prevented by local blockade of the olivary pretectal nucleus.  

The vestibular system is markedly reduced with the exception of the lateral (Deiters') nucleus. The brainstem and cerebellum comprise a series of structures (elliptic nucleus, medial accessory inferior olive, paraflocculus and posterior interpositus nucleus) showing characteristic odontocete dimensions and size correlations.  

Response magnitude in the lateral geniculate nucleus did not increase with locomotion, demonstrating that the striking change in responsiveness did not result from peripheral effects at the eye.  

The frog nucleus isthmi (parabigeminal nucleus in mammals) is a visually responsive, cholinergic and anatomically well-defined group of neurons in the midbrain. Anatomical and biochemical information indicates the existence of distinct neural populations within the frog nucleus isthmi, which raises the question: are there electrophysiological distinctions between neurons that are putatively classified by their anatomical and biochemical properties? To address this question, we measured frog nucleus isthmi neuron cellular properties in vitro and visual response properties in vivo. We thus conclude that, despite the anatomical and biochemical differences, the cells of the frog nucleus isthmi respond homogeneously to both current injections and simple visual stimuli..  

Two specific retinothalamic projections to area MT have been speculated to relay through the medial portion of the inferior pulvinar nucleus (PIm) and the koniocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Here we examined direct retino-recipient regions of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) pulvinar nucleus and the LGN following binocular injections of anterograde tracer, as well as area MT relay cells in these nuclei by injection of retrograde tracer into area MT.  

Rats were initially given eyeblink conditioning with stimulation of the ventral nucleus of the lateral geniculate (LGNv) as the CS followed by conditioning with light and tone CSs in separate training phases. Retrograde tracing with fluoro-gold (FG) showed that the LGNv and nucleus of the optic tract have ipsilateral projections to the MPN. Unilateral inputs to the MPN from the LGNv and nucleus of the optic tract may be part of the visual CS pathway that is necessary for visual eyeblink conditioning..  

Here, we employed the antisaccade paradigm (look away from a stimulus) to address the role of the caudate nucleus, the main BG input stage where the two pathways diverge, in conflict resolution.  

In this study, two circadian related centers, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) were evaluated in respect to their cytoarchitecture, retinal afferents and chemical content of major cells and axon terminals in the rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), a Brazilian rodent species.  

The lateral posterior nucleus (LP) receives inputs from both neocortex and superior colliculus (SC), and is involved with integration and processing of higher-level visual information.  

In both species, most immunoreactive neurons were observed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and dorsal hypothalamus. Fiber labeling was widely distributed in all main brain subdivisions, but was more abundant in regions such as the septum, preoptic area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, thalamus, pretectum and tegmentum. Orexinergic innervation was found in close contact with dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotoninergic cell groups, homologous to the substantia nigra in the midbrain tegmentum, the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract and the raphe nuclei.  

Using SPM8b, there were few significant differences in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes in men compared to EF women, except ventromedial nucleus (VMN), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), left amygdala, and ACG.  

The more severe deficits occurred when (1) both the fornix and the retrosplenial cortex were damaged bilaterally thus depriving the hippocampus both from subcortical interactions via the fornix and retrosplenial-mediated interactions and (2) when, in the crossed lesion preparation, the unilateral retrosplenial lesion was made in the hemisphere with the intact hippocampus, again because this lesion would be maximally disconnecting the hippocampus from functional interaction with the anterior thalamic nucleus and retrosplenial-mediated input..  

Here, we used high spatial resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging to show that the CCOB illusion is strongly correlated with signals recorded from the human lateral geniculate nucleus.  

Here, we assessed the effectiveness of four different low frequency stimulation (LFS) protocols, applied to the lateral geniculate nucleus, to induce LTD-like changes of local field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) recorded on the surface of the primary visual cortex (V1) of urethane-anesthetized rats.  

Neurotransmission between glutamatergic terminals of retinal ganglion cells and principal neurons of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNv) was examined with patch clamp recordings in chick brain slices during electrical stimulation of the optic tract.  

The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the mouse has emerged as a model system in the study of thalamic circuit development.  

As the main target of layer 6 neurons is the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), we speculate that the cortico-geniculate projection is involved in mediating filling-in at BS.  

H2-K(b) and H2-D(b) are expressed not only in visual cortex, but also in lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), where protein localization correlates strongly with synaptic markers and complement protein C1q.  

Here, to better understand mechanisms of eye-specific targeting, we studied how retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons terminate in their thalamic target, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), when crossing at the optic chiasm midline is altered.  

These projections arise from two retinal recipient nuclei: the lentiformis mesencephali (LM) and the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR).  

The chemoanatomical organization of the visual sector of the cat's thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN)-that is at the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and at the pulvinar nucleus (Pul)-was investigated with two novel cytoarchitectonic markers. One stained string is formed by the subthalamic nucleus bound laterally to the peripeduncular nucleus extending further dorsolateral into the outer TRN tier. The other chain laced up the field of Forel, the zona incerta, the ventral LGN, the perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) and the previously-overlooked peripulvinar nucleus (PPulN) and so formed the inner TRN tier. In the third most distanced TRN tier, in the perireticular nucleus, a very few WFA-binding presenting neuron were found.  

The medial terminal nucleus (MTN) of the mammalian accessory optic system controls vertical compensatory eye movements.  

After intracardial perfusion, sections of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex (V1) were examined by immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD11b, a subunit of the complement 3 receptor and marker of macrophage and microglia cells (MAC-1).  

In apparent contradiction to the latter finding, the connectivity between the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex measured with diffusion tractography did not differ between the two populations.  

The nucleocapsid is then transported to the nuclear membrane and the viral DNA is released for replication in the nucleus.  

We show that non-stationary stochastic resonances predicted by theory can occur with 1/f noise in the primary visual cortex V1 and suggest that signalling exchanges between V1 and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus can initiate neural activity for saccadic action (and observer attention) for weak edge perception.  

To identify novel groups of genes with a potential role in differentiating two adjacent sensory nuclei, we performed a microarray screen comparing perinatal gene expression in the principal auditory relay nucleus, the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN), and principal visual relay nucleus, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN).  

(3) The optic tract lay between the crus cerebri and the amygdaloid, the tail of the caudate nucleus laterally. (4) The lateral geniculate body lay between the crus cerebri medially and the tail of the caudate nucleus laterally, the uncus and P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery inferiorly.  

The cells were retrogradely labeled from the koniocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus and subsequently photofilled.  

By contrast, the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (nLM) are dedicated to the analysis of optic flow.  

It was previously demonstrated that, in a New World diurnal monkey (marmoset), the neurones carrying signals from the short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cones [ blue-yellow (B/Y)-opponent cells] are predominantly located in the koniocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), whereas the red-green (R/G)-opponent cells carrying signals from the medium- and long-wavelength-sensitive cones are segregated in the parvocellular layers.  

Intercellular communication between gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons facilitates light-induced phase changes and synchronization of individual neural oscillators within the SCN network.  

The nucleus basalis of the basal forebrain is an essential component of the neuromodulatory system controlling the behavioral state of an animal and it is thought to be important in regulating arousal and attention. However, the effect of nucleus basalis activation on sensory processing remains poorly understood. Using polytrode recording in rat visual cortex, we found that nucleus basalis stimulation caused prominent decorrelation between neurons and marked improvement in the reliability of neuronal responses to natural scenes. The decorrelation depended on local activation of cortical muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, whereas the increased reliability involved distributed neural circuits, as evidenced by nucleus basalis-induced changes in thalamic responses.  

The connection patterns further allowed us to divide PI into a large central nucleus (PIc), a medial nucleus (PIm), and a posterior nucleus (PIp). The evidence suggests that PL of galagos contains a single, large nucleus, as in monkeys, and that PI may have only three subdivisions, rather than the four subdivisions of monkeys.  

With in utero retinal electroporation, we can misexpress or downregulate specific genes in RGCs and follow their axon projections through the visual pathways in vivo, allowing examination of guidance decisions at intermediate targets, such as the optic chiasm, or at target regions, such as the lateral geniculate nucleus.  

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether retinal activity can support long-term changes in synaptic strength in the developing dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of thalamus.  

At 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the operation, neuronal degeneration and glial responses in the retina, dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and superior colliculus (SC) were assessed using Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry.  

The suprageniculate nucleus (Sg) of the feline thalamus, which subserves largely unimodal sensory and orientation behavior, receives input from the deep layers of the superior colliculus (SC), and projects to the suprasylvian cortical areas, such as the anterior ectosylvian visual area and the insular visual area (IVA), which contain visually responsive neurons.  

Here we show that in behaving cats, thalamocortical neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) that operate in a conventional relay-mode form two groups where the cumulative firing is subject to a cyclic suppression that is centered on the negative alpha rhythm peak in one group and on the positive peak in the other.  

The neural mechanisms responsible for this reduced perisaccadic visibility remain unknown, but the Lateral Geniculate nucleus (LGN) has been proposed as a likely site.  

The present report tested the hypothesis that the temporal correlation between auditory neuronal discharges in the inferior colliculus central nucleus (ICc) and the hippocampal theta rhythm could be enhanced by changes in sensory stimulation.  

Hence we conclude that in fish the accessory optic system may consist of one nucleus on each side of the midbrain only, the APT.  

Although there were no correlations between striatal DAT levels and other neuropsychiatric symptoms, when considering the putamen and the caudate nucleus separately, delusions, depression, and apathy were inversely correlated to decreased caudate DAT levels.  

Intriguingly, in the ataxic or cerebellar variant, mainly observed in patients with the Met/Val polymorphism (2) carrying PrP(Sc) type 2, olfactory involvement is accompanied by pathologic changes in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and other brainstem nuclei.  

We examined the synaptic organization of reciprocal connections between the temporal cortex and the dorsal (Pd) and central (Pc) subdivisions of the tree shrew pulvinar nucleus, regions innervated by the medial and lateral superior colliculus, respectively. This circuitry could provide a mechanism for the pulvinar nucleus to activate subcortical visuomotor circuits and modulate the activity of other visual cortical areas.  

Using single-unit recording, we studied the effects of orientation adaptation on the responses of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons with high orientation bias (OB) in anesthetized and paralyzed cats.  

During photophobia, specific activation patterns in the trigeminal system were seen at the level of the trigeminal ganglion, trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and ventroposteromedial thalamus.  

Brain MRI, with a T2-weighted image, demonstrated a lesion of high intensity in the right lateral geniculate body (LGB), as well as the posterior part of the caudate nucleus, posterolateral thalamus, and dorsolateral thalamus.  

Signals in the cortical pursuit system reach the oculomotor cerebellum through brainstem centers including the dorsolateral pontine nucleus (DLPN), nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP), and pretectal nucleus of the optic tract (NOT).  

Here we recorded from two stations along the tectofugal pathway of the barn owl: the thalamic nucleus rotundus (nRt) and the forebrain entopallium (E).  

These include potential somatosensory inputs from the retroinsular (RI) and granular insula (Ig) cortical areas, and from the thalamic posterior (PO) nucleus. Potential sources of visual responses include peripheral field representations of areas V2 and prostriata, as well as the superior temporal polysensory area (STP) in the superior temporal sulcus, and the magnocellular medial geniculate thalamic nucleus (MGm).  

We applied the Fos method in rats subjected to horizontal optokinetic stimulation (OKS) to study whether optokinetic information is transferred through the commissural pretectal fibres from one optic tract nucleus (NOT) to the opposite. Even the opposite NOT showed many Fos-positive cells activated by the opposite nucleus throughout the commissural pretectal pathway. They might be the GABA positive cells, which are thought to allow the activation in one nucleus to be transformed into inhibition of the opposite side. In the opposite nucleus the few Fos-positive cells emerged as a consequence of the lack of the normal tonic commissurally mediated inhibition..  

To establish a foundation for understanding the neuronal bases of such phenomena and to constrain the contributions of retinal versus cortical processing, we studied the responses of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus during and after the presentation of prolonged static visual stimuli.  

AIM: To investigate the coding of the visual and multisensory information in the tectal system, and to clarify the direction of visual information flow between the extrastriate cortex along the anterior ectosylvian sulcus and the lateral medialis-suprageniculate nucleus of the posterior thalamus.  

Magnocellular (M-), but not parvocellular (P-), neurons of the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) differ distinctively in their responses to counterphase-modulated and drifting gratings.  

In all mammalian species the projections of the two eyes to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus are initially overlapping before gradually forming the eye-specific domains evident at maturity.  

Avian nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis (Ipc) neurons are reciprocally connected with the layer 10 (L10) neurons in the optic tectum and respond with oscillatory bursts to visual stimulation.  

In two turtle species--Emys orbicularis and Testudo horsfieldi--by the method of anterograde and retrograde traicing method at the light and electron microscopy level, the existence is proven of direct descending projections from the thalamic nucleus of the tectofugal visual system n.  

Using adaptive optics to correct for ocular aberrations, we delivered micron-scale spots of light to the receptive field centers of neurons in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus.  

Cell group d is known to receive inputs from the nucleus optic tract (NOT) and project climbing fibers to the flocculus and ventral paraflocculus, and cell group b is known to receive inputs from the superior colliculus.  

These pathways enable the lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar to regulate the information transmitted to cortical areas according to cognitive requirements.  

We examined this in urethane-anesthetized rats, comparing cholinergic modulation of short latency, large amplitude field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) in the visual cortex (V1) evoked by stimulation of the ipsilateral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), reflecting direct thalamocortical inputs, with longer latency, smaller amplitude fPSPs elicited by contralateral LGN stimulation, reflecting indirect, polysynaptic inputs.  

In urethane-anesthetized rats, field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) in A1 were elicited by stimulation of the medial geniculate nucleus, and LTP of cortical fPSPs was induced by application of repeated episodes of theta burst stimulation.  

We demonstrate that the identified bundle contains afferent fibers primarily from the ventral hippocampus but does not include contributions from the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, amygdala, or lateral hypothalamus/medial forebrain bundle.  

To gain insight into the cellular mechanisms through which abused drugs reinforce behavior in the primate brain, changes in firing of neurons in the ventral (VStr, nucleus accumbens) and dorsal (DStr, caudate-putamen) striatum to "natural" (juice) vs.  

We suggest that the tectorecipient LPN constitutes a third category of thalamic nucleus ("second-order") that integrates convergent tectal and cortical inputs.  

We have studied the neuronal activity in the visual pathway of Tupaia belangeri within the following anatomical structures: retina, superior colliculus (SC), dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), pulvinar (Pu), parabigeminal (PBG) nucleus and primary visual cortex (V1) analyzing the c-Fos expression after exposing the tree shrews to different light stimuli (white light -control positive group-, green light, blue light and darkness conditions -control negative group-). However, in the SC, dLGN, Pu, PBG nucleus and V1 another pattern of c-Fos expression is observed: a maximum expression for the control positive group, a minimum expression for the control negative group and intermediate expressions within the blue and green light groups.  

Circadian rhythms generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are modulated by photic and non-photic stimuli. Some studies have suggested that an area of the pregeniculate nucleus (PGN) of primates might be homologous to the IGL of rodents, but additional anatomical and functional studies on primate species are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. The SCN also receives dense retinal innervations and we observed an atypical distribution of NPY- and 5-HT-immunoreactive fibers without regionalization in the ventral part of the nucleus as described for other species.  

Postmortem histology revealed severe retrograde degeneration of the ipsilesional lateral geniculate nucleus in both experimental groups, suggesting that postlesion visuomotor behavioral competencies in pretreated animals are attributable to preserved function in nongeniculocortical visual pathways.  

Exaggerated reactivity to food cues in obese women appears to be mediated in part by a hyperactive reward system that includes the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex. A two-step path analysis/General Linear Model approach was used to test whether there were group differences in network connections between nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to high- and low-calorie food images. Compared to controls, the obese group had a relative deficiency in the amygdala's modulation of activation in both orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, but excessive influence of orbitofrontal cortex's modulation of activation in nucleus accumbens. The deficient projections from the amygdala might relate to suboptimal modulation of the affective/emotional aspects of a food's reward value or an associated cue's motivational salience, whereas increased orbitofrontal cortex to nucleus accumbens connectivity might contribute to a heightened drive to eat in response to a food cue.  

Using seed voxels antero-lateral to the lateral geniculate nucleus, we applied this technique to 20 control subjects, and 21 postoperative patients.  

The lateralis medialis-suprageniculate nucleus (LM-Sg) of the feline posterior thalamus is a relay nucleus with a clear visuomotor function. In this study, we examined the distribution of axon terminals of the nigral afferent to the LM-Sg following injection of an anterograde tracer, biocytin, into the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the distribution of the thalamostriatal projection neurons in the LM-Sg following the injection of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) as a retrograde tracer into the caudate nucleus. The biocytin-labeled terminal-like puncta were located in the ventromedial portion of this nucleus in such a way that most of the labeled elements took the form of swellings having boutons in places, while a minority appeared in clusters of 3-5 large terminal-like puncta.  

The pontine base and inferior olivary nucleus showed gross shrinkage and neuron loss, while the cerebellum was relatively unaffected. The visual system had moderate to marked loss of retinal ganglion neurons, commensurate loss of myelinated axons in the optic nerve, chiasm and tract, and neuron loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus but preservation of the primary visual cortex.  

On-Off pDSGCs project exclusively to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus and in both targets form synaptic lamina that are separate from a lamina corresponding to non-DSGCs.  

In contrast, local inhibitory injections of GABA agonists, muscimol and baclofen, into the parafascicular nucleus of the thalamus blocked the early, visual-evoked up-state transitions in SPNs.  

Color processing begins with the absorption of light by cone photoreceptors, and progresses through a series of hierarchical stages: Retinal signals carrying color information are transmitted through the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (LGN) up to the primary visual cortex (V1).  

In all species, most immunoreactive neurons were observed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, whereas the cells in the preoptic area and the tuberal region were more variable. The use of double immunohistochemistry in amphibians revealed orexinergic innervation in dopaminergic and noradrenergic cell groups, such as the midbrain tegmentum, locus coeruleus and nucleus of the solitary tract, as was previously reported in mammals..  

In the visual system, the afferent axons from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) to the primary visual cortex (V1) show significant activity-dependent plasticity in early postnatal life.  

When retinal waves are inhibited binocularly, eye-specific segregation of retinal axons is disrupted, and retinal axons from the two eyes remain intermingled in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN).  

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is one of the principal input nuclei of the basal ganglia.  

In these mutants, axons from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) are misrouted in the ventral telencephalon.  

The fMRI results showed largely overlapped activations across the three cue conditions in dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, posterior parietal cortex, ventral occipito-temporal cortex, dorsal striatum, and pulvinar nucleus.  

A possible visual CS pathway has been hypothesized that consists of parallel inputs to the pontine nuclei from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), superior colliculus (SC), pretectal nuclei, and visual cortex (VCTX) as reported by Koutalidis and colleagues in an earlier paper.  

The axon has collaterals in the brain stem and is believed to make synaptic contact with neurons in the trigeminal motor nucleus, forming part of a sensorimotor loop.  

Using electrical stimulation to identify corticogeniculate neurons, we distinguish three groups of neurons with response properties that closely resemble those of neurons in the magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular layers of their target structure, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus.  

At birth, axons from the two eyes project to broad, overlapping regions of the dorsal-lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

We recorded simultaneously from hundreds of retinal ganglion cells in primate retina, and examined synchronized firing in completely sampled populations of approximately 50-100 ON-parasol cells, which form a major projection to the magnocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus.  

c-Jun, another key regulator of eyelid closure, was present and phosphorylated in eyelid periderm cells at the time of fusion, but failed to translocate to the nucleus in the absence of BMP function.  

In the basal nucleus in the amygdala, the retrograde labeled cells (about 30% of total number of the region of interest observed) are distributed widely in an irregular manner, neither in lamina nor in group.  

Compounds known to inhibit or disfacilitate cells in cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) were applied iontophoretically in vivo.  

From 50 to 60 immunoreactive neurons, labelled after contralateral intraocular injection of rhodamine beta-isothiocyanate, form a small, clearly defined, nucleus in the lateral neural plate of the magnocellular preoptic nucleus. These cells give rise to immunoreactive axons which have been observed at the base of the nucleus, in the optic chiasma and in the optic nerve, to project into the intermediate plexiform layer of the retina, which separates the layer of internal horizontal cells from the layer of external horizontal cells.  

In this condition, the damage extends from the retina to the visual center in the brain, although the primary region of damage is thought to be the optic nerve head (ONH), with the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) being secondarily affected.  

We mapped the projection from the ventral posterior nucleus of thalamus (VPM) to the primary somatosensory cortex-barrel field and confirmed topography that had been previously described using more laborious methods. We also produced a novel map of the projections from the VPM to the thalamic reticular nucleus, showing precise topography along the dorsoventral axis.  

The optic tract of neonatal rats was transected at the level of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and MSCs were introduced into the lesion site.  

The retinas of birds receive a substantial efferent, or centrifugal, input from a midbrain nucleus.  

Animal models based on extracellular recordings in anesthetized animals suggest that the earliest site of the anomaly in the primate visual pathway is the primary visual cortex (corresponding to the striate cortex, cytoarchitectonic area 17 and area V1), which is where inputs from the two eyes are first combined in an excitatory fashion, whereas more distal and monocular processing structures such as the retina and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) are normal.  

As expected, an increased functional interaction between pOFC and regions involved in the modulation of selective attention (pulvinar nucleus and inferior parietal lobule) and processing of "bottom-up" salience (substantia nigra) could be observed when unattended, but significant changes were relevant for behavior.  

Using anterograde tracing, we obtained quantitative measures of the distribution of retinal projections in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral geniculate body (LGd) and superior colliculus (SC) of wild-type mice and mice homozygous for constitutive null mutation (knockout) of the full-length trkB receptor (trkB(FL)(-/-)).  

Here we report early projection specificity for multiple converging inputs to the rat central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Afferents arising from the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), and the lateral superior olive (LSO) establish discernible axonal layers a week prior to experience.  

The present study assessed the involvement of DA receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core on either between- or within-strategy shifts using operant chamber-based tasks.  

Retinal activity is relayed to the cortex by the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

Using whole-field visual motion as a stimulus, we found substantial c-fos expression in the optic tectum (TeO), the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (LM); in all cases immunostaining was seen only on the side contralateral to the eye viewing whole-field unidirectional motion; the side of the brain contralateral to the eye wearing a diffuser showed no staining.  

Behavioural, anatomical and in vivo electrophysiological investigations revealed that the optokinetic reflex is abnormal and retinal slip neurons in the nucleus of the optic tract and the dorsal terminal nucleus of the accessory optic system (NOT-DTN) lack direction selectivity and have a reduced dendritic tree in albinotic rats and ferrets.  

The role of subcortical visual structures such as the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and the superior colliculus (SC) in the control of visual spatial attention remains poorly understood.  

RESULTS: Patients with multiple sclerosis had lateral geniculate nucleus atrophy, which correlated with the presence of lesions specifically in the optic radiations but not in the rest of the brain. Optic pathway lesions explained up to 28% of the change of variance in lateral geniculate nucleus atrophy.  

Neurons in cortical medial temporal area (MT) and medial superior temporal area (MST) projecting to the dorsolateral pontine nucleus (DLPN) and/or to the nucleus of the optic tract and dorsal terminal nucleus (NOT-DTN) were identified by antidromic electrical stimulation in five macaque monkeys.  

The human suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master biological clock, is a small (approximately 2 mm(3)) and deep structure located in the anterior hypothalamus.  

For example, after a unilateral lesion to striate cortex (V1), an abnormal anatomical pathway can develop between the lateral geniculate nucleus of the undamaged hemisphere and the motion area V5/MT+ in the damaged hemisphere, accompanied by a hypernormal callosal connection between the area V5/MT+ of the two hemispheres.  

In birds, most neurons in the isthmo-optic (IO) nucleus project their axons topographically into the contralateral retina, and activity in IO neurons enhances visual responses of retinal ganglion cells in the target retinal region.  

We recently generated a knock-in mouse in which SPIG1 (SPARC-related protein containing immunoglobulin domains 1)-expressing cells are visualized with GFP, and found that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the medial terminal nucleus (MTN), the principal nucleus of the AOS, are comprised of SPIG1+ and SPIG1(-) ganglion cells distributed in distinct mosaic patterns in the retina.  

The neuronal connections from the retina to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) are characterized by a high specificity.  

The ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN) has been implicated in numerous functions including circadian rhythms, brightness discrimination, pupillary light reflex, and other visuomotor functions.  

We use diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography (DTI-FT) to identify the most likely pathway between the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and the calcarine sulcus in sixteen hemispheres of eight healthy volunteers.  

Signals from S-cones are thought to reach V1 by way of the koniocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

A pathway that conveys motor information may stem from the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), a brain region that has reciprocal connections with HD cell circuitry.  

The classical model of visual processing emphasizes the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) as the major intermediary between the retina and visual cortex. Yet, anatomical findings inspired Francis Crick to suggest an alternative model in which the thalamic reticular nucleus, which envelops the LGN, acts as the "guardian" of visual cortex by modulating LGN activity.  

In the mammalian visual system, altered visual experiences induce plastic adaptation of visual cortical responses and guide rearrangements of afferent axons from the lateral geniculate nucleus.  

We investigated if a reduced specificity of the retinal projection to the accessory optic system might be responsible for the loss of direction selectivity in the nucleus of the optic tract and dorsal terminal nucleus (NOT-DTN) and, in consequence of this, the optokinetic deficits in albino ferrets. Under electrophysiological control we performed dual tracer injections into the NOT-DTN and the medial terminal nucleus (MTN).  

Computer-assisted image analysis was employed for quantification of the immunoreactive labeling in the nucleus rotundus (N.Rt) and the optic tectum (OT) of the birds. Neurofilament immunoreactivity decreased massively in the entire N.Rt of the lesioned birds; however, remaining neurons with healthy aspect showing large cytoplasm and ramified branches were detected mainly in the periphery of the nucleus.  

By means of stereological methods, the number of microglia and neurons were estimated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) by an investigator blinded to the treatment.  

The nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) is a retinal-recipient nucleus that is critical for the generation of the optokinetic response.  

The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, in addition, was connected with the retrosplenial area and a rostromedial visual region. The projections appeared similar to those arising in the rat thalamic ventromedial nucleus known to have a supporting function rather than a specific motor task.  

Circadian and non-visual responses to light are mediated by a specialized subset of melanopsin expressing RGCs that provide photic input to mammalian endogenous clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN).  

The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) plays a critical role in seasonal processes by sensing ambient photoperiod. During SD, there was no detectable phase dispersion across the rostrocaudal extent of the nucleus.  

In the primate visual system approximately 20 morphologically distinct pathways originate from retinal ganglion cells and project in parallel to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and/or the superior colliculus.  

Both methods provided identical tracing of the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tracts to the level of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), faithfully reproducing the crossing of the nasal portion of the optic nerve at the level of the chiasm into the contralateral optic tract.  

In anthropoid primates, cells in the magnocellular and parvocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) are distinguished by unique retinal inputs, receptive field properties, and laminar terminations of their axons in visual cortex.  

Five lagged cells were recognized by extracellular recording in the lateral geniculate nucleus of an awake, behaving macaque monkey.  

The neuronal activity in the rabbit's visual cortex, lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus was investigated in responses to 8 color stimuli changes in pairs. The tonic component of most of the neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus showed linear correlation with changes in intensities; therefore, these neurons could be characterized as pre-detectors for cortical selective detectors.  

The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is the primary thalamic nucleus that relays visual information from the retina to the primary visual cortex (V1) and has been extensively studied in non-human primates.  

Consistent with the hypothesis that REMs share the brain systems and mechanisms with waking eye movements and are visually-targeted saccades, we found REM-locked activation in the primary visual cortex, thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), 'visual claustrum', retrosplenial cortex (RSC, only on the right hemisphere), fusiform gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and the oculomotor circuit that controls awake saccadic eye movements (and subserves awake visuospatial attention).  

The distinctive parasol ganglion cell of the primate retina transmits a transient, spectrally nonopponent signal to the magnocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus.  

This study concerns the transmission of short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cone signals through the primate dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

The aim of this study was to assess whether early visual deprivation could modulate the auditory directional tunings of single neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the rat. Although the distribution of best azimuthal direction was unaltered in enucleated rats, our data suggest that early visual deprivation modifies the width of auditory directional receptive fields in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

The IC is an obligatory midbrain nucleus of the ascending auditory pathway with diverse internal and external connections.  

This study aimed to investigate the immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) following unilateral optic nerve (ON) crush in adult rats with or without contralateral blockade of retinal input, and its indication. Expression of c-Fos was detected ipsilaterally in cells of the intermediate geniculate nucleus and the medial subdivision of ventral LGN mainly innervated by the intact ON.  

METHODS: We applied a phase-plane technique that compared each eye's velocity as a function of change in position (normalized displacement) in 22 patients with disease variously affecting the brainstem reticular formation, the abducens nucleus, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the oculomotor nerve, the abducens nerve, the neuromuscular junction, or the extraocular muscles; 10 age-matched subjects served as controls.  

In control owls or prism-adapted owls, which experience small instructive signals, the frequency distributions of pCREB/CREB values obtained for cell nuclei within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) were unimodal. These changes were restricted to the subregion of the inferior colliculus that received optically displaced input, the rostral ICX, and were not evident in the caudal ICX or central nucleus.  

RESULTS: Opioid-dependent subjects, but not control subjects, showed significant increases in activation in hippocampal region and subcortical limbic structures in response to heroin-related stimuli with a significant group x stimulus interaction effect for the subthalamic nucleus (STN).  

How do multiple brain regions interact, including frontal cortical areas, to decide the choice of a target among several competing moving stimuli? How is target selection information that is created by a bias (e.g., electrical stimulation) transferred from one movement system to another? These saccade-pursuit interactions are clarified by a new computational neural model, which describes interactions between motion processing areas: the middle temporal area, the middle superior temporal area, the frontal pursuit area, and the dorsal lateral pontine nucleus; saccade specification, selection, and planning areas: the lateral intraparietal area, the frontal eye fields, the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the superior colliculus; the saccadic generator in the brain stem; and the cerebellum.  

This role is supported, at least in part, by FEF projections to the rostral nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (rNRTP), which in turn projects heavily to the cerebellar vermis.  

The thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVT) receives afferents from numerous brain areas, including the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), considered to be the major circadian pacemaker. The present work is the first to show a direct retinal projection to the PVT of a rodent and may contribute to elucidate the anatomical substrate of the functionally demonstrated involvement of this midline thalamic nucleus in the modulation of the circadian timing system..  

The purpose of this study, on mice, was to determine whether memantine, a glutamate-receptor antagonist of the N-methyl-(d)-aspartate (NMDA) subtype, protects against neuronal degeneration in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and superior colliculus (SC) after the induction of retinal damage by intravitreal injection of NMDA.  

The finding of putative ipsilateral vestibular projections running adjacent to or within the medial lemniscus was subsequently confirmed by a reanalysis of an anterograde tracer labelling study in the primate after tracer injection in the vestibular nucleus complex.  

Furthermore, the intracellular domains of at least two teneurins can undergo proteolytic cleavage and translocate to the nucleus where they regulate transcriptional activity.  

In late-onset Tay-Sachs (LOTS), intrasaccadic transient decelerations occur that may result from (1) premature omnipause neuron (OPN) re-activation due to malfunction of the latch circuit that inhibits OPNs for the duration of the saccade or (2) premature inhibitory burst neuron (IBN) activation due to fastigial nucleus (FN) dysregulation by the dorsal cerebellar vermis.  

For example, we have found LN is most associated with loss of binocular visual sensitivity normally present in neurons of pretectal nucleus of the optic tract (NOT).  

The primary pathway for visual signals from the retina to cerebral cortex is through the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus to primary visual cortex. A second visual pathway has been postulated to pass through the thalamic pulvinar nucleus and to project to multiple regions of visual cortex.  

The subcortical nucleus of the optic tract and dorsal terminal nucleus of the accessory optic system (NOT-DTN), along with the dorsolateral pontine nucleus (DLPN), has been shown to play a pivotal role in controlling slow eye movements.  

We determined the neural connections from the rostral and caudal parts of the SC to inhibitory burst neurons (IBNs) and omnipause neurons (OPNs) in the nucleus raphe interpositus.  

In a model preparation, the decerebrate pigeon, EOM afferent signals modified single unit activity in the medial vestibular nucleus, and the third and sixth motor nuclei, during sinusoidal vestibular stimulation.  

We find that tOFF-alphaRGCs project exclusively to the superior colliculus (SC) and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and are restricted to a specific laminar depth within each of these targets.  

The major findings were as follows: (1) A shift of activation to the hemisphere contralateral to the turn was found in the putamen, and-for initiation of the turn-in the caudate nucleus.  

Cone pedicles were labeled with peanut agglutinin, OFF midget bipolar cells were labeled with antibodies against CD15, and midget ganglion cells were retrogradely labeled from the lateral geniculate nucleus and subsequently photofilled.  

This study aimed to characterize changes of gene expression profiles in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) associated with amblyopia induced by monocular visual deprivation.  

Although the possible role of these projections remains unknown, they may provide a modulation of the cholinergic parabrachial neurons which project to the thalamic dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus..  

The current hypothesis for VOR learning postulates cellular changes in the cerebellar cortex and the vestibular nucleus. We now show a correspondence between the responses of different groups of neurons in the vestibular nucleus and the signals emanating from the two pathways in the model.  

The contralateral projections in the lateral geniculate nucleus are expanded postnatally.  

Here we show by single cell recording in the pigeon that a population of visual neurons in the nucleus opticus principalis thalami (nOPT) in the thalamofugal pathway is able to detect the distance-to-collision of a large surface approaching towards the animal.  

Retinal ganglion cells were labeled by photofilling following injections of retrograde tracer in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), or by intracellular injection with neurobiotin.  

Two pathways from the superior colliculus (SC) to the tree shrew pulvinar nucleus have been described, one in which the axons terminate in dense (or specific) patches and one in which the axon arbors are more diffusely organized (Luppino et al.  

Here, we examine the role of BMP and a potential downstream effector, EphB, in retinotopic map formation in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and superior colliculus (SC).  

In the brain, moderate Wfs1 expression was observed in the zonal, superficial gray, and intermediate gray layers of the superior colliculus, in the dorsomedial part of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and in layer II of the primary and secondary visual cortices.  

Among these are sensitization of trigeminal nucleus caudalis neurons and an altered antinociception descending from the periaquaductal grey.  

In this study, we applied the paired-visual-stimulus paradigm to simultaneously measure the BOLD amplitude modulations as a function of ISI in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) in the cat brain.  

To understand the nonlinear masking effect, we model the response of Macaque V1 simple cells in layer 4Calpha to input from magnocellular Lateral Geniculate nucleus (LGN) cells.  

In recent years, attention has shifted to understanding the mechanisms by which spontaneous activity in the developing retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex instruct the axonal and dendritic refinements that give rise to orderly connections in the visual system.  

During early postnatal life when spontaneous activity of retinal ganglion cells sweeps across the retina in waves, retinal projections from the two eyes to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) segregate to form non-overlapping eye-specific domains.  

Oscillations with a mean period of approximately 140 s were identified in 127 recording sites in olivary pretectal nucleus (OPT). This suggests that rhythmic activity of OPT neurons is either intrinsic to the nucleus or driven by rhythmic excitatory input.  

C-RFaimmunoreactive perikarya were observed in the olfactory bulb, the area ventralis telencephali pars dorsalis and lateralis, nucleus preopticus, nucleus preopticus periventricularis, nucleus lateralis tuberis pars posterioris, nucleus posterioris periventricularis, nucleus ventromedialis thalami, nucleus posterioris thalami, nucleus anterior tuberis, the oculomotor nucleus, nucleus reticularis superior and inferior, facial lobe, and vagal lobe.  

We compared the visual response latency of different cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in morphine (10 mg/mL)- and saline-treated cats.  

An ideal testbed for such models is the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN).  

We report that DSI tractography accurately shows the known anatomic fiber crossings in optic chiasm, centrum semiovale, and brainstem; fiber intersections in gray matter, including cerebellar folia and the caudate nucleus; and radial fiber architecture in cerebral cortex.  

Here, we consider recent experiments that identified a pathway for a corollary discharge for saccades that extends from the superior colliculus in the midbrain to the frontal eye fields in the cerebral cortex with a relay in the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus.  

MRI/CT lesion mapping revealed that in patients showing contraversive signs of OTR in general and contraversive SVV tilts in particular the dentate nucleus was the commonly damaged structure. In contrast, in ipsiversive signs of OTR, the dentate nucleus was spared and lesions were located in the biventer lobule, the middle cerebellar peduncle, the tonsil and the inferior semilunar lobule. These data suggest that the dentate nucleus is a critical anatomical structure within the cerebellum, belonging to a network involved in vestibular processing such as the perception of verticality. Therefore, a lesion of the dentate nucleus can lead to tilts of the SVV in the contraversive direction, i.e. a vestibular tone imbalance to the contralateral side, whereas cerebellar lesions excluding the dentate nucleus can induce a tone imbalance to the ipsilesional side..  

In both postnatal and adult brains, ERRbeta immunoreactive fibers were distributed in a pattern which perfectly matched the retinal efferent projections: optic tract, supraoptic commissure, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventral and dorsal geniculate nuclei, pretectal nuclei, and superior colliculus.  

Using diffusion-weighted MRI, we show that both controls and blindsight subject GY, whose left V1 is destroyed, show an ipsilateral pathway between LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus) and human motion area MT+/V5 (bypassing V1).  

Here we investigate whether the input to this "claw area" arises from dorsal thalamic neurons that, in turn, receive their somatosensory input from the gracile nucleus. After injections of biotinylated dextran amine into the gracile nucleus and cholera toxin B chain into the claw area, terminations from the former and retrogradely labeled neurons from the latter overlapped substantially in the thalamic nucleus dorsalis intermedius ventralis anterior.  

METHODS: Fifty-one patients with cancer-related body or face pain were treated with computed tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation of the spinothalamic tract or trigeminal tract nucleus in the upper cervical region of the spinal cord.  

(2) Neurogenesis in the nucleus rotundus (Rot) and in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (GLd) occurred from S11-12 to S15.  

Activated brain regions included the primary and secondary visual cortex, superior colliculus (SC), dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG), and lateral posterior nucleus (LP), which were found to exhibit differing temporal responses.  

In the lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque, we recorded from neurons with substantial input from S-cones and found that, on several important dimensions, the properties of neurons that receive inhibitory input from S-cones ("S-") are quite unlike those of neurons that receive excitatory input from S-cones ("S+").  

We measured functional input from short-wavelength selective (S) cones to neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and striate cortex (area V1) in anaesthetized marmosets.  

Saccades in pigeons caused inhibition that was mediated by corollary discharge followed by enhancement of firing activity in the telencephalic hyperpallium, visual thalamus and pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (nLM) with opposite responses in the accessory optic nucleus (nBOR).  

Cleaved SNAP-25 also appeared in the facial nucleus after injection of the toxin into rat whisker muscles.  

We investigated the distribution pattern of SMI-32-immunopositive cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and in the primary (V1) and middle temporal (MT) cortical visual areas of the adult New World monkey Cebus apella.  

Fiber connections of the rostrolateral region of the lateral preglomerular nucleus (PGlr) were studied by tract-tracing methods in carp and goldfish. The PGlr receives fibers from the optic tectum, ventrolateral nucleus of semicircular torus, ventromedial thalamic nucleus, medial pretoral nucleus, anterior tuberal nucleus, subglomerular nucleus, and (unexpectedly) also from the retina. Auditory fibers from the medial pretoral nucleus and anterior tuberal nucleus terminate in the PGlr-v. The central nucleus of the semicircular torus also projects sparse fibers to the PGlr-v.  

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