Nucleus Ruber

Conclusions - Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity on TCS is a highly specific finding of PD, where in healthy individuals or in ET patients, it might correspond to an increased risk of developing PD later in life or might also be because of the impairment of nearby area of nucleus Ruber in ET patients, as suggested by positron emission tomography studies.  

After tracer injections into the inferior olive, labeled somata were observed bilaterally in the pretectum, nucleus Ruber, principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, descending trigeminal nucleus, inferior reticular formation, and cerebellar valvula. Principal sensory trigeminal and valvular afferents exhibited a clear contralateral preponderance, while afferents from the nucleus Ruber were predominantly ipsilateral.  

Quantitative analysis of the corticorubral fibers distribution was performed after point electrolytic destruction of lateral and medial borders of posterior sigmoid gyrus, which are the motor representations of the forelimb and hindlimb areas in the nucleus Ruber of the cat. It was shown that the cortical representation area of the forelimbs projected to the whole rostro - caudal extension of the nucleus Ruber. Number of efferent fibers terminating in rostral border of nucleus Ruber, was almost two times grater than that in the caudal third. The efferent fibers of the hindlimb area were found not to project to the rostral two thirds of nucleus Ruber, and were found to terminate only in its caudal third. The quantity of these projecting corticorubral fibers is equal to that projecting from cortical representation of the forelimbs to caudal third of nucleus Ruber.  

Using in-situ hybridization, we found strong expression of MHC class I transcripts in neocortex, hippocampal formation, substantia nigra and nucleus Ruber. In-situ hybridization with emulsion autoradiography demonstrated MHC class I mRNA in distinct pyramidal neurons of cortex and hippocampus, in granule neurons of the dentate gyrus, in dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra and in motor neurons of nucleus Ruber. Interestingly, in marmoset monkeys that were immunosuppressed with FK506 (tacrolimus), expression of neuronal MHC class I proteins, which could be detected with MRC-Ox18, was either very low (neocortex, nucleus Ruber, substantia nigra) or absent (hippocampus).  

The group results showed significant brain activations within the thalamus, nucleus subthalamicus, nucleus Ruber, the brainstem, and the Brodmann areas 40 and 22 for the acupuncture condition.  

The highest levels of galanin expression were observed in the forebrain structures (the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, throughout the cortex, granular and pyramidal cell layers of the hippocampus), in the mesencephalon (nucleus Ruber), in the cerebellum (lateral cerebellar nucleus), in the pons (sensory and motor nuclei of the trigeminal nerve), within the medulla oblongata (facial, prepositus and spinal trigeminal nuclei).  

The correct anatomic position of the electrode tip could be indirectly assessed thanks to the topographic relationship of the STN with the hyperechogenic substantia nigra and the nucleus Ruber.  

Various nuclei in the basal frontal lobe (21.4 +/- 3.19 in the basal forebrain and 32.3 +/- 2.39 in the nucleus accumbens), the temporal lobe (22.2 +/- 1.74 in the corpus amygdalae), the hippocampus (25.7 +/- 2.11), the diencephalon (23.1 +/- 3.33 in the corpus geniculatum laterale, 20.2 +/- 2.87 in the corpus geniculatum mediale, and 25.2 +/- 3.29 in the nucleus subthalamicus), and the brain stem (24.4 +/- 2.47 in the colliculus superior, 31.4 +/- 3.63 in the colliculus inferior, 31.0 +/- 3.10 in the nucleus Ruber, and 22.8 +/- 2.35 in the substantia nigra) could be identified, and the metabolic rate was assessed in these structures.  

In the mesencephalon, the geniculate nucleus, nucleus Ruber, the mesencephalic trigeminal and reticulotegmental nuclei ectopically expressed galanin.  

Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of tubes doped with iron oxides at different concentrations and of brain areas with physiological iron depositions (nucleus Ruber, substantia nigra, globus pallidus) were calculated for either field strength.  

Efferent targets of the corpus cerebelli are the posterior parvocellular preoptic nucleus, the ventromedial and ventrolateral thalamic nucleus, dorsal posterior thalamic nucleus, periventricular nucleus of posterior tuberculum, dorsal periventricular pretectal nucleus, inferior lobe, optic tectum, torus semicircularis, nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle, nucleus Ruber, dorsal tegmental nucleus, nucleus lateralis valvulae, reticular formation, torus longitudinalis, and the medial and lateral lobe of the valvula cerebelli.  

Injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) or biocytin to the carp nucleus isthmi labeled cells in the ipsilateral optic tectum and nucleus Ruber of Goldstein [ 1905]. Labeled terminals were seen in the ipsilateral nucleus pretectalis superficialis pars parvocellularis (PSp), optic tectum, and bilateral nucleus Ruber. Terminals in the nucleus Ruber appear to come from tectal neurons in the SFGS labeled by isthmic injections. Thus the nucleus isthmi has reciprocal fiber connections with the ipsilateral optic tectum, receives projections from the ipsilateral nucleus Ruber, and projects to the ipsilateral PSp. In addition, the present study revealed a previously unknown afferent from the nucleus Ruber to the percomorph nucleus isthmi.  

Strong cytoplasmic staining was also evident in some motor and somatosensory areas such as the Me5 nucleus of the mesencephalic trigeminal tract, the nucleus Ruber, and the large motor neurons of the spinal cord ventral horn.  

In situ hybridizations revealed TIP39 expression in seminiferous tubuli and several brain regions, including nucleus Ruber, nucleus centralis pontis, and nucleus subparafascicularis thalami.  

nucleus Ruber projects entirely contralaterally.  

We report on a patient presenting features of VP associated with an intracerebral lesion not ascribed to VP to date, namely an isolated ischaemic focal lesion located in the left cerebral peduncle between the substantia nigra and nucleus Ruber as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To our knowledge, this is the first case of clinically manifest VP to be described with a single lesion in the contralateral cerebral peduncle between the substantia nigra and nucleus Ruber, and suggests alternative intracerebral patterns for the distribution of disease-causing lesions in VP, and possibly new pathophysiological explanations for the nature of this disease..  

Significant rCBF decreases were observed in the substantia nigra/nucleus Ruber and in the anterior pulvinar nucleus.  

What was interesting to us was the presence of neurofibrillary tangles in the substantia nigra, nucleus Ruber, globus pallidus, and subthalamic nucleus.  

Immunoreactive fibres were observed in the following; the inferior central nucleus; the pontine gray nuclei; the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus; the motor trigeminal nucleus, the anteroventral cochlear nucleus; the abducens nucleus; the retrofacial nucleus; the superior, lateral, inferior, and medial vestibular nuclei; the lateral nucleus of the superior olive; the external cuneate nucleus; the nucleus of the trapezoid body; the postpyramidal nucleus of the raphe; the medial accessory inferior olive; the dorsal accessory nucleus of the inferior olive; the nucleus ambiguus; the principal nucleus of the inferior olive; the preolivary nucleus; the nucleus Ruber; the substantia nigra; and in the area postrema.  

Besides the basal ganglia, the hypothalamus and nucleus Ruber also showed high levels of binding.  

The NRLl receives projections from the NDLI, and projects to the nucleus Ruber (NR) of Goldstein [ 1905] and the preglomerular tertiary gustatory nucleus.  

Hallervorden-Spatz-Disease (HSD) was diagnosed at the age of 36 in vivo with the clinical presentation of severe dystonia, rigidity, dementia, and typical signal loss in the globus-pallidus the reticular part of the substantia nigra, and the nucleus Ruber in the T-2 weighted MRI.  

A second class (represented by the nucleus Ruber, the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and the tangential nucleus) showed a regenerative response only after proximal lesion.  

To a lesser extent, neuropathology was present in the nucleus Ruber.  

By using the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine, we confirmed these projections and found (previously unreported) projections to the nucleus Darkshewitsch, the nucleus Ruber, the mesencephalic reticular formation, and the area ventralis of Tsai as well as ipsilateral projections to the central gray, the pontine nuclei, the cerebellar nuclei, the vestibular nuclei, the processus cerebellovestibularis, and the dorsolateral thalamus. For example, collaterals of fibers projecting to the vestibulocerebellum terminated in the vestibular or cerebellar nuclei; collaterals of fibers to the inferior olive terminated in the pontine nuclei; many individual neurons projected to the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, the nucleus Darkshewitsch, and the central gray and also projected to the nucleus Ruber and the mesencephalic reticular formation; collaterals of fibers to the contralateral nucleus of the basal optic root terminated in the mesencephalic reticular formation and/or the area ventralis of Tsai; neurons projecting to the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali also terminated in the dorsolateral thalamus.  

The pattern of labeling in the PN and the NRTP was compared with that of cerebellonuclear terminals in two other target structures, the parvocellular part of the nucleus Ruber (RNp) and the ventromedial and ventrolateral thalamus (VM/VL).  

The nucleus Ruber, substantia nigra pars reticularis, deep cerebellar nuclei and a subpopulation of cells in the internal granular layer of the cerebellum were also labelled.  

Binding sites for NPY are localized with high density in the different subdivisions of the neostriatum and the hyperstriatum, the cerebellum, the nucleus septalis lateralis and medialis, the nucleus Ruber and the nucleus tractus solitarii.  

Only increases in glucose utilization were produced by D-Ala2; MePhe4, Gly-ol5-enkephalin in brain regions involved in motor control, including the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, pars reticulata, the nucleus Ruber and the cerebellum, and brain regions involved in visual processing--the visual cortex and superior colliculus deep layer.  

The cause of the symptoms of this rare degenerative syndrome (incidence: 500,000) is the impairment of a regulatory mechanism between nucleus dentatus, nucleus Ruber and the bulbar olive.  

Background levels of signals for neurotensin receptor messenger RNA were detected in the nucleus Ruber, the colliculus inferior and the striatal subdivisions (the nucleus caudatus, the putamen and the nucleus accumbens) of both human and rat brain. All these areas, except the nucleus Ruber and the collicus inferior, contain very high to high levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites.  

Immunoreactive nerve fibers were present in all regions containing labeled perikarya and in 1) telencephalon: septum, nucleus fasciculi diagonalis Brocae; 2) diencephalon: nucleus paraventricularis, nucleus supraopticus, nucleus suprachiasmaticus, subventricular grey, nucleus of the paraventricular organ, nucleus mamillaris, infundibular decussation, outer layer of the median eminence, posterior commissure and subcommissural organ region, habenula, nuclei dorsomedialis anterior, and dorsolateralis anterior of the thalamus; and 3) mesencephalon and rhombencephalon: stratum griseum periventriculare, stratum fibrosum periventriculare, laminar nucleus of the torus semicircularis, periventricular grey, nucleus interpeduncularis, nucleus Ruber, substantia nigra, locus coeruleus, raphe nuclei, nuclei of the reticular formation, nucleus motorius nervi trigemini, cochlear and vestibular area, and nucleus spinalis nerve trigemini.  

A high density of immunoreactive fibers was observed in the substantia nigra, the nucleus Ruber, the superior and inferior colliculi, the periaqueductal gray, the interpeduncular nucleus, the central, magnocellular and lateral tegmental fields, the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the postpyramidal nucleus of the raphe, the inferior olive, the internal division of the lateral reticular nucleus and the medial and lateral nuclei of the superior olive.  

The largest absolute difference in regional CBF was in the nucleus Ruber (+322 ml.min-1 x 100 g-1).  

Following horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections into the PSm, HRP-labeled cells are found ipsilaterally in the optic tectum, the nucleus tractus rotundus of Schnitzlein, and the nucleus Ruber of Goldstein.  

In the mesencephalon, the nucleus Ruber and the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus revealed retrogradely labeled somata; the former extended up to the 20th segment, while the latter projected up to the 25th segment.  

Two groups of ir-cGnRH II cells were observed: a magnocellular group lying between the substantia grisea centralis and the nucleus Ruber; and a parvicellular group lying medial to the nucleus of the basal optic root and extending into the lateral hypothalamic area.  

Changes in the excitability of afferent terminals to electrical stimuli have been used as an indication of primary afferent depolarization (PAD) produced by conditioning stimuli applied within the LC/SC and raphe nuclei and, for comparison, in the nucleus Ruber. By comparison, only one of the twelve fibres tested with conditioning stimuli applied to the nucleus Ruber was found to be influenced. Of seven fibres tested with stimuli applied in the LC/SC, six with stimuli applied in the raphe nuclei and seven with stimuli applied in the nucleus Ruber, only one fibre showed any clear change in threshold and this was a single fibre which was similarly affected by stimuli in all three sites.  

The nucleus Ruber, cuneiform nucleus, preolivary nucleus, retrorubral nucleus, paracentral division of the tegmental reticular nucleus, central and lateral tegmental fields, and the pericentral division of the dorsal tegmental nucleus had the lowest density of immunoreactive cell bodies. Moreover, a high or moderate density of parvalbumin immunoreactive processes was visualized in the nucleus Ruber, substantia nigra, superior and inferior colliculi, periaqueductal gray, nucleus sagulum, cuneiform nucleus, Kölliker-Fuse nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, vestibular nuclei, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and in the lateral reticular nucleus.  

Only moderate effects were induced by beta-END in motor areas, such as the substantia nigra, pars reticulata and the nucleus Ruber.  

The highest densities of alpha 2 adrenoceptors occur in the leptomeninges, cerebral cortex and claustrum; lower densities were visualised in the basal ganglia, thalamus, pons, substantia nigra, cerebellum and medulla oblongata; no alpha 2 adrenoceptors were detected in amygdala and nucleus Ruber.  

At embryonic day 17 (E17) fibers from all subdivisions of the nucleus Ruber (NR) started their descent towards the spinal cord.  

When the disynaptic cPyr EPSP was conditioned with a single volley in nucleus Ruber and/or in tectum, it was markedly facilitated, especially when the conditioned volley was applied simultaneously with the effective cPyr volley.  

The pyramidal excitation was facilitated by a conditioning volley evoked from the contralateral nucleus Ruber, which suggests convergence of cortico- and rubrospinal fibres on the intercalated neurones.  

Extra- and intracellular recording was made from neurones in laminae VII and VIII of the C6-Th1 segments, which were disynaptically excited from the contralateral pyramid, nucleus Ruber and monosynaptically from the ipsilateral lateral reticular nucleus.  

Particular interest was directed to those brain regions (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, ventrolateral thalamus) that are presumably involved in symptomatic dystonia of humans, as well as to regions (e.g., spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, nucleus Ruber) for which neuropathologically detectable lesions have been found previously in the dystonia musculorum mouse.  

Moderate immunoreactivity was noted in the olfactorius nucleus anterior and weak activity in the nucleus Ruber.  

In the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, corpus pineale, colliculi, corpus geniculatum mediale, nucleus Ruber, pons, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis, receptor binding of NPY was detectable but less than 0.5 pmol/mg of protein.  

The nucleus Ruber projects mainly via the contralateral dorsolateral funiculus to the medulla spinalis.  

As demonstrate macromicroscopical and stereological investigations, performed on 147 brain preparations of children and adolescents, beginning from newborns up to 17 years of age, the substantia nigra and the nucleus Ruber of the midbrain demonstrate flattened, spindle-like and spherical forms, respectively, which do not change with age.  

The distribution of this enzyme is highly uneven, with highest activity levels (greater than 30 pmol/mg of protein/h) in hypothalamic nuclei, substantia grisea centralis, and nucleus Ruber; moderate activity levels (10-30 pmol/mg of protein/h) in globus pallidus, septum, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, and cervical spinal cord; and low activity levels (1-10 pmol/mg of protein/h) in other telencephalic and thalamic structures.  

The presence of nucleus Ruber in urodeles and caecilians (amphibia) was investigated.  

Injections of WGA-HRP into the corpus resulted in retrograde labeling of the following cell groups bilaterally: pretectal and accessory optic nuclei, interstitial nucleus of Cajal, nucleus Ruber, oculomotor and possibly trochlear nucleus, central (periaqueductal) gray, nucleus H, reticular formation of the midbrain, cerebellar nucleus, caudal part of nucleus F, tentatively locus coeruleus and subcoeruleus field, octaval and trigeminal nuclei, intermediate octavolateralis nucleus, medial inferior reticular formation, lateral reticular nucleus, and spinal cord.  

In the brain stem, staining was seen in the central gray and in ascending visceral relay nuclei, but was essentially absent in areas related to ascending somatosensory information (e.g., the cochlear nuclei or vestibular complex) and motor control (e.g., nucleus Ruber or the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves).  

Efferent fibers in both species reach the contralateral nucleus Ruber, oculomotor nucleus, nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, torus semicircularis, ventromedial and ventrolateral thalamic nuclei, optic tectum and superior and inferior reticular formation.  

Neuromedin U-like immunoreactive neurons were present in the cranial motor nuclei, reticular nuclei, nucleus vestibularis lateralis, trigeminal sensory nuclei, colliculus superior and inferior, lemniscus lateralis, nucleus pontis, nucleus Ruber, zona incerta, substantia innominata, horizontal limb of the diagonal band and cerebral cortex.  

Other areas containing SLI included the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), zona incerta, infundibulum, supramammillary and premammillary nuclei, medial and dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei, entopeduncular nucleus, lateral habenular nucleus, central medial thalamic nucleus, central tegmental field, linear and dorsal raphe nuclei, nucleus of Darkschewitsch, superior and inferior colliculi, nucleus Ruber, substantia nigra, mesencephalic nucleus of V, inferior olivary nucleus, inferior central nucleus, nucleus prepositus, and deep cerebellar nuclei.  

In the mesencephalic tegmentum, a few somata of the contralateral nucleus Ruber and several ipsilateral neurons of the nucleus of the median longitudinal fasciculus were labeled.  

(3) The projection from DCN terminated densely in the external and pericentral nuclei of the inferior colliculus (ICX, ICP), Inc, SGI, SGP, PTP, PTAc, the nucleus Ruber, and D, and weak terminal labeling was seen in BIN, PAG, and PBN.  

There was dense labelling in the nucleus accumbens, in the tractus striohypothalamicus, in the anterior and posterior part of the hypothalamus except for the nucleus ventromedialis, in the amygdala, in the pars medialis of the reticular formation, in the nucleus Ruber, in the periventricular gray and in the raphe magnus.  

The cerebellum projects to the ipsilateral nucleus lateralis valvulae and torus longitudinalis and bilaterally, but mostly contralaterally to the nucleus ventromedialis thalami of Schnitzlein ('62), nucleus Ruber, the vicinity of the oculomotor complex, torus semicircularis, and brainstem reticular formation. Type A neurons send axons primarily to the vicinity of the oculomotor complex and partly to the nucleus ventromedialis thalami and the nucleus Ruber, whereas type B cells project to all main cerebellar targets.  

Mesencephalic cell groups consisted of the nucleus pretectalis, the nucleus fasciculi longitudinalis medialis, and the nucleus Ruber. The axons of the nucleus Ruber formed a separate loose bundle, the "tractus rubrospinalis." The rhombencephalic cell groups consisted of the rhombencephalic reticular formation, the Mauthner cells (one cell for each side), and the octavolateral area.  

A lower percentage of DL neurons was noted for the contralateral nucleus Ruber and bilaterally for the nucleus reticularis medius and nucleus reticularis inferior.  

Although the clinical history and symptoms were classical, the regional distribution of the cerebral involvement differed from the classical picture: the corpora mamillaria, the nucleus subthalamicus, and the nucleus Ruber, which are normally reported to be spared, contained multiple Lafora bodies, whereas the lateral geniculate body, which is usually involved, was intact.  

Somatostatin neurons were present in the substantia nigra--compactus and lateralis, but not in reticularis--and absent from the nucleus Ruber.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).  

Concentrations below 1.0 fmol/mg fresh brain tissue were determined in the Pons dorsalis, Substantia nigra, Colliculi inferiores, Glandula pinealis and in nucleus Ruber..  

A previously presented multi-loop model of the mammalian spinal alpha-motoneurone-Renshaw cell system was extended to incorporate different physiological input patterns: Ia fibres from primary muscle spindle endings, spinal input systems descending in the ventral quadrant and from the nucleus Ruber.  

cerebelli and the nucleus Ruber.  

With anterograde tracing techniques (3H-leucine and HRP) this tract was found to terminate in the nucleus Ruber and the interstitial nucleus of the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis.  

The main terminal area was situated at the level of transition between the superior and inferior colliculus on the side contralateral to the injection site and comprised the intercollicular nucleus and part of the external and pericentral nuclei of the inferior colliculus and of the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus, but there were also projections to the caudal half of the deep and intermediate gray layers of the superior colliculus, the anterior and posterior pretectal nuclei, the nucleus of Darkschewitsch and nucleus Ruber.  

A predominance of "b-gangliosides" was found in all structures that are related to the visual system (optic chiasm, pulvinar-thalamus, superior colliculi, visual cortex) as well as in the cerebellum and the nucleus Ruber.  

The main afferents arise from the following structures: sensorimotor cortex, zona incerta, thalamic ventrobasal complex, pretectum, intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus, nucleus suprageniculatus, nucleus Ruber and perirubral area, mesencephalic reticular formation, nucleus interstitialis of Cajal, nucleus tegmenti pedunculopontinus, nucleus reticularis pontis, sensorial and spinal tract trigeminal nuclei.  

Following larger injections, which may have spread significantly into the cerebellar, secondary gustatory, trigeminal or vestibular nuclei, labelled cell bodies were also found in the nucleus Ruber, nucleus solitarius, the rostral spinal trigeminal nucleus and the rostral rhombencephalic reticular formation.  

The actions elicited by electrical stimulation of the rubrospinal path in NR (nucleus Ruber), and by stimulation of the rubro-bulbospinal path in MesADC (mesencephalic area for dynamic control), were studied with intra-, juxta- or extracellular recordings in lumbar gamma-motoneurones of cats anaesthetized with chloralose.  

Studies have been made of the effect of bilateral injury of paleo-, archi- and neostriatum, as well as that of the nucleus Ruber on adaptive behaviour in albino rats.  

Mesencephalic cells of origin of tectal afferent pathways were identified in the stratum cellulare externum of the contralateral tectum, in the nucleus tegmentalis lateralis, in the ventrolateral tegmentum, and in the nucleus Ruber.  

A spinal projection from the anuran homologue of the nucleus Ruber of higher vertebrates does not appear before stage 58, i.e., when the hindlimbs are used for locomotion.  

Neuronal elements of nucleus Ruber, nucleus isthmi, torus semicircularis, third and fourth cranial nerve nuclei, nucleus profundus mesencephali etc.  

Tectal afferents were demonstrated by retrograde HRP transport in the area dorsalis pars centralis of the telencephalon, torus longitudinalis, torus semicircularis, nucleus isthmi, nucleus profundus mesencephali, several pretectal nuclei, dorsomedial and dorsolateral thalamic nuclei, nucleus of the posterior commissure, mesencephalic and bulbar reticular nuclei and nucleus Ruber.  

Kainic acid had a local necrotizing effect; for example, it destroys neurons in the PC, nucleus rotundus, nucleus spiriformis lateralis, nucleus Ruber and neurons of the cerebellar cortex.  

Although this result suggests that seizures, in contrast to hypercapnia, lead to an increased CBF by other mechanisms than those related to prostaglandin formation, some structures (nucleus Ruber, cerebellum, and superior colliculus) showed a clearly reduced 1-CBF in indomethacin-treated animals..  

For the first time, neuropathological findings could be established in such a case: extensive damage to granule and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum; gliosis in the dentate nucleus, the inferior olives, and the nucleus Ruber; cytoplasmic inclusions in various nerve cells of the cranial nerve nuclei; cytoplasmic vacuoles, especially in the cells of the supra-optic nucleus.  

Trace elements (Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+) were localized with Timm's sulphide silver method in the neurons (pyramidal cells, Purkinje's cells, motoneurons) and in the axon terminals of various regions cortex, hippocampus, nucleus Ruber, cerebellum, medulla spinalis) of the central nervous system.  

Projections from the hypothalamus (the nucleus paraventricularis and the nucleus periventricularis hypothalami), the interstitial nucleus of the film, the nucleus Ruber, the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal, the locus coeruleus, the subcoeruleus area, a conspicuous cell group comparable to Kuypers and Maisky's (75, '77) lateral pontine area, the magnocellular reticular formation, the ventrolateral, ventromedial, and descending vestibular nuclei, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract, reach at least as far as the lumbar intumescence.  

Pigment granules without the properties of melanin are present in neurons of several districts (nucleus Ruber, Locus coeruleus, Ala cinerea) in the C.N.S. The most rich pigment neurons are in the nucleus Ruber; in the neurons of the Substantia nigra, the pigment is very scanty also in the very old animals..  

One week after the behavioral experiments a repeated injection of AVP into the hippocampal dentate gyrus increased the disappearance of NE in the dentate gyrus and in the nucleus Ruber. An injection into the dorsal septal nuclei decreased the NE disappearance in the dorsal septal nucleus itself and increased it in the nucleus Ruber. Injection in the dorsal raphe nucleus led to an increase in the disappearance of DA in the locus coeruleus and in the nucleus Ruber.  

The rubrospinal tract crosses the midline, courses past the ventrocaudal aspect of the contralateral nucleus Ruber, and then descends rostro-ventral and lateral to the nucleus tegmenti pontinus. Regardless of the level of injection, labelled neurons of all sizes were present throughout the contralateral nucleus Ruber, indicating the absence of an obvious topography..  

Following an autoradiographical study on the projections from the feline sensorimotor cortex (representation of the limbs) to the brain stem, new projections to nucleus pretectalis posterior, the coerulear nuclei, nuclei corporis pontobulbares, nucleus intertrigeminalis, nucleus f, x and z of the vestibular nuclear complex, nucleus parvocellularis compactus, nucleus parasolitarius, nuclei insulae cuneati laterales, the nuclei of the raphé, nucleus reticularis lateralis and nucleus fastigii were found besides the well known projections to the tectal nuclei, the reticular formation, nucleus Ruber, griseum pontis, the sensory trigeminal nuclei and the dorsal column nuclei.  

A single-approximately LD50-dosis of the 3-AP given to white rats following the unilateral ligature of the carotid artery in almost 70 percent of the animals caused hydropic-vacuolic degeneration and cell necrosis in the nucleus Ruber.  

There was abundant preterminal degeneration in the rostral part of the nucleus Ruber and adjacent reticular formation.  

Bulbus and tractus olfactorius, medulla oblongata, corpus pineale, hippocampus and hypothalamus contained 160-270% of the average activity, whereas cerebellum globus pallidus, nucleus Ruber and substantia nigra contained 30-60%.  

In addition to its classical connection with VPLm, nucleus cuneatus projected to the following contralateral brainstem or thalamic nuclei: medial and dorsal accessory olives, external nucleus of the inferior colliculus, ventrolateral part of the superior colliculus, nucleus Ruber, medial geniculate nucleus pars magnocellularis, suprageniculatus, medial and lateral divisions of the posterior thalamic nuclear group, zona incerta, and Fields of Forel.  

Neuropathologic findings are severe neuronal loss and astrocytic gliosis in the corpus striatum and substantia nigra, with a moderate neuronal loss in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum and nucleus Ruber of the midbrain.  

Strongest activity was reported for the neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular necleus, the epithelial cells of the chorioid plexus, nucleus Ruber of the mesencephalon, and the vascular wall pericytes..  

oculomotorii, nucleus Ruber and nucleus niger of healthy adult male Wistar strain rats. oculomotorii and nucleus Ruber, and a simple network in the nucleus niger.  

Action potentials of single cells in nucleus Ruber have been recorded extracellularly inresponse to antidromic activation of the rubro-spinal tract and stimulation of contralateral interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum in the monkey M.  

Evidence was also obtained indicating that the shortest path from nucleus Ruber to static fusimotor neurones involves one interneurone..  

The records were made by means of telemetry from lateral hypothalamus, nucleus Ruber, formatio reticularis, dorsal hippocampus and the ventral mesencephalic tegmentum (VMT) surrounding the nucleus interpeduncularis.  

The injection of carbachol into the nucleus Ruber, nucleus linearis and substantia nigra compacta brought about lowest tremor values.  

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