Neurohypophysis


CONCLUSIONS: Dehydration altered FGF2 expression patterns in AVP-containing magnocellular neurons and neurohypophysis, as well as in choroid plexus epithelium.  

Typically, the combination of DI and AML is associated with structural abnormalities of the neurohypophysis. We present a case of AML and DI presenting without any abnormalities of the neurohypophysis on radiological scanning and with normal cerebrospinal fluid examination.  

To demonstrate the presence of a receptor for calcitonin (CT) in the hen neurohypophysis and to estimate the time of action of CT on the neurohypophysis during the oviposition cycle in relation to arginine vasotocin (AVT) release, binding of (125)I-labeled chicken CT in plasma membrane fractions of the hen neurohypophysis was measured by the use of a radioligand binding assay. Therefore, it was elucidated that the CT receptor might exist in the plasma membrane of the neurohypophysis of hens. The changes in the binding affinity and capacity of CT receptor of the neurohypophysis may be related to AVT release partly at oviposition time in the hen..  

Symptomatic granular cell tumors of the neurohypophysis are a rarely reported entity.  

Opioids modulate the electrical activity of magnocellular neurons (MCN) and inhibit neuropeptide release at their terminals in the neurohypophysis.  

In the neurohypophysis (NH), Ca(2+) channel kinetics, and the associated Ca(2+) influx, is primarily controlled by membrane voltage and can be modulated, in a voltage-dependent manner, by G-protein subunits interacting with voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs).  

In the neurohypophysis, AQP4 was expressed in some pituicytes, which have been identified as GFAP-positive.  

Present investigations in vitro were undertaken to study the influence of Gal, added to the incubative media at the concentrations of 10(-10), 10(-9), 10(-8) or 10(-7) M, on AVP and OT release from isolated rat hypothalamus (Hth), neurohypophysis (NH) and hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (Hth-NH).  

They occur most frequently in the gonads, but 3-5% have extragonadal origin, mainly in the pineal gland, neurohypophysis, mediastinum and retroperitoneum.  

Body fluid balance requires the release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) from the neurohypophysis.  

Using high-speed optical recordings and potentiometric dyes, we have quantified the dynamics of global excitability under physiologically more realistic conditions, that is in the intact neurohypophysis during trains of stimuli at varying frequencies and levels of overall activity.  

a rare neoplasm of the neurohypophysis, with unusual anamnestic manifestation.  

We report the case of a 63 year-old woman with disseminated Rosai-Dorfman disease involving the neurohypophysis and associated with adenohypophysial PRL cell hyperplasia..  

Pituicytoma is a rare, indolent, benign tumor of the sellar and suprasellar region arising from pituicytes of the neurohypophysis.  

On the contrary, ethanol stimulates prolactin release from the adenohypophysis as well as oxytocin from the neurohypophysis. Besides, endocannabinoids modulate oxytocin synthesis and release from the hypothalamic magnocellular neurons and neurohypophysis.  

Immunohistochemistry with a specific antibody showed that PrRP receptor was mainly localized in the cells of the RPD and neurohypophysis in the pituitary of both FW and SW tilapia. These results suggest that in vivo stimulatory effects of PrRP on PRL gene expression reported in teleosts are presumably mediated by an unknown regulator secreted from the neurohypophysis expressing PrRP receptor..  

In the present study, we demonstrated that the immunoreactivity of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was observed specifically at neurosecretory granules of AVP-positive magnocellular terminals and that of plasminogen was seen at astrocytes in the neurohypophysis (NH).  

In the neurohypophysis, immunostaining of basal lamina delineated meningeal invaginations. Aquaporin-4 localized at the periphery of the neurohypophysis, mainly adjacent to the intermediate lobe but not along the vessels.  

In the neurohypophysis (NH), the immunoreactivity of phosphacan, 6B4 PGs, and neurocan was observed at AVP-positive magnocellular terminals, but the reactivity of Wisteria floribunda agglutinin lectin was seen at OXT-positive ones.  

The involvement of the neurohypophysis is much rarer: one patient of 19 (5%).  

Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) could occurs in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), because of infiltration of leukemic cells into the neurohypophysis or some other reason and it is closely associated with abnormalities of chromosome 7.  

Anterior and posterior pituitary involvement (25%) are twice as common in women, and neurohypophysis alone (10%) occurs equally in both sexes.  

The AGAPEPAEPAQPGVY proline-rich polypeptide (PRP-1) was isolated from neurosecretory granules of the bovine neurohypophysis; it is produced by N.  

Impaired arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesis and release by the neurohypophyseal system, which includes the neurohypophysis and magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, have been postulated in septic shock, but changes in this system have never been assessed in human septic shock, and only partially experimentally. In patients with septic shock, as in rats that died spontaneously following sepsis induction, AVP immunohistochemical expression was decreased in the neurohypophysis and supraoptic magnocellular neurons, whereas it was increased in the paraventricular magnocellular neurons.  

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary revealed marked nodular thickening of the neurohypophysis. Ten days after the administration of the agents, MRI showed a dramatic improvement in the thickening of the neurohypophysis.  

In the neurohypophysis, astrocyte retraction and reversal with accompanying GFAP plasticity also likely occur during lactation and suckling, which facilitates OXT release coordinated with its action in the SON.  

Peptidergic nerve terminals of the neurohypophysis (NH) secrete both oxytocin and vasopressin upon stimulation with peptide-specific bursts of action potentials from magnocellular neurons.  

In the developing human pituitary gland, different developmental factors appeared in temporally and spatially restricted patterns, thus contributing to formation of different parts of the gland: adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis and associated mesenchyme. At later developmental stages, those factors also influenced the differentiation of cells in the neurohypophysis. Expression of EGF and VEGF indicated their involvement in proliferation of initially differentiated pituitary cells, and in subsequent differentiation of some cell types in the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis.  

The main pathogenic factor responsible for hyponatremia is a nonosmotic hypersecretion of vasopressin from the neurohypophysis.  

PTPIP51 expression was confined to neurons in the following structures: the piriform cortex and their connections to the anterior commissure, nucleus accumbens, paraventricular and supraoptical nuclei, neurohypophysis, superior colliculus, genu of facialis nerve, spinal trigeminal tract, inferior cerebellar peduncle, and cerebellum. Moreover, PTPIP51 was found to be colocalized with vasopressin and its transport protein neurophysin II in the neuroendocrine nuclei and their connections to the neurohypophysis.  

Findings presented here challenge previous understanding regarding the neurohypophysis and could provide new concepts in treating disorders related to osmoregulation..  

Double labeling with a variety of antibodies against pituitary hormones revealed that CNGA5 is located in the terminals of neuroendocrine cells that secrete the nonapeptide hormone/transmitter isotocin in the neurohypophysis, brain, and spinal cord.  

The present study was performed to elucidate whether the estrogen binding component regarded as a receptor exists in the plasma membrane fraction of neurohypophysis in hens and whether the binding of receptor changes with relation to oviposition. The specific binding for estradiol-17beta (E2) in the neurohypophysis of hens was demonstrated by the use of radioligand binding assays on the plasma membrane fraction of the tissue. These properties are characteristics of a receptor, which suggests that an estrogen receptor exists in the plasma membrane of hen neurohypophysis. The equilibrium dissociation constant value of estrogen receptor of the neurohypophysis was not significantly different between laying hens and nonlaying hens, but the maximum binding capacity value was statistically smaller (the binding affinity is higher) in laying hens than in nonlaying hens. The present study suggests that estrogen may act directly on the neurohypophysis during 3 h before oviposition in hens..  

Nerve fibres or endings with MCH-like immunoreactivity were identified in the neurohypophysis in close proximity to the adenohypophysial cells showing SL-like immunoreactivity.  

The primary components of the neurohypophysis are the neuroendocrine terminals that release vasopressin and oxytocin, and pituicytes, which are astrocytes that normally surround and envelop these terminals.  

To clarify dystrophin's involvement in the central control of osmotic stimuli, we investigated the effect of the disruption of Dp71, the major form of dystrophin in the brain, on the hypothalamoneurohypophysis system (HNHS) osmoregulatory response. Dp71 and Dp140 are the principal DMD gene products in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and neurohypophysis (NH). In the SON, Dp71 may be involved in osmosensitivity and definition of the "osmostat," whereas, in the neurohypophysis, it may be involved in fine-tuning AVP release..  

To elucidate whether the receptor for prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha), one of PG, exists in the neurohypophysis in hens and whether the binding of receptor changes with relation to oviposition, the PGF(2alpha) binding component in the membrane fraction of the neurohypophysis of laying hens was analyzed by radioligand binding assay using [ 5,6,8,9,11,12,14,15(n)-(3)H]PGF(2alpha). injection of estradiol-17beta or progesterone (0.5 mg/hen), the specific binding of the PGF(2alpha) receptor in the neurohypophysis was decreased. The present study suggests a possibility that PGF(2alpha) may directly cause the AVT release from the neurohypophysis at oviposition time in hens..  

The earliest affected regions were those hypothalamic nuclei, which are connected by neurosecretory fibers to the circumventricular organs neurohypophysis and median eminence.  

These results demonstrate that OT receptors are functionally coupled to membrane-bound ADP-ribosyl cyclase and/or CD38 and suggest that cADPR-mediated intracellular calcium signaling is involved in autoregulation of OT release, which is sensitive to protein kinase C, in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis in male mice..  

Pituicytomas are rare low-grade gliomas of the neurohypophysis. Given the role of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) in the developing rodent infundibulum and its expression in the adult rat neurohypophysis, we speculated that TTF-1 would be a marker of human pituicytes.  

The primary structure of the neuropeptide PRP-1 isolated from neurosecretory granules of bovine neurohypophysis.  

Neuropathological examination showed germinoma in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis.  

IGF-I peptide, which is probably produced in hypothalamic perikarya, is present in axons of the neurohypophysis, and IGF-I mRNA and peptide are present in the adenohypophysis in adrenocorticotrophic hormone cells, melanocyte-stimulating hormone cells, with interindividual differences in growth hormone cells, and, starting with puberty, in gonadotrophic hormone (GTH) cells.  

The present study analyzed mRNA and protein expressions of OX1R and OX2R in adenohypophysis (AP) and neurohypophysis (NP) of cycling pigs.  

The rat hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system (HNS), in which cell bodies and dendrites reside in the hypothalamus, physically separated from their nerve terminals in the neurohypophysis, provides a particularly powerful preparation in which to study the distribution and regional properties of ion channel proteins.  

Herring bodies (HB) were also encountered in the neurohypophysis of the treated fishes..  

It consists of the distal axons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurones that shape the neurohypophysis.  

The neurohypophysis was removed for quantification of AVP content, and the hypothalamus was dissected for LTC(4) synthase analysis by Western blot. The central administration of MK-886 increased the hypothalamic LTC(4) synthase content but did not alter the plasma and neurohypophysis AVP levels observed, or the blood pressure during this phase.  

However, as these 2 layers got closer and closer to each other, they began to adhere on the surface of the neurohypophysis.  

Although involvement of the neurohypophysis and secondary diabetes insipidus are rare, progression to multiple organ endocrinopathies is common.  

Axons in the neurohypophysis are known for their "beads on a string" morphology, with numerous in-line secretory swellings lined up along the axon cable.  

The type of adenoma operated on and the intraoperative manipulation of the neurohypophysis were also recorded. Generally, the occurrence of postoperative WEDs was linked to the intraoperative manipulation of the neurohypophysis.  

The AGAPEPAEPAQPGVY proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) was isolated from neurosecretory granules of the bovine neurohypophysis; it is produced by N.  

We also analyzed expression patterns of these genes and found that several are expressed in the embryonic and larval hypothalamus, neurohypophysis, and/or adenohypophysis.  

Body fluid balance requires the release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) from the neurohypophysis.  

METHODS: Male Wistar rats submitted to CLP or a sham operation were divided into 4 groups, as follows: group 1, for survival rate evaluation for 24 h; group 2, for body temperature (Tb) analysis; group 3, for mean arterial pressure registration, and group 4, for blood collection and processing of the neurohypophysis and hypothalamic nuclei 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h after surgery. AVP levels and content were measured in plasma, neurohypophysis and the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Moreover, an apparently impaired replenishment of AVP content in the neurohypophysis, possibly due to increased NO formation, may explain the impaired AVP secretion in the late phase of severe sepsis..  

It is also suggested that in addition to the release of magnocellular AVT into the neurohypophysis to act as antidiuretic hormone following water deprivation, AVT may also modulate HPA axis to cope with the osmotic stress..  

Regulation of body water homeostasis is critically dependent on the kidney and under the control of AVP, which is released from the neurohypophysis.  

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a contrast medium demonstrates thickening of the pituitary stalk, enlargement of the neurohypophysis, or both with homogeneous enhancement. In early reports of the disorder, the lesion seemed to be limited to the neurohypophysis, but the present review showed cases with a combination of hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus.  

CNTF is present in astrocytes in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) as well as in perivascular cells in the neurohypophysis, and a several fold increase in CNTF immunoreactivity occurs in the SON following either axotomy of magnocellular neurons or during axonal sprouting by intact magnocellular neurons.  

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peptide NK-1 and NK-2 receptors agonists and antagonists (and their natural ligands, i.e., substance P and neurokinin A) on the oxytocin (OT) secretion from the rat neurohypophysis into the blood. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of substance P (SP) or highly selective NK-1 receptor agonist--[ (Sar(9),Met(O2)(11))-Substance P]-- significantly stimulated the OT secretion from the rat neurohypophysis into the general circulation. The present data strongly indicate a major role for the tachykinin NK-1 receptor in SP- and/or NKA-dependent regulation of OT secretion from the rat neurohypophysis into the blood..  

CNS images showed isolated hypophyseal hypoplasia or associated to an ectopic neurohypophysis in most patients.  

At any given release site in the neurohypophysis, it seems that several hundred spikes are needed on average to release a single vesicle.  

The immunoreactivity was found throughout the hypothalamo-hypophysial neurosecretory system consisting of the magnocellular and parvocellular neurons of the nucleus preopticus, neurosecretory axonal tract and neurohypophysis (NH).  

Within the SON, peptidergic magnocellular neurons that project to the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) are involved in controlling osmotic balance, lactation, and parturition, partly through secretion of signaling peptides such as oxytocin and vasopressin into the blood.  

The expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was investigated immunocytochemically during the axonal degeneration and collateral axonal sprouting response that follows partial denervation of the rat neurohypophysis. A significant increase in the number of CNTF-immunoreactive (CNTF-ir) cells was observed in the neurohypophysis of partially denervated animals compared to age-matched sham-operated controls by 5 days post-denervation, remaining elevated throughout the 30 day post-denervation period. Stereometric assessment of the numbers of CNTF-ir cells within the partially denervated neurohypophysis demonstrated a 36% increase by 3 days following denervation reaching 130% of control values by 10 days post-lesion. These results suggest that increased CNTF-ir occurs in response to conditions which induce high levels of phagocytic activity by perivascular cells in the axotomized neurohypophysis which is sustained throughout a period in which axonal sprouting is known to occur in the partially denervated neurohypophysis..  

The rudiment of the hypothalamic infundibulum and neurohypophysis formed at CS 15, as a thickening of the posterior wall of the diencephalon.  

This syndrome involves hypoplasia of one or both optic nerves, absence of septum pellucidum, agenesis of the corpus callosum, cerebellar atrophy, ventricular dilatation and brain cysts, together with ectopic, aplastic or hypoplastic neurohypophysis.  

The neurohypophysis (NH) is positioned on top of the PD and penetrates and branches into the PI.  

While investigating the ontogeny of FSH and LH cells in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus by immunohistochemistry (IHC), we unexpectedly found immunoreactive neurons in the preoptic area, sending their projections through different brain areas and neurohypophysis.  

OBJECTIVE: Pituicytoma is a rare but distinct low-grade glioma of the neurohypophysis.  

Their dynamic appearance was analyzed in the Rathke's pouch (future adenohypophysis), mesenchyme, and in the developing neurohypophysis. In the 5th and 6th week, caspase-3 positive cells appeared in the Rathke's pouch (5%) and stalk (11%), in the mesenchyme, but not in the neurohypophysis. While caspase-3 dependent pathway of cell death participated in morphogenesis of the adenohypophysis and associated connective tissue, p53-mediated apoptosis most likely participates in morphogenesis of all parts of the gland, including neurohypophysis. With advancing development, the positivity to bcl-2 protein increased in the cells of the adenohypophysis, while it decreased in the neurohypophysis.  

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sella turcica showed a planar, hypoplastic and empty sella with pituitary stalk aplasia and ectopic neurohypophysis.  

Other areas where CART and NPY were colocalized included fibers in the tuberal area, inferior lobe, neurohypophysis, proximal pars distalis and pars intermedia of the pituitary.  

The main pathogenic factor responsible for hyponatremia is a nonosmotic hypersecretion of arginine vasopressin (or antidiuretic hormone) from the neurohypophysis related to circulatory dysfunction.  

The ultrastructure of the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) and the state of the blood-pituitary barrier in the caudal region of the gland have been studied with the use of ferritin as an exogenous marker of vascular permeability..  

Vasopressin cells sense plasma osmolality and secrete appropriate levels of vasopressin from the neurohypophysis as needed to control water excretion; this requires sustained secretion under basal conditions and the ability to increase (or decrease) secretion should plasma osmolality change.  

As oxytocin release from dendrites is regulated independent of electrical activity and of secretion from the neurohypophysis, exactly how this release is regulated by metabolic and reproduction-related signals remains to be established fully.  

Apoptotic destruction of epithelial cells at the basal cones of the adenohypophysis begins even before differentiation of the adenohypophyseal cells and their contact with the neurohypophysis.  

It is known, that sympathetic nervous system is involved in vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXY) release from neurohypophysis into the blood (Romeo et al.  

More typical weights were in the range of 0.95-2.35 g (mean=1.65+/-0.70 g) The cetacean pituitary consisted of two distinct parts, the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis, which were separated by a thin fibrous membrane in all species examined, in contrast to terrestrial mammals in which the parts are apposed and joined through a pars intermedia.  

Structural constituents of the median eminence, adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis contain elements of glutamatergic transmission, including glutamate receptors and enzymes of the glutamate/glutamine cycle.  

The authors report the case of a 16-year-old male who presented with a bifocal diencephalic tumor arising both in the neurohypophysis and the pineal region with hydrocephalus.  

In the carp pituitary, PACAP nerve fibers were detected in the nerve tracts of the neurohypophysis and extended into the vicinity of pituitary cells forming the pars intermedia.  

Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis.  

The first group of cells contributes to the neurohypophysis.  

The normal infundibulum and neurohypophysis consist entirely of neuronal processes, the neuronal cell bodies of which lie within the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and supportive glial cells or pituicytes. The finding of neurons within the neurohypophysis is exceedingly rare, as are ganglion cell tumors at this site. In this paper, we report a ganglion cell tumor of the neurohypophysis found incidentally at autopsy.  

Here we examined the role of endogenous ATP in the neurohypophysis. These data suggest that there was sufficient accumulation of ATP released from the neurohypophysis during stimulations to depolarize its nerve terminals.  

Patients bearing the heterozygous p.Thr99fs mutation had variable phenotypes: two brothers presented somato-lactotroph and thyrotroph deficiencies, with pituitary hypoplasia and poorly developed sella turcica; the youngest brother (propositus) also had corpus callosum hypoplasia and ectopic neurohypophysis; their father only had somatotroph deficiency and delayed puberty with pituitary hyperplasia.  

In the dorsal preoptic area, avt-expressing cells are intermingled with isotocin-neurophysin (ist) -expressing cells, and these neurons project to the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary).  

Phenotype varies with the factor involved: PROP1 (somatolactotroph, thyrotroph, gonadotroph and sometimes corticotroph deficiencies; pituitary hyper and hypoplasia), POU1F1 (somatolactotroph and thyrotroph deficiencies, pituitary hypoplasia), HESX1 (variable pituitary deficiencies, septo-optic dysplasia), and less frequently LHX3 (somatolactotroph, thyrotroph and gonadotroph deficiencies, limited head and neck rotation) and LHX4 (variable pituitary deficiencies, ectopic neurohypophysis, cerebral abnormalities).  

Some immunolabeling was also present in the neurohypophysis.  

The following unusual forms of CS were identified: (i) ACTH hyperesecretion due to ectopic corticotroph adenomas in the parasellar region or the neurohypophysis, or as part of double adenomas, or gangliocytomas; (ii) ACTH hypersecretion due to ectopic CRH or CRH-like peptide secretion by various neoplasms; (iii) ACTH-independent cortisol hypersecretion from ectopic or bilateral adrenal adenomas; (iv) glucocorticoid hypersensitivity; (v) iatrogenic, due to megestrol administration or to ritonavir and fluticasone co-administration.  

We report the first optical recordings of action potentials, in single trials, from one or a few (approximately 1-2 microm) mammalian nerve terminals in an intact in vitro preparation, the mouse neurohypophysis.  

The pituicytes protruded from the neurohypophysis as far as the adenohypophysis. Their cellular bodies were mainly located in the posterior neurohypophysis.  

The adult neurohypophysis (NH) is a well-established site of CNS plasticity: its glial cells, the pituicytes, reorganize their structure and undergo increased proliferation in response to stimulations such as dehydration.  

We describe the cytologic diagnosis of a granular cell tumor (GCT) of the neurohypophysis in a 33-year-old male who presented with headache and blurred vision. Although GCT of the neurohypophysis is very rare, a specific intraoperative cytological diagnosis is possible. We report the clinical, cytological, and pathological findings of a GCT affecting the neurohypophysis..  

AQP4 was localized in the supporting cells of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis.  

SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Vasopressin is synthesized in the neurohypophysis and released in response to a decrease in plasma volume or an increase in serum osmolality.  

Salusin-beta-LI fibres and varicosities in the internal zone of the median eminence and the neurohypophysis were also increased after osmotic stimuli. In vitro hormone release studies showed that salusin-beta evoked both arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin release from the neurohypophysis, but not the SON. In our hands, in the neurohypophysis, a significant release of AVP and oxytocin was observed only at concentrations from 100 nm and above of salusin-beta. We also measured intracellular calcium ([ Ca(2+)](i)) increase induced by salusin-beta on freshly-isolated single nerve terminals from the neurohypophysis devoid of pars intermedia.  

At CS 15 the primordia of hypothalamic infundibulum and of neurohypophysis are formed as a thickening of diencephalic posterior wall.  

Nerve fibers with PACAP-like immunoreactivity (PACAP-LI) were identified in the neurohypophysis in close proximity to cells containing PRL-LI or SL-LI.  

In addition, the expression of GPR30 is also detected in the neurohypophysis.  

Oxytocin is a peptide hormone produced by the neurohypophysis.  

The present study tested PDE5 inhibitors on the cGMP-mediated modulation of K(+) channels in the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary). Voltage imaging in intact neurohypophysis with a voltage sensitive absorbance dye showed that T-1032 reduced the failure of propagating action potentials during trains of activity.  

CONTEXT: The unexpected observation of a normal GH peak in 22% of young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) and ectopic neurohypophysis has raised questions about the criteria defining GHD in young adults and whether patients with subsequent increases in GH secretion nonetheless have a subtle form of GHD. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-two patients with ectopic neurohypophysis (n = 24), isolated hypoplastic anterior pituitary (n = 14), or normal hypothalamic pituitary area (n = 24) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time of GHD diagnosis underwent reevaluation of the GH-IGF-I axis at a mean age of 16.8 +/- 1.6 yr. RESULTS: On retesting, peak GH exceeded 10 microg/liter in 31 patients (50%): six (20%) patients with ectopic neurohypophysis, 10 (32%) patients with initially isolated hypoplastic anterior pituitary, and 15 (48%) patients with normal MRI findings. Among these patients, serum IGF-I levels were significantly lower in patients with ectopic neurohypophysis than in those without structural abnormalities of the hypothalamic pituitary axis (n = 25), but patients without structural abnormalities also had significantly lower serum IGF-I levels than control subjects, after controlling for age, sex, and body mass index (mean serum IGF-I levels of 374 +/- 83 vs.  

The circumventricular organs are small sized structures lining the cavity of the third ventricle (neurohypophysis, vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, subfornical organ, pineal gland and subcommissural organ) and of the fourth ventricle (area postrema). Their particular location in relation to the ventricular cavities is to be noted: the subfornical organ, the subcommissural organ and the area postrema are situated at the confluence between ventricles while the neurohypophysis, the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis and the pineal gland line ventricular recesses.  

Granulous cell tumors, which are common, are rarely located in the neurohypophysis.  

This review focuses on recent molecular data from protostomes, discusses the original complexity of the bilaterian forebrain neurosecretory system, provides an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of the vertebrate preoptic area/hypothalamus/neurohypophysis and suggests a possible function for an ancient set of sensory-neurosecretory cells present in the medial neurosecretory bilaterian forebrain..  

Whereas, some were clearly "en passant" fibres innervating the neurohypophysis, others followed a more convoluted and branching course, and appeared to terminate within the nucleus.  

The pituitary gland of vertebrates consists of two major parts, the neurohypophysis (NH) and the adenohypophysis (AH).  

The AGAPEPAEPAQPGVY proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) was isolated from neurosecretory granules of the bovine neurohypophysis; it is produced by N.  

Numerous Ki-67 positive cells characterised the Rathke's pouch, the diencephalon (neurohypophysis) and the associated mesenchyme.  

It releases AVP from the PVN and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and oxytocin (OXT) from the PVN via the neurohypophysis into the bloodstream.  

Oxytocin (OT) is a neurosecretory nonapeptide synthesized in hypothalamic cells that project to the neurohypophysis as well as to widely distributed sites in the central nervous system.  

The signal was also expressed in the molecular layer, Purkinje cell layer, and white matter of cerebellum, the pituicytes of neurohypophysis, the parafollicular cells and follicular basement membrane of thyroid, the exocrine portion of pancreas, the tubular epithelium of kidney, the smooth muscle cells of arteries, and the red pulp of spleen.  

The pituitary gland is composed of two distinct entities: the adenohypophysis, including the anterior and intermediate lobes, and the neurohypophysis, known as the posterior lobe. Hes1 and Hes5 double-mutant mice also lack the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe), probably due to incomplete evagination of the diencephalon. Hes genes are also essential for the formation of the neurohypophysis..  

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Recent work suggests that part of the control of vasopressin output is mediated by taurine released from pituicytes, the astroglial cells of the neurohypophysis.  

Cerebral MRI demonstrated ectopic neurohypophysis associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia in three out of the four patients. The morphology and position of the anterior pituitary and neurohypophysis were normal in one patient who displayed a persistence of the craniopharyngeal canal.  

Images of all series were assessed visually for enhancement of the arteries, the neurohypophysis, and the adenohypophysis. The enhancement pattern of the neurohypophysis was distinguished adequately from that of the adenohypophysis in five dogs that were scanned with 1 mm collimation and pitch of 2, but the difference was less discernable when the other protocols were used. Using this protocol, with the specific scanner used, the neurohypophysis, the adenohypophysis, and the surrounding vascular structures are adequately visualized..  

PrPres was detected in a greater proportion of vCJD pituitaries than sCJD pituitaries and was localized predominantly in the neurohypophysis.  

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide generated in neurons originating in the hypothalamus, from which axons project to the entire brain and neurohypophysis in fish.  

Large and rapid changes in light scattering accompany secretion from nerve terminals of the mammalian neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary). Here we have used a high bandwidth atomic force microscope to demonstrate that these light-scattering signals are associated with changes in terminal volume that are detected as nanometer-scale movements of a cantilever positioned on top of the neurohypophysis.  

In the control rats, the radioactivity was accumulated to the greatest extent in the neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis and kidney. Following OPC-31260 administration, significantly more radioactive compounds accumulated in the kidney (control: 0.30+/-0.052 total radioactivity %/100 mg organ weight, OPC-31260-treated: 0.50+/-0.133 total radioactivity %/100 mg organ weight, P<0.05, n=10) and neurohypophysis (control: 0.37+/-0.053 total radioactivity %/100 mg organ weight, OPC-31260-treated: 0.52+/-0.076 total radioactivity %/100 mg organ weight, P<0.05, n=10).  

Nerve fibers with MCH-LI were found mainly in the neurohypophysis, with a few in the telencephalon, mesencephalon, and diencephalon.  

Karyotype was 46XX r(18) (p11,2- q.23)--18 ring chromosome syndrome, the MRI showed an ectopic neurohypophysis.  

RESULTS: We describe in detail the appearance of the adenohypophysis, the pituitary stalk and the neurohypophysis, correlations with hormone deficiencies, the abnormalities that may be associated and progression over time for each condition.  

The neurohypophysis was best visualized without contrast medium.  

We present a case of optic nerve hypoplasia associated to ectopic neurohypophysis..  

Magnetic resonance was indicative of adenohypophysis agenesis with maintained neurohypophysis.  

Positive immunostaining of AT1 was observed in a subpopulation of anterior and intermediate pituitary lobe cells as well as in some nerve endings of the neurohypophysis.  

We report a case of pituicytoma, a rare primary tumor of the neurohypophysis.  

In the neurohypophysis, only few cells, probably pituicytes, contained IGF-I mRNA whereas IGF-I peptide was found also in numerous axons in the pars nervosa.  

Endogenous production can be either ectopic (from a tumor) or eutopic (from the neurohypophysis).  

In the neurohypophysis, VGLUT2-staining in OT terminals was reduced with osmotic stimulation.  

Immunohistochemistry with the same anti-oxytocin antibody detected strong staining in the neurohypophysis and in few fibers in the inner zone of the median eminence, which was not abolished by pre-adsorption of this antibody with oxytocin, vasopressin, vasotocin or mesotocin and might not be attributed to oxytocin.  

The adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis originate from the combination of 2 events occurring during the fourth week of life, the development of Rathke pouch and of a neuroectodermal evagination of tissue from the floor of the diencephalon.  

Sella MRI showed congenital empty sella, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, ectopic neurohypophysis, and stalk agenesis.  

We demonstrated the colocalization of SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 with arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and on AVP projections to the neurohypophysis.  

Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions.  

FSH and LH neurons were localized in the nucleus lateralis tuberis and their fibers project through the ventral hypothalamus, preoptic area and neurohypophysis.  

A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained and showed decreased pituitary stalk enhancement and ectopic neurohypophysis. Therefore, we conclude that the delayed puberty was a result of hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk dysgenesis and ectopic neurohypophysis.  

We measured changes in the intrinsic fluorescence (IF) of the neurosecretory terminals of the mouse neurohypophysis during brief (1-2 s) trains of stimuli.  

Released near fenestrated capillaries of the neurohypophysis, these peptides enter the blood and travel to peripheral target organs.  

In addition, the patient had a 3 mm hypoenhancing lesion of the neurohypophysis and a 1 cm large adrenal tumor.  

DESIGN/PATIENTS: As part of a series of prospective studies of CD, we identified 12 patients (34.5 +/- 19.9 yr; 11 females; four children) with tumors located completely within the neurohypophysis among 730 patients undergoing surgery for CD. In cases of CD in which an adenoma is not identified in the adenohypophysis and in patients with persistent hypercortisolism after complete or partial excision of the anterior lobe, tumor within the neurohypophysis should be considered; selective adenomectomy of a neurohypophyseal, ACTH-secreting tumor can produce long-term remission..  

We have previously shown that swelling-induced exocytosis possesses limited selectivity; hypotonic medium evokes TRH but not oxytocin release from hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and neurohypophysis (NH).  

Neurosecretory IGF-I-immunoreactive axons were first seen in the neurohypophysis around 17 DPF.  

Symptoms and signs of neurohypophysis are rare.  

The pituitary was characterised by a close interdigitating neighbourhood of neurohypophysis (PN) and adenohypophysis.  

In drug-naive rats, acutely injected heroin significantly depleted NPFF-immunoreactive material within the neurons of the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS), significantly decreased the density of NPFF-immunoreactive nerve fibers within the median eminence, pituitary stalk, and neurohypophysis, and markedly increased NPY-immunoreactive neurons and nerve fibers in the thalamic paraventricular nucleus and bed nucleus of stria terminalis. In drug-sensitized rats, heroin significantly increased the number and immunostaining intensity of the NPFF-immunoreactive neurons within the NTS and induced minor changes in the NPFF-immunoreactive nerve fiber network of the median eminence, pituitary stalk, and neurohypophysis and a relatively minor increase in NPY neurons in the thalamic paraventricular nucleus and bed nucleus of stria terminalis.  

Disorders of neurohypophysis manifest with moderate polyuria and polydipsia.  

In this study, we sought to examine the effects of NPFF on GABAergic inhibitory synaptic input to magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the PVN, which secrete the neurohormones, vasopressin and oxytocin from their terminals in the neurohypophysis.  

The presence of NPFF-ir fibers in the lamprey neurohypophysis suggests that the involvement of NPFF-like substances in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system had emerged early during evolution..  

The magnocellular OXY neurons release their products into the general circulation in the neurohypophysis while the mediocellular OXY neurons secrete elsewhere in the CNS.  

Oxytocin (OT) is traditionally thought of as a "female" neurohypophysis hormone due to its role in parturition and milk ejection. At ejaculation, a burst of OT is released from the neurohypophysis into the systemic circulation and stimulates contractions of the reproductive tract aiding sperm release.  

HRP-2 was strongly expressed in the thalamus, prefrontal and parietal cortex, neurohypophysis, and the cerebellum, HRP-3 in the bulbus olfactorius, piriform cortex and amygdala complex.  

Normal variations in sellar T1 signal hyperintensity are related to vasopressin storage in the neurohypophysis, the presence of bone marrow in normal and variant anatomic structures, hyperactive hormone secretion in the anterior pituitary lobe (eg, in newborns and pregnant or lactating women), and flow artifacts and magnetic susceptibility effects.  

The influence of centrally administered galanin (Gal; 100 pM i.c.v.) on arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) content in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis as well as on their blood plasma concentration was estimated in male Wistar rats drinking ad libitum 2% solution of natrium chloride per 48 hours. injection of Gal to salt-loaded rats caused a marked raise in AVP and OT level in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis with subsequent diminution of both neurohormones concentration in blood plasma.  

During subsequent development, the gland becomes more elongated and differentiates into neurohypophysis (NH), pars distalis (PD) and pars intermedia (PI).  

Body fluid homeostasis requires the release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP, an antidiuretic hormone) from the neurohypophysis.  

Nonapeptides secreted by the neurohypophysis have important roles in vertebrate cardio-fluid homeostasis.  

Microscopically, whole-mounted sections revealed a well-circumscribed nodule with no fibrous capsule, located mainly in the neurohypophysis and partially compressing the adenohypophysis.  

Such specialized cells, called pituicytes, are located in the neurohypophysis (NH).  

A new finding is that of nuclear inclusions in both the adeno- and neurohypophysis.  

OBJECTIVE: The effects of proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) isolated from neurosecretory granules of bovine neurohypophysis produced by nuclei supraopticus and paraventricularis on phagocytosis, bacterial intracellular killing and oxidative burst induction in normal human cells and inflammatory cells from patients with Beh├žet's disease (BD), i.e.  

Conversely, immunolocalization of MrgX2 protein was restricted to neurohypophysis and testis, whilst all tumours analysed were negative.  

Double labeling confocal microscopy demonstrated that the immunoreactivity of tPA was localized at AVP-positive dendrites in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and AVP-positive terminals in the neurohypophysis (NH).  

From medium-sized larvae to adults, the regions most richly innervated by DAir fibers were the neurohypophysis, the striatum, the pretectum and the midbrain tegmentum.  

The authors report a case of an 8-year-old boy with GCT of the neurohypophysis presenting with central precocious puberty. Clinical picture, histopathological features, and histogenesis of GCT of neurohypophysis are discussed..  

Rat supraoptic nucleus neurons express glycine receptors on the membrane of both their soma and dendrites within the supraoptic nucleus, and their axon terminals in the neurohypophysis. This was paralleled by the presence of clusters of the glycine receptor aggregating protein gephyrin in the supraoptic nucleus and its complete absence in the neurohypophysis.  

To study its role in the neurosecretory neurons, we evaluated the expression of the VGLUT2 gene in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei as well as the immunoreactivity in the neurohypophysis under euhydrated and chronic hyperosmotic conditions with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In the neurohypophysis, VGLUT2 staining was frequently localized in vasopressin terminals of control rats and was apparently reduced in stimulated rats.  

We report two cases of posterior pituitary astrocytomas in middle-aged women presenting as focal lesions of the neurohypophysis.  

Cytochrome oxidase activity, (3)H-2-deoxyglucose uptake, and the area occupied by blood vessels increased in the paraventricular nucleus and neurohypophysis of lactating rats, as compared with their virgin counterparts.  

The AGAPEPAEPAQPGVY proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) was isolated from neurosecretory granules of the bovine neurohypophysis; it is produced by N.  

The morphology of axons and astrocytes in the neurohypophysis changes considerably during physiological stimulation, increasing neurovascular contact and facilitating neurosecretion.  

The adenohypophysis is a morphologically distinct structure by 24 hpf, whereas the neurohypophysis remains indistinct until 72 hpf.  

Microsphere-determined regional blood flow indicated selective decreases in perfusion after Hb transfusion in the kidney, small intestine, and neurohypophysis, which does not have tight endothelial junctions.  

In addition to the classical features, including absence of the normal high signal of the neurohypophysis, atrophy of visual pathways, the brainstem, cerebellum and cerebral cortex, we observed bilateral hyperintensity on proton density- and T2- weighted images related to the optic radiations in the periventricular white matter of the temporal and parieto-occipital lobes, which may reflect gliosis pathologically..  

In adult stargazer, PACAP-like immunoreactive (PACAP-LI) nerve fibers and endings were identified in both the neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis in close proximity to pituitary cells containing immunoreactive hormones such as prolactin, somatolactin, the N-terminal peptide of proopiomelanocortin, and N-acetyl endorphin.  

The loose-patch-clamp technique was used with multiple-pulse protocols to study the frequency dependence of currents from the surface of the intact rat neurohypophysis (NH) and hypothalamus.  

Its simple anatomical structure is in contrast to its biochemical complexity; its secretions (the most studied being melatonin) modifying the function of the adeno- and neurohypophysis, thyroid and parathyroids, adrenal cortex and medulla, endocrine pancreas and the gonads.  

PACAP-LI fibers were identified in the neurohypophysis in close proximity to pituitary cells containing immunoreactive hormones such as somatolactin, the N-terminal peptide of proopiomelanocortin, and N-acetyl endorphin.  

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The difference in enhancement between the central and peripheral parts of the pituitary gland was attributable to a difference in vascularization of the neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis, respectively.  

The relative signal intensity of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis was measured as (A-V)/V and (P-V)/V, respectively (where A, P, V are the mean signal intensities of the adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis and vermis white matter, respectively).  

Patients (n = 18; 15 males and three females) with childhood-onset GHD associated with ectopic neurohypophysis were treated with hGH (0.20 +/- 0.05 mg/kg.wk) for 9.9 +/- 4.0 yr (from 6.8 +/- 4.7 to 17.7 +/- 1.3 yr of age) with a mean height gain of 2.6 +/- 1.4 sd score. Although the pathogenesis of anterior pituitary dysfunction remains unclear in patients with ectopic neurohypophysis, isolated GHD, location of EPPHS along the stalk, and visibility of the pituitary stalk on magnetic resonance imaging findings clearly represent important markers to predict a less severe form of the disease..  

Here, we studied the mechanism of Ca2+ clearance in freshly isolated nerve terminals of the rat neurohypophysis using Fura-2 Ca2+ imaging and measured the release of AVP by radioimmuno assay.  

In the neurohypophysis, positive reaction for S-100 protein was seen in the pituicytes.  

Pituicytoma is a rare, low-grade neoplasm that originates in the neurohypophysis of the pituitary gland.  

In each life stage of the lamprey, expression of lamprey GnRH-I was shown in the preoptic area (POA) and the hypothalamus forming the characteristic arc-like cell population extending from the preoptic nucleus (NPO) to the neurohypophysis.  

Acute application of alcohol to the rat neurohypophysis potentiates large-conductance calcium-sensitive potassium channels (BK), contributing to inhibition of hormone secretion.  

The hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract, isolated SON neurons, and isolated axon terminals in the neurohypophysis also showed robust eGFP fluorescence.  

Our results show that modified large dense-core neurosecretory granules (NSGs), isolated from the bovine neurohypophysis, spontaneously fuse with a planar lipid membrane containing only the t-SNARE syntaxin 1A.  

Cells expressing zfSLalpha are located at the posterior pars intermedia, bordering the neurohypophysis, whereas zfSLbeta is expressed in the anterior part of the pars intermedia, bordering the pars distalis.  

The neurohypophysis showed intense immunostaining.  

The neurohypophysis is the most commonly involved site, and diabetes insipidus is the most common presentation in these patients.  


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