Medial Habenula

In the brain of zebrafish and medaka, in situ hybridization and laser capture microdissection coupled with real-time PCR showed kiss1 mRNA expression in the ventro-medial Habenula and the periventricular hypothalamic nucleus.  

The medial Habenula (MHb) exhibits exceptionally high levels of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), but it remains unclear whether all expressed nAChR subunit mRNAs are translated to form functional receptors.  

High densities were detected in the parafascicular nucleus (Pf), the dorsolateral, ventrolateral and posterior thalamic nuclei, and in the medial Habenula. LGR8 was also detected throughout the medial Habenula-fasciculus retroflexus-interpeduncular nucleus pathway, further indicating that the receptor is transported from mRNA-expressing soma to remote axonal/terminal sites.  

Activation of P2X receptors induces fast excitatory postsynaptic currents in synapses located in various brain regions, including medial Habenula, hippocampus and cortex.  

Expression of the Slc10a4 protein was detected in motor regions of the spinal cord and rhombencephalon, as well as in mesopontine cholinergic neurons, the medial Habenula, cholinergic areas of the forebrain, and the gut myenteric plexus.  

Live imaging establishes that axons pause at the medial Habenula before and after crossing the roof plate. esrom mutants axons fail to advance beyond the ipsilateral medial Habenula. Consistent with signaling properties changing outside the roof plate, EphB is surface localized on axon segments within a zone demarcated by the medial Habenula. wnt4a is expressed in the medial Habenula and morpholino knockdown causes loss of the commissure.  

In guinea pig brain slices, talnetant antagonized NKB-induced increases in neuronal firing in the medial Habenula (pKB = 7.9) and senktide-induced increases in neuronal firing in the substantia nigra pars compacta (pKB = 7.7) with no diminution of maximal agonist efficacy, suggesting competitive antagonism at native NK3 receptors.  

By using gramicidin-perforated patch recording in rat brain slices, we show that cells of the medial Habenula of the epithalamus generate tonic firing in basal conditions.  

18-Methoxycoronaridine, an agent that reduces morphine self-administration and attenuates dopamine sensitization in the nucleus accumbens in response to repeated morphine, has been shown to produce these effects by acting in the medial Habenula and interpeduncular nucleus.  

While there are very low densities of alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptors in the mesolimbic pathway, these receptors are prominently localized in the medial Habenula (MHb) and in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN).  

The lateral habenula is the principal actor in this direct dialogue, while the medial Habenula mostly conveys information to the interpeduncular nucleus before this modulates further regions.  

The fraction of inward current carried by Ca(2+) (FCa(2+)) through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on acutely isolated rat medial Habenula (MHb) neurons was calculated from experiments that simultaneously monitored agonist-induced membrane currents and intracellular [ Ca(2+)], measured with patch-clamp and indo-1 fluorescence, respectively.  

The relationship between the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([ Ca2+](i)) and recovery from desensitization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in rat medial Habenula (MHb) neurons was investigated using the whole cell patch-clamp techniques in combination with microfluorescent [ Ca2+](i) measurements.  

nAChR expression was analyzed in cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and medial Habenula from autoradiograms using computer assisted image analysis. No effect of chronic nicotine on receptor expression was detected in the medial Habenula, suggesting that nicotine's effect was mainly on alpha4beta2-type heteromeric nAChRs.  

Compared with ad libitum levels, food restriction decreased, and 90 min of refeeding reinstated, GnRH-II mRNA levels in midbrain and GnRH-II peptide in several target areas including the medial Habenula and ventromedial nucleus.  

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as a fast excitatory transmitter in several regions of the central nervous system (CNS) including the medial Habenula, dorsal horn, locus coeruleus, hippocampus, and somatosensory cortex.  

Administration of biotinylated dextran amine into the vitreous body resulted in nerve cell body labeling in several structures: the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, the hippocampus (CA1, CA3), the dentate gyrus, the indusium griseum, the olfactory tubercle, and the medial Habenula, all of them belong to the limbic system.  

Because alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptors in the brain are preferentially located in the medial Habenula and the interpeduncular nucleus, the present study was conducted to determine if 18-MC could act in these brain areas to modulate morphine self-administration in rats. Local administration of 18-MC into either the medial Habenula or the interpeduncular area decreased morphine self-administration while having no effect on responding for a non-drug reinforcer (sucrose).  

These areas included the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, claustrum, medial Habenula, dorsal endopiriform nucleus, basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus and ventral tegmental area.  

In vitro studies have demonstrated that 18-MC is a potent antagonist of alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptors (IC50=0.75 microM), which are predominantly located in the medial Habenula and interpeduncular nuclei. To test this possibility, 18-MC was locally administered into the medial Habenula, interpeduncular nucleus and locus coeruleus of morphine-dependent rats; this treatment was followed by naltrexone to precipitate a withdrawal syndrome. Pretreatment with various doses of 18-MC into the locus coeruleus significantly reduced wet-dog shakes, teeth chattering, burying and diarrhea, while pretreatment into the medial Habenula attenuated teeth chattering, burying, and weight loss.  

In the current work, light and electron microscopic studies of the medial Habenula of the dove brain revealed that mast cell-derived material can enter neurons in three ways: by direct fusion of the granule and plasma membranes (mast cell and neuron); by capture of insoluble granule remnants and, potentially, via receptor-mediated endocytosis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, a soluble mediator derived from the mast cell.  

In the diencephalon, the medial Habenula was most reactive followed by the reticular nucleus of the thalamus.  

We used a combination of anterograde and retrograde tracing methods to show that the dorsal part of the reticular formation and the medial Habenula (MHb) project to the Uva.  

PTZ kindled animals mainly showed increased Fos IR in limbic regions, whereas Fos IR in nicotine kindled animals was increased in the entorhinal cortex, medial Habenula and the compact part of substantia nigra.  

medial Habenular cells generate tonic trains of action potentials, whereas lateral habenular cells are capable of producing action potentials in burst mode. Lateral habenular cells produce dendrites that are much longer than those of medial Habenular cells. Two distinct intrinsic circuits exist in the medial Habenular nucleus, whereas in the lateral habenular nucleus, intrinsic axons travel largely from medial to lateral direction. The connection between the two habenular nuclei is asymmetrical in that only the medial Habenula sends projection to the lateral habenula.  

By in vitro receptor autoradiography, high densities of cortistatin-14 and somatostatin-14 specific binding sites were detected in the cortex, hippocampal formation, basolateral amygdala and medial Habenula.  

In vivo studies revealed significant reduction of alpha3 mRNA levels in both thalamus and medial Habenula, regions known to express alpha3, following continuous (7 days) intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of Isis 106567 in rats. Consistent with functional alpha3 knockdown, epibatidine-induced c-Fos expression in the medial Habenula was attenuated in aON-treated rats.  

Nicotine-treated animals had a significantly higher maximal efflux in cerebral cortex and superior colliculus, but not in thalamus or interpeduncular nucleus plus medial Habenula. Binding was significantly increased after 2 weeks nicotine exposure in cortex, superior colliculus and thalamus, but not in interpeduncular nucleus plus medial Habenula.  

We found increased levels of transcripts for alpha 2 and beta 2 nicotinic receptor subunits in the hippocampus, decreased alpha 4 subunit transcripts in the medial Habenula and amygdala, and increased beta 2 subunit transcripts in the septum and piriform cortex.  

Prominent immunostaining included: 1) the medial Habenula, efferents composing the fasciculus retroflexus, and the interpeduncular nucleus; 2) nuclei and ascending tracts of the auditory system inclusive of the medial geniculate; 3) the sensory cortex barrel field and cell bodies of the ventral thalamic nucleus; 4) olfactory-associated structures and the piriform cortex; and 5) sensory and motor trigeminal nuclei.  

Female voles exposed to conspecific male urine had increased numbers of mast cells in the main olfactory bulbs and epithalamus (medial Habenula), but not the thalamus or median eminence, relative to control groups.  

PDE2 mRNA was distributed more widely, with highest levels in medial Habenula, and abundant expression in olfactory bulb, olfactory tubercle, cortex, amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus.  

The two transcripts were generally expressed in parallel, and the highest levels were detected in the piriform cortex, hippocampus, medial Habenula, and olfactory bulb.  

The labeling was dense in layer I of most cortical areas, dentate gyrus, stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1 field, several thalamic nuclei, and medial Habenula.  

In the present study, the action of atropine has been examined on alpha3beta4 receptors expressed heterologously in Xenopus oocytes and native nAChRs in medial Habenula neurons. (5) In rat medial Habenula (MHb) neurons, atropine (0.3-3.0 micro M) inhibited nicotine-induced responses in both a concentration and membrane potential-dependent manner (at -40 mV, IC(50)=4 micro M), similar to the effects on alpha3beta4-nAChRs in oocytes.  

A novel form of long-term potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission is described in the rat medial Habenula nucleus.  

MOR activation was first detected in the caudate-putamen (CPU) at e12.5, and by e15.5, activity had not only increased in this region but also expanded to include the midbrain, medial Habenula, hypothalamus, pons, and medulla. DOR activity first appeared at e17.5 in the hypothalamus, pons, medial Habenula, and medulla and at p1 in the CPU at levels noticeably less than those of the MOR.  

Using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization we report the unprecedented localization of IL-18 in the neurons of the superior part of the medial Habenula (MHbS), their projections to the interpenducular nucleus and its expression in the ependymal cells surrounding the third and the lateral ventricles.  

METHOD: This study investigated neuronal nAchRs in PC12 cells and acutely dissociated rat medial Habenula (MHb) neurons.  

The medial Habenula showed significantly higher binding (by approximately 40%) in HWG, with no significant changes in LWG.  

We report that the extension of this binding area in coronal and horizontal sections corresponds to the anatomical extension of the medial Habenula. The affinity (K(D)) of the medial Habenula receptors for [ (3)H]epibatidine was estimated to be 0.5 nM using an autoradiographic saturation assay, whereas the affinity of the binding site for nicotine and acetylcholine was estimated to be 5 and 8 microM, respectively. The receptor density (B(max)) in the medial Habenula was estimated to be about 1100 fmol/mg wet weight using [ (3)H]epibatidine. Here we report that 2 x 1 microl of 10 nM epibatidine, resulting in a 2 x 10-fmol dose, administered directly to the medial Habenula by bilateral stereotactic injection had an analgesic effect measured in the hot-plate test. This leads us to suggest that the medial Habenular epibatidine binding site might be a valuable target for the development of non-opiate analgesics..  

in axons from medial Habenula through the core of the tract to interpeduncular nucleus.  

The most relevant differences were in hippocampal formation, medial Habenula, basal ganglia, and area postrema, at both the regional and cellular level.  

The beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit null mutation eliminated most high affinity [ (3) H]epibatidine binding in mouse brain, but significant binding remained in accessory olfactory nucleus, medial Habenula, inferior colliculus and interpeduncular nucleus.  

Electron microscopy examination of neuropil in the medial Habenula showed localization of the kinase in both axon terminals and dendrites.  

Treatment with neither progesterone nor allopregnanolone affected beta-galactosidase activity in the medial Habenula.  

The 3.0 kb t-PA promoter directed generalized and poorly defined expression to the cortex and hippocampus, while the 1.4 kb t-PA promoter directed expression selectively to the medial Habenula. Finally, we describe a cis-acting element related to the NFAT recognition site that provides a protein-binding site and which may play a role in the selective expression of the 1.4 t-PA promoter in the medial Habenula.  

High-affinity choline transporter-immunoreactive cell bodies were demonstrated in the olfactory tubercle, basal forebrain complex, striatum, mesopontine complex, medial Habenula, cranial nerve motor nuclei, and ventral horn and intermediate zone of the spinal cord.  

Attempts to mimic synaptic delivery of acetylcholine (ACh) with brief, repetitive pulses of high concentration ACh at synapses of medial Habenula (MHN) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) neurons in vitro elicited temporally distinct facilitation and inhibition of glutamate secretion via nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptor-mediated pathways, respectively.  

As assessed by silver staining, neurotoxicity was seen almost exclusively in the axons of the medial Habenula and its output tract, the fasciculus retroflexus, in all treatment groups except the lowest dose. Past research has shown the medial Habenula to be highly sensitive to the effects of nicotine, and these findings, in conjunction with related research using dopaminergic stimulants, indicate that the habenula may be a weak link in the neurotoxicity seen following stimulant drugs of abuse..  

METHODS: Whole-cell currents were measured in acutely dissociated rat medial Habenula (MHb) neurons by applying 10 or 100 microM nicotine in the absence or presence of thiopental 3-100 microM.  

The highest levels of hybridization were observed in the olfactory bulb, olfactory tubercle, hippocampus, cerebellum, medial Habenula nucleus, pineal gland, area postrema, and choroid plexus.  

In naive, untreated rats, fiber networks containing V1bR-immunoreactivity were mainly concentrated in the hypothalamus, amygdala, cerebellum, and particularly in those areas with a leaky blood brain barrier or close to the circumventricular organs (medial Habenula, subfornical organ, organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, median eminence, and nuclei lining to the third and fourth ventricles).  

Allylnitrile induced changes in the immunolabelling of GABA in the medial Habenula, interpeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra, dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus; the amount of immunolabelling decreased in all of these brain structures except the medial Habenula at 2 days postdosing, and increased in all of these structures at 14 days postdosing. The present results suggest that the GABAergic systems through the medial Habenula-interpeduncular nucleus-ascending raphe nuclei relay and through the substantia nigra may be involved in allylnitrile-induced behavioral abnormalities..  

Time-dependent changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function were studied in acutely isolated medial Habenula neurons during whole-cell perfusion.  

In the three species, the NK3 receptor was similarly distributed within the cerebral cortex, the zona incerta, the medial Habenula, the amygdaloid complex, the superior colliculus and the interpeduncular nucleus.  

In the thalamus, the highest NR2B-ir was observed in the medial Habenula and the anterodorsal, paraventricular, rhomboid, reticular, and dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei.  

In CA3, dentate gyrus, medial Habenula, and laterodorsal thalamus, the density of apoptotic cells was highest at 24-72 hr after HI and then declined.  

Nicotine given continuously also selectively induces degeneration in fasciculus retroflexus, but in the other half of the tract: the cholinergic axons running from medial Habenula in the core of the tract to the interpeduncular nucleus.  

At synapses of medial Habenula (MHN) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) neurons, application of nicotine increased the frequency of TTX-resistant, spontaneous postsynaptic currents (SSCs) by an average of 5-fold.  

Relationships between nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) channel function and nAChR subunit mRNA expression were explored in acutely isolated rat medial Habenula (MHb) neurons using a combination of whole-cell recording and single cell RT-PCR techniques.  

alpha6 and beta3 mRNA signals were selectively concentrated in the substantia nigra and the medial Habenula. The strongest signals for alpha3 or beta4 mRNAs were found in the epithalamus (medial Habenula and pineal gland), whereas there were no specific alpha3 or beta4 signals in mesencephalic dopaminergic nuclei.  

HCN1 expression is highly enriched in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and facial motor nucleus; HCN2 is highly abundant in mamillary bodies, pontine nucleus, ventral cochlear nucleus, and nucleus of the trapezoid body; HCN3 expression is most pronounced in supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus; and HCN4 expression is most abundant in medial Habenula and anterior and principal relay nuclei of the thalamus.  

Although there were similarities in distribution of the nicotinic receptor subunit mRNAs in monkey and rodent brain, there were prominent differences in areas such as the caudate, putamen, locus coeruleus, medial Habenula, and cerebellum.  

In contrast, the anterior thalamic nucleus, the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, and the medial Habenula, areas not involved in higher cognitive functions, did not have significantly reduced CytOx activity (0%, 10%, and 16%, respectively).  

The strongest signal was evident in the medial Habenula.The thalamus showed labelling in the reticular, ventrobasal and geniculate nuclei.  

mHCN4 is most highly expressed within neurons of the medial Habenula, thalamus, and olfactory bulb, but also in distinct neuronal populations of the basal ganglia.  

Cx I mRNA predominated in medial Habenula, medial septum-diagonal band complex, and thalamus, whereas cx II mRNA was more abundant in most other regions, including isocortex and hippocampus.  

(125)I-CGP 64213 binding to GABA(B) receptors was heterogeneous throughout the brain with the highest levels in the medial Habenula of the thalamus.  

Confocal dual immunofluorescence labeling studies indicated a broad regional specificity in the cellular coexpression between RGS7 and Gbeta5 within the cerebral cortical layers I and V-VI, hippocampal formation, caudate-putamen, medial Habenula, most thalamic nuclei, and cerebellar molecular and granular layers.  

The mast cell population increases 10-fold in the medial Habenular region of the brain within 2 h after pairing in doves.  

Acute nicotine significantly increased LCGU in anteroventral thalamus, superior colliculus, medial Habenula and dorsal lateral geniculate.  

Transgene expression was determined by quantitative analysis of beta-galactosidase histochemical staining in the medial amygdala and in the medial Habenula as a control region. No significant changes were observed in the medial Habenula.  

GFRalpha-1 mRNA was abundant in dorsal endopiriform nucleus, medial Habenula, reticular thalamic nucleus, pyramidal and granule cell layers of the hippocampus, substantia nigra pars compacta and in cranial motor nuclei.  

A marked, selective increase in [ 3H] flunitrazepam binding in both the lateral and medial Habenula nucleus was observed.  

The highest levels of GABA(B2) mRNA expression were detected in the piriform cortex, hippocampus, and medial Habenula.  

Areas with considerable expression of erbB4 receptor mRNA include cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, medial Habenula, reticular thalamic nucleus, several hypothalamic nuclei, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars compacta, and ventral tegmental area.  

Regional-specific differences in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were examined using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in rat medial Habenula (MHb) slices.  

This was also seen in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, medial Habenula, and other structures.  

We have previously investigated P2X receptor-mediated synaptic currents in medial Habenula neurones and shown that they can be calcium permeable. Thus, under the conditions of this study, neurones of the medial Habenula lack functional NMDA receptors and possess AMPA receptors that have low permeability to Ca2+.  

Mast cells first appear in the pia on embryonic day (E)13-14 in ovo, then along blood vessels extending from the pia into the telencephalon on posthatch day 4-5, and in the medial Habenula at week 3. medial Habenular mast cell numbers increase during development, peaking in peripubertal birds, and declining thereafter. Several measures indicate that mast cells mature within the medial Habenula: there is an increase in the intensity of metachromasia, a switch from alcian blue granules in young animals to mixed alcian blue and safranin granules in older animals, and an increase in GnRH-like immunoreactivity.  

The oculomotor nucleus and the medial Habenula are unusual to the extent that each has a moderately dense serotonin terminal plexus, although neither receives innervation from the median or dorsal raphe.  

Anti-PDE4D antibody distinctly labeled cerebellar Purkinje cells as well as neurons in the medial Habenula and thalamic nuclei.  

Areas where the majority of neurons expressed a high density of mRNA included the medial Habenula; the septohippocampal, periventricular, suprachiasmatic, and supraoptic nuclei; Purkinje cells in the cerebellum; and pyramidal and granule cells of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, respectively.  

Not all but a significant number of neurons in the hippocampal CA1, medial Habenula and raphe nuclei were immuno-reactive to CPP32 (Caspase-3) even at day 2. These apoptotic changes were persistent even in the area without neuronal contraction such as medial Habenula.  

In the forebrain, OFQ peptide and mRNA were prominent in the neocortex endopiriform nucleus, claustrum, lateral septum, ventral forebrain, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, central and medial nuclei of the amygdala, hippocampal formation, paratenial and reticular nuclei of the thalamus, medial Habenula, and zona incerta.  

Comparative autoradiography studies of brains of wild-type (wt) and 5-HT5A knockout (5A-KO) mice revealed the existence of binding sites with high affinity for [ 125I]LSD that correspond to 5-HT5A receptors and that are concentrated in the olfactory bulb, neocortex, and medial Habenula.  

In contrast to the SCN, significant induction of c-fos and NGFI-A was observed in the medial Habenula and paraventricular nucleus at all circadian times.  

The highest GABA(B)R1 labeling was observed in the thalamus, interpeduncular nucleus and medial Habenula.  

In the brain, the hybridization pattern and labelling density of sst1 and sst2 mRNA-expressing cells, as revealed by computer-assisted image analysis, in areas including the cerebral cortex, medial Habenula (MHb) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), were similar in male and female rats.  

High densities of [ 125I]LSD binding sites were observed in the medial Habenula of wild type and knockout mice.  

In females, changes in the size of the immunoreactive fiber area of the medial Habenula were identical to those noted for cGnRH-II cells.  

We report here the occurrence of mast cells concentrated in the lateral posterior, laterodorsal and dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus, in the lateral and medial Habenula and in overlying pial layers in the brains of neonate musk shrews. By postnatal day 15 equivalent numbers of mast cells are seen in the thalamus, lateral and medial Habenula.  

Differently, high labelling for the SAPK gamma probe was exclusively localised in the endopiriform nucleus and medial Habenula.  

Immunostaining for MEK4 and JNK1 was intense in the olfactory bulb, lower cortical layers, the cholinergic basal forebrain, most nuclei of the thalamus, medial Habenula, and cranial motor nuclei.  

In the present study, retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques were used to establish that both calretinin-containing and calretinin-negative neurons in the triangular septal and septofimbrial nuclei send a massive projection to the medial Habenula, where they form asymmetrical synapses with their target neurons.  

At P90 (adult), MRP remained strongly expressed in the olfactory bulb, medial Habenula, hippocampal CA1, and the inner two-thirds of granule cell layer, temporal, and entorhinal cortices, the corpus callosum and fimbria/fornix, and cerebellar white matter. At P90, MARCKS expression declined in hippocampal CA3 and hilus and remained strongly expressed in hippocampal CA1 and granule cell layers, regions of the olfactory bulb, the medial Habenula, temporal cortex, and cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells.  

ATP and glutamatergic synaptic currents were compared in slices of rat medial Habenula nucleus using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques.  

Quantifiable levels of mRNA encoding the alpha 2 subunit were found in nucleus accumbens, amygdala, cortical regions, lateral septal nucleus, hippocampus, medial Habenula and ventral pallidum of both strains.  

Among brain regions demonstrating substantial sites less sensitive to cytisine inhibition were the accessory olfactory nucleus, medial Habenula, interpeduncular nucleus, fasciculus retroflexus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus and the pineal gland.  

During mid-gestation and late gestation, the expression of both mu and kappa receptors extends to other brain regions that exhibit high expression in the adult, including the medial Habenula, hypothalamus, pons, and medulla for mu and the basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, raphe, and ventral tegmental area for kappa.  

In areas rostral to the substantia nigra, c-ret mRNA is not detected, whereas GDNFR-alpha is found in numerous brain structures, including the hippocampus, cortex, medial geniculate, and the medial Habenula, the latter area expressing the highest levels of GDNFR-alpha mRNA in brain.  

Neurons within the lateral habenula (LHb), but not the medial Habenula, express ER mRNA, contain ER immunoreactivity (ER-ir) in their nuclei, and concentrate radiolabelled estradiol, providing strong evidence for the presence of functional ER in the lateral habenula.  

There was little or no Fos in cingulate cortex, olfactory tubercle, medial septum, medial Habenula, or ventromedial hypothalamus.  

We previously reported that a human insulin transgene was specifically expressed in the medial Habenula of the adult mouse brain, and that this expression was ascribed to the delta-168 transgene.  

In separate mapping studies, the antibody was found to stain cell bodies and fibres in all of the regions of the nervous system known to be cholinergic, including (i) the various nuclei of the basal nuclear complex and their projections to the hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex, (ii) the caudate-putamen nucleus, accumbens nucleus, olfactory tubercle, and islands of Calleja complex, (iii) the medial Habenula, (iv) the mesopontine cholinergic complex and its projections to the thalamus, extrapyramidal motor nuclei, basal forebrain, cingulate cortex, raphe and reticular nuclei, and some cranial nerve nuclei, and (v) the somatic motor and autonomic nuclei of the cranial and spinal nerves.  

Specific binding of 125I-ovine PRL was detected in choroid plexus and in several diencephalic brain regions of both sexes, with highest binding activity recorded in the dorsolateral thalamus, medial Habenula, nucleus subrotundus, and preoptic area.  

The properties of central ATP-mediated synaptic currents were studied using whole-cell patch-clamp recording in rat medial Habenula slices.  

Transcripts for both subunits were detected in embryonic brain, although overlapping expression of alpha3 mRNA was only evident in areas of strong beta4 mRNA expression, including the medial Habenula, locus coeruleus, the cerebellar primordium, and several motor and sensory brainstem nuclei. Codistribution that lasted throughout development and into adulthood was noted in a number of brain areas, including the retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, medial Habenula, interpeduncular nucleus, locus coeruleus, and brainstem motor nuclei.  

High levels of DCC transcript were detected in hippocampus and medial Habenula, whereas lower mRNA expression was found in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and thalamus.  

While it is well established that brain mast cells are usually associated with the cerebral vasculature, in ring doves mast cells lie directly in the neuropil of the medial Habenula. In the present study, we asked what characteristics of the medial Habenula contribute to mast cell entry and differentiation. As previously described, gonadectomized adults had fewer mast cells in their medial Habenula than did intact animals, but there was no change in mast cell number in habenular grafts. The current experiments indicate that the occurrence and survival of mast cells can occur within the microenvironment of the medial Habenula, but that maturation of these cells requires the normal connections of this nucleus. Furthermore, gonadectomy appears to alter mast cell number in the medial Habenula by generating a secondary signal which the transplanted tissue is incapable of receiving or processing..  

In the adult central nervous system, high hybridization signals were observed in the hippocampus, the granular layer of the cerebellum, the medial Habenula, the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, the red nucleus, the pontine nuclei, the facial nucleus, the motor and mesencephalic nuclei of the trigeminal nerve, the hypoglossal nucleus, the vestibular nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus.  

Alpha6 immunoreactivity was found to be present in the substantia nigra, the ventral tegmental area, the locus coeruleus and the medial Habenula, and double-labeling for tyrosine hydroxylase demonstrated that the alpha6 protein is present on dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain.  

Using in situ hybridization for mRNA and immunohistochemical detection of reporter protein expression in transgenic mice, we found that Lmo1, Lmo2, and Lmo3 show individually unique but partially overlapping patterns of expression in several regions of the adult mouse forebrain, including hippocampus, caudate putamen, medial Habenula, thalamus, amygdala, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex.  

No effects of estrogen were observed on mu-opioid receptor mRNA levels in the posterior medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeAmyg), hippocampus, caudate-putamen (CPu) or the medial Habenula.  

The beta isoform mRNA was moderately expressed in olfactory bulb, layers II/III of the neocortex, striatum, CA1-CA4 regions of the hippocampus, medial Habenula, cerebellum, amygdala, hypothalamus, spinal cord, and pituitary gland.  

However, in retrosplenial cortex, subiculum and medial Habenula an increase of labeling is observed between postnatal days (PN) PN15 and PN21.  

In situ hybridization demonstrates that PTP NE-6 mRNA is expressed throughout the brain, with highest levels in the medial Habenula and at intermediate levels in layer IV of cortex, medial geniculate nucleus, inferior colliculus, hypothalamus, and thalamus.  

These combined data revealed (1) groups of cell bodies containing diffuse BDNF-ir throughout the CNS that were strongly correlated with fields of cells containing BDNF mRNA; (2) varying degrees of BDNF-ir outside of cell bodies, in what appeared to be fibers and/or terminals; and (3) many regions containing extremely heavy BDNF-immunoreactive fiber/terminal labeling that lacked BDNF mRNA (e.g., medial Habenula, central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, lateral septum, and spinal cord).  

Furthermore, in the medial Habenula and in the nuclei of the pons, there exists a high density of cells expressing both FGFR1 and FGFR2 (60-100%).  

In the brain we observe discrete neuronal localizations of D-aspartate, especially in the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb, hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, the medial Habenula, and certain brainstem nuclei.  

Specific somatostatin binding sites were concentrated in the medial Habenula, superior colliculus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, inferior olive, spinal trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum.  

In the rat central nervous system, VAChT-positive cell bodies were demonstrated in the cerebral cortex, striatum, septum, nucleus basalis, medial Habenula, mesopontine complex, cranial, and autonomic and spinal motor nuclei and in the intermediomedial region near the central canal.  

In the central nervous system, Kv4.3 is most prominently expressed in the retrosplenial cortex, medial Habenula, anterior thalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, as well as lateral geniculate and superior colliculus, which are important for vision.  

VIP2 receptors were present in the cerebral cortex, the claustrum, the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the lateral septal nuclei, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the basolateral amygdaloïd nucleus, the Ammon's horn, the thalamic nuclei except some centromedial nuclei, the medial Habenula, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the periventricular nucleus, the mammilary nucleus, the superior colliculus and the choroïd plexus..  

A probe common to both variants reveals high levels of transcripts in olfactory tubercle, some components of the basal ganglia (caudate putamen, ventral striatum), medial Habenula and hippocampal formation.  

Anti-sense riboprobes hybridized to the mRNA for the putative VAChT: (a) the projection neurons of the various nuclei of the basal nuclear complex, (b) the local circuit cells of the dorsal and ventral striata, (c) the projection neurons of the mesopontine complex, (d) perikarya in the ventral 2/3 of the medial Habenula, (e) the somatic motor and autonomic cells of cranial nerves 3-7 and 9-12, as well as perikarya in the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei presumably giving rise to efferent fibers of cranial nerve 8, and (f) the alpha-motor and gamma-efferent motor neurons of the spinal cord.  

They are particularly numerous in the medial Habenular region of the epithalamus, the attachment site of the choroid plexus. Three brain areas were analyzed: the medial Habenula (which also contains mast cells), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, which abuts the third ventricle, but has no mast cells), and the lateral septal organ (LSO, a circumventricular organ with fenestrated capillaries). Significantly more Evans blue tracer and fewer toluidine blue-positive mast cells were detected in the medial Habenula of subjects treated with C48/80 compared to saline controls.  

Some cells of the medial Habenula (medioventral part) and of the interpeduncular nucleus (central and lateral parts) were also labelled.  

To characterize the neural circuitry and plasticity of the septohabenular pathway, the present study analyzes the distribution of calretinin-immunoreactive fibers within the normal and deafferented medial Habenula (MHb) at the light and ultrastructural levels.  

Brn-3a (-/-) mice show a loss of neurons in the trigeminal ganglia, the medial Habenula, the red nucleus, and the caudal region of the inferior olivary nucleus but not in the retina and dorsal root ganglia.  

The localization of calcium and calcium-activated ATPases was investigated electron microscopically in the medial Habenula of mice after whole body irradiation with modulated microwaves.  

There were no significant changes in sst1 and sst2 mRNA levels in extra-arcuate areas, including the cerebral cortex and medial Habenula, or in suprachiasmatic, medial preoptic, and magnocellular preoptic nuclei after either HPX or GH replacement.  

In agreement with previous binding studies, we observed NK-3 mRNA in the cortex, the amygdala, the hippocampus, the medial Habenula, the zona incerta, the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, the substantia nigra, the ventral tegmental area, the interpeduncular nucleus, the raphe nuclei, the dorsal tegmental nucleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

Strong signals were also detected in hippocampal areas CA 1,2,3 and the gyrus dentatus, as well as in the medial Habenula nuclei.  

Labeled terminals were detected mainly in the endopiriform nucleus, deep layers of the cortex, claustrum, substantia innominata, subiculum, basolateral amygdala, medial Habenula, and periaqueductal gray.  

Abundant expression of the 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was observed in the olfactory system, striatum, medial Habenula and the hippocampal formation, while faint or no specific signals could be detected in most other areas of the brain.  

ATP is thought to be a fast neurotransmitter in the medial Habenula region of the brain, and may be coreleased with other transmitters, for example with glutamate in the hippocampus.  

Highest densities of binding were seen in the medial Habenula, basal ganglia, locus ceruleus and nucleus of the solitary tract.  

Significant levels of neuronal NPR-A mRNA expression were observed only in the mitral cell layer of the olfactory bulb, medial Habenula, subfornical organ, and area postrema.  

VAChT-positive cell bodies were visualized in cerebral cortex, basal forebrain, medial Habenula, striatum, brain stem, and spinal cord by using a polyclonal anti-VAChT antiserum.  

There were moderate to high levels of immunoreactivity and mRNA signal in the olfactory bulb, olfactory tubercle, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, piriform cortex, caudate putamen, supraoptic nucleus, medial Habenula, hypothalamus, thalamus, medial mammilliary nucleus and superior colliculus.  

Highest transcript levels were found in specific neuronal populations (hippocampus, piriform cortex, taenia tecta, medial Habenula, granular cell layer of the cerebellum) as well as in the choroid plexus of the third and lateral ventricles.  

After a brief period of courtship, for example, there is a marked increase in mast cells in the medial Habenula of sexually active doves compared with controls.  

The connections of this nucleus (which is called here the bed nucleus of the stria medullaris, BSM) are unclear, but evidence in the literature suggests that it may receive inputs from the fornix and project through the stria medullaris to the medial Habenula..  

Brain regions demonstrating the highest levels of [ 3H]epibatidine binding included the interpeduncular nucleus, medial Habenular nucleus, fasciculus retroflexus, superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus and numerous thalamic nuclei, including the anteroventral, dorsal lateral geniculate and gelatinosus nuclei. Other regions in which [ 3H]epibatidine binding was greater than that of [ 3H]cytisine included the medial Habenula, fasciculus retroflexus, olivary pretectal nucleus and superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus.  

The neonate medial Habenula had low levels of transcripts for the PC12 but none for the vas deferens P2X purinoceptor. Because pharmacologically the recombinant PC12 P2X purinoceptor differs from the functional purinoceptor in the medial Habenula, these results suggest the existence of other, unidentified, P2X purinoceptors in the rat nervous system..  

The metabolic depression measured in the medulla and pons (medullary and pontine reticular formation, periaqueductal gray, locus coeruleus, dorsal tegmental, cuneiformis, raphe and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei), the cerebellum (molecular and granular layers of the cerebellar cortex, interpositus and dentate nuclei), the mesencephalon (substantia nigra reticulata, ventral tegmental area and deep layers of the superior colliculus), the diencephalon (medial Habenula, parafascicular, ventrobasal complex, centromedial and reticular thalamic nuclei), the rhinencephalon (dentate gyrus and septum), the basal ganglia (ventral pallidum, globus pallidus, entopeduncular and accumbens nuclei) and the cerebral cortex (superficial and deep layers of the frontal and parietal cortex, deep layers of the forelimb cortex) were bilateral.  

Unilateral electrical stimulation of the thalamic reticular nucleus induced the following changes in glucose utilization: (i) local enhancement of metabolic activity within the stimulated thalamic reticular nucleus, (ii) increase in glucose consumption in the ipsilateral thalamic mediodorsal, centrolateral, ventromedial and ventrolateral nuclei, as well as in the nucleus accumbens, (iii) bilateral depression of metabolism in the locus coeruleus, periaqueductal gray, ventral tegmental area, and medial Habenula, as well as contralateral metabolic depression in the substantia nigra reticulata, compacta and in the ventral pallidum.  

At the light and electron micrographic levels, we have identified synaptic terminals containing dense core vesicles that are immunoreactive for cGnRH-II in the medial Habenula.  

The activation and desensitization properties of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) channels were examined in acutely isolated medial Habenula (MHb) neurons using whole cell patch-clamp recordings.  

High amounts of cGK II mRNA were also found in specific brainstem loci, including the medial Habenula, the subthalamic nucleus, the locus ceruleus, the pontine nucleus, the inferior olivary nuclei, and the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

Results indicate that ANP mRNA is highly expressed in anterior olfactory nuclei, limbic cortices, dorsal endopiriform nucleus, hippocampal subfield CA1, cortical amygdaloid nuclei, medial Habenula, anteroventral periventricular and arcuate nuclei, periventricular stratum, zona incerta, mammillary nuclei, inferior olive, nucleus ambiguus, and pontine paragigantocellular nuclei.  

The expression of beta 3-mRNA was prominent in the olfactory mitral and internal granule cells and medial Habenula, whereas that of beta 4-mRNA in the olfactory mitral cells and cerebellar Purkinje and granule cells.  

NPR-A mRNA was not found in substantial abundance in any hypothalamic nucleus; however, detectable NPR-A signal was observed in other brain regions, including the subfornical organ and medial Habenula.  

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in slices of rat medial Habenula were studied using patch clamp recording techniques. We conclude that nicotinic receptors in the rat ventral medial Habenula are heterogeneous..  

We report that adult normal rats show a strong expression of preprotachykinin-A mRNA in the striatum, medial Habenula and piriform cortex, verifying the specificity of the method.  

A fast neurotransmitter role of ATP in rat medial Habenula reported by Edwards et al (1992) may be the best example.  

High levels of expression were detected in the cerebellum (Purkinje and granule cell layers), choroid plexus, medial Habenula, pontine nuclei, several brainstem nuclei, and hippocampus (pyramidal cell layer). CHOT1 mRNA was relatively abundant in some cholinergic regions, including the medial Habenula, the medial septum, and several brainstem nuclei.  

The levels of both transcripts were already high at birth in cerebral cortex, medial Habenula, CA1/CA3 regions of the hippocampus and several thalamic nuclei. Beta 2 expression did not change with age in the medial Habenula, medial geniculate nucleus or in the hippocampus whereas it decreased in the cortex.  

In all three lines, human insulin mRNAs were localized by in situ hybridization in a single cerebral site, the medial Habenula.  

The highest levels of mu-receptor mRNA were detected in the thalamus, medial Habenula, and the caudate putamen; however, significant hybridization was also observed in many other brain regions, including the hypothalamus..  

Following kainic acid-induced lesions of Lhb neurons, the fluorescent retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold was injected into the ventral midbrain where many medial Habenula (Mhb) and Lhb neurons project.  

In mature rat brain, PLC beta 3 mRNA was detected weakly only in the pituitary gland and the cerebellar Purkinje and granule cells whereas PLC beta 4 mRNA was expressed intensely in the olfactory mitral cells, thalamic nuclei, medial Habenula, pituitary gland and cerebellar Purkinje and granule cells.  

Differences in neuropil immunoreactivity were also observed; this type of staining was strongest in the caudatoputamen, lateral septum, medial Habenula, nucleus reticularis of the dorsal thalamus, and the lateral portion of the ventroposterior nucleus.  

kappa binding was similarly reduced in medial Habenula.  

Other densely labelled structures include: the amygdaloid, substantia nigra, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, caudate putamen, geniculate nuclei, medial Habenula and the intermediate zone of grey matter in the spinal cord.  

At 1 h posthypoxia, in six of eight there was diffuse ipsilateral suppression of cytochrome oxidase activity (p = 0.0001, two-way analysis of variance, compared with values in contralateral hemisphere), which was most marked in periventricular regions including dentate gyrus (-29%), medial Habenula (-38%), and posterolateral thalamic nucleus (-42%).  

Electrophysiological recordings were made from neurones of the medial Habenula (Mhb) in brain slices obtained from guinea-pig, rat and gerbil brain. These data show that there is a difference in both the number of NK-sensitive neurones and the type of NK response found in the medial Habenula of the three species.  

Using an antiserum (LR-1) raised against mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), we previously identified a nonneuronal cell that was more numerous in the medial Habenula (MH) of courting ring doves than in individuals housed in visual isolation.  

SSTR2 messenger RNA detected by in situ hybridization is diffusely expressed in cerebral cortex and amygdala but is discretely localized to dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, medial Habenula and ventromedial and dorsomedial nuclei and arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

A moderate hybridization signal was detected in the medial Habenula and amygdaloid nuclear complex.  

Signals for SSTR-2 were found in the frontal cerebral cortex (layers IV, V and VI), taenia tecta, claustrum, endopiriform nucleus, locus coeruleus, medial Habenula, subiculum, granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus and amygdala. High levels of SSTR-3 hybridization were found in the olfactory bulb, primary olfactory cortex, islands of Calleja, medial Habenula, amygdala, granular layer of the dentate gyrus, various thalamic and pontine nuclei and in the granular and Purkinje cell layers of the cerebellum.  

The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the ecto-Ca,Mg-adenosine-triphosphatases (ecto-Ca,Mg-ATPases) in the medial Habenular nucleus.  

Increased GT1 mRNA levels were found in astroglia and microvessels and were also present in distinct neuronal populations, including the piriform cortex, dentate gyrus, and medial Habenula, which normally do not express GT1 mRNA.  

Cysteine sulphinate, but not cysteine, killed neurons of the superficial part of the tectum, the medial Habenula, the ventromedial hypothalamus and the arcuate nucleus.  

Lower levels (0.15-0.08 pmol/g) were found in the medial Habenula, adenohypophysis, area postrema, pineal, subfornical and subcommissural organs..  

The present results extend previous findings in the guinea pig brain and identify binding sites for AIV in the neocortex, paleocortex, hippocampus, medial Habenula, superior and inferior colliculi, caudate putamen, thalamus, dorsal tegmentum, central gray, red nucleus, inferior olivary, oculomotor and hypoglossal nuclei and cerebellum.  

Previous studies indicate that there is an increase in the number of detectable mast cells expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like immunoreactivity (GnRH-ir) in the medial Habenular region of the brain in ring doves after a period of 2 hr of courtship. In all four groups, GnRH-ir mast cells were observed in the following areas: the medial Habenula, circumventricular organs, organum vasculosum lamina terminalis and organum subseptale, the pia mater, and blood vessels.  

RNA blotting studies and in situ hybridization histochemistry showed that kappa opioid receptor mRNA was expressed at high levels in brain in the neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, medial Habenula, hypothalamus (arcuate and paraventricular nuclei), locus ceruleus, and parabrachial nucleus, suggesting that this receptor may play a role in arousal and regulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine functions..  

In contrast, cholinergic neurons of the medial Habenula did not express trkA mRNA.  

Diencephalic areas showing immunolabeling included the medial Habenula and anterior pretectal nucleus, with less labeling in the ventral lateral geniculate.  

The mRNAs encoding MR22 were detected in the CA1 region of hippocampus, the medial Habenula, and raphe nuclei.  

The purpose of the present study was to determine the tachykinin receptor types present on neurones of the rat medial Habenula nucleus. Extracellular recordings were made from spontaneously active medial Habenula neurones in tissue slices of rat brain.  

Medial dorsal thalamic lesions did not damage the stria medullaris or medial Habenula.  

The results of the study showed that neurokinin B peptide-2-like immunoreactive neurons were located in the nucleus arcuate, median eminence, ventral and external bed nuclei of the stria terminalis, dorsal hypothalamic area, and medial Habenula.  

Treatment-induced alterations in occupancy were seen in the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus, basolateral amygdala, ventral pallidum, medial Habenula, dorsal raphe, posterior hypothalamus, substantia nigra pars compacta, agranular preinsular cortex, and zona incerta.  

The human gene transcript and the corresponding proteins were detected in a cell subset of the medial Habenula.  

Previous in situ hybridization experiments reported that beta4 (beta 4) neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) transcripts were found only in the medial Habenula (MHB). beta 4 mRNA was detected at high levels in the presubiculum, parasubiculum, subiculum and dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation, in layer IV of the isocortex, in the medial Habenula, in the interpeduncular nucleus, and in the trigeminal motor nerve nucleus.  

In situ hybridization study demonstrated that the HSP70 mRNA was present in a very small amount in the hippocampal pyramidal and dentate granule cells in the sham control, and that the mRNA was greatly induced in the cells of hippocampus, dentate gyrus, medial Habenula, ventral thalamic nuclei, caudate putamen, ventromedial and arcuate hypothalamic nuclei, amygdaloid nuclei and cerebral cortex after 8 h of reperfusion.  

However, intense binding was observed in the interpeduncular nucleus and the medial Habenula of the hamster, nuclei void of binding in the rat brain.  

Peptide 2 immunoreactivity as well as neurokinin B-messenger RNA-positive cells were found in the main olfactory bulb, cortex, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdala, medial Habenula, periaqueductal gray, superior and inferior colliculus, and nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract.  

The highest levels of alpha 3-mRNA were observed in the hippocampus, the medial Habenula, the lateral geniculate, the granular layer of the cerebellum, as well as in the pineal gland; moderate levels were found in other nuclei of the thalamus and in the deeper layers of the cerebral cortex. The distribution of [ 125I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites was different from that observed for alpha 3-mRNA and [ 3H]L-nicotine; they were most abundant in a few specific thalamic nuclei, in the medial Habenula and in lamina I of the cerebral cortex. Comparison between alpha 3-mRNA distribution and [ 3H]L-nicotine binding suggests that in the Cynomolgus monkey brain, the alpha 3 subunit may participate in the formation of more than one nicotinic receptor subtype: a high-affinity binding site for [ 3H]L-nicotine in the thalamus, and other sites with low affinity for nicotine in the medial Habenula and cerebral cortex.  

Notably, many regions with high levels of nicotine binding sites, including the medial Habenula, thalamus, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area, failed to express the c-fos gene with this schedule of nicotine administration.  

Only the medial Habenula contained ChAT-positive perikarya.  

Thalamic cells were devoid of hybrido- and immunoreactivity, with the exception of several neurons located primarily in the ventral two-thirds of the medial Habenula.  

Here we report the recording of evoked and miniature synaptic currents in the rat medial Habenula.  

DARPP-32-positive neurons are also present in the cerebellum, in the medial Habenula, and in portions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and amygdaloid complex.  

In both neonatal and adult host rats, the IPN was first denervated of its normal SP and cholinergic input from the medial Habenula by bilateral lesions of the fasciculi retroflexi (FR).  

The highest relative concentrations of ppANP mRNA were detected in the medial preoptic hypothalamic nucleus ("anteroventral/third ventricle region") and the medial Habenula.  

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