Lateral Sulcus

However, their predictive value for identifying two key landmarks--the central sulcus (CS) and lateral sulcus (LS)--has never been evaluated.  

They become more frequent in areas middle temporal and medial superior temporal in the superior temporal sulcus, and comprise almost 50% of all neurons in area visual posterior sylvian (VPS) in the posterior part of the lateral sulcus. In summary, our findings suggest that our ability to perceive a visual world, which is stable despite self-motion, is based on a neuronal network, which culminates in the VPS located in the lateral sulcus below the classical dorsal stream of visual processing..  

In contrast, the reliability of responses in several higher brain areas, including the superior temporal sulcus (STS), precuneus, posterior lateral sulcus (LS), temporal parietal junction (TPJ), and frontal eye field (FEF), was affected by information accumulated over longer time scales.  

Here we assessed a mixed sex sample of perfusion-fixed adult macaque monkey brains to determine whether purported interhemispheric asymmetry of Tpt is manifested at the gross anatomic level by consideration of the length of the lateral sulcus. There was no significant hemispheric asymmetry of lateral sulcus length at the gross anatomic level.  

In contrast to earlier findings, activation in left middle and posterior portions of superior temporal cortex, including regions within the lateral sulcus and the superior and middle temporal gyri, was greater for deaf than hearing participants.  

In SII, the activation was extended in a postero-inferior direction to the fundus of the lateral sulcus.  

The patients show moderately increased width of the lateral sulcus and brain convexity sulci.  

Taken together, the findings indicate that CM may receive somatosensory input from nearby areas along the fundus of the lateral sulcus.  

These areas include the primary sensorimotor, dorsal premotor, superior parietal and lateral sulcus regions.  

These injections also labeled adjacent part of areas 3a and 1, and locations in the lateral sulcus and frontal lobe. Injections in the area 1 representation of the tongue labeled neurons in VPMpc and VPM, and ipsilateral area 3b ovals, area 3a, opercular cortex, and cortex in the lateral sulcus.  

The corpus callosum could be seen in 84% of the patients, the fourth ventricle in 78%, the lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure) in 86%, the cingulate sulcus in 75%, the cerebellar hemispheres in 98%, the cerebellar vermis in 92%, the medulla oblongata in 97% and the cavum vergae in 9% of them.  

The PMD received inputs from more caudal portions of the cortex of the lateral sulcus and more medial portions of the posterior parietal cortex than the PMV. Comparisons of PMD and PMV connectivity with the cortex of the lateral sulcus and posterior parietal cortex of owl monkeys, galagos, and macaques help identify areas that could be homologous..  

Somatosensory projections to the auditory cortex were present from S2 and the anterior bank of the lateral sulcus.  

Their ventral border lies on the convexity of the IPL close to the shoulder of the lateral sulcus.  

A maximum of activation was detected around the junction of the superior frontal sulcus and the precentral sulcus extending 1.5 cm along the precentral sulcus in direction of the lateral sulcus.  

Decreases with age were detected in the anterolateral prefrontal cortex and in areas along the lateral sulcus and the lateral ventricle, bilaterally, in the GM-MR images and the SPECT images. Decreases in CBF with age found along the lateral sulcus and the lateral ventricle, on the other hand, remained statistically significant, but observation of the spatially normalized MR images suggests that these findings are associated with the dilatation of the lateral sulcus and lateral ventricle, which was not completely compensated for by the spatial normalization procedure.  

OBJECT: The sylvian fissure or lateral sulcus is the most identifiable feature of the superolateral brain surface and constitutes the main microneurosurgical corridor, given the high frequency of approachable intracranial lesions through this route.  

AI frequency map variations, modeled as translations and rotations relative to the lateral sulcus, are independent transfers.  

Smaller numbers of labeled cells were found in superior temporal sulcal areas FST, MT, and STP, posterior cingulate area 23b, area 3a within the central sulcus, areas SII, RI, Tpt in the lateral sulcus, and parietal areas 7a, 7b, PEc, MIP, DP, and V3A.  

Specifically, area 3b has a relatively restricted pattern of connectivity with adjacent somatosensory fields 3a, 1, S2 and PV; area 1 has more broadly distributed connections than area 3b; and the presumptive areas 5 and 7b/AIP have highly diverse connections, including connections with motor and premotor cortex, extrastriate visual areas, auditory areas and somatosensory areas of the lateral sulcus.  

Supramarginal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus and lateral sulcus were clearly shown in the majority of the cerebra with average scores of 2.0-2.49; angular gyrus, inferior frontal sulcus and superior temporal gyrus were not demonstrated satisfactorily and their average scores were 1.67-1.89.  

The data indicate that the SII hand region extends approximately 10 mm in the anteroposterior (AP) dimension, primarily within the upper bank of the lateral sulcus.  

We studied a patient who experienced 'palinaesthesia', an illusion of persistent touch following tactile stimulation on the left hand, subsequent to a right parietal meningioma affecting primary somatosensory regions in the postcentral gyrus (SI) and superior parietal gyrus (Brodmann area 7), but preserving the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) in the upper lateral sulcus.  

Audio-visual sentence processing was associated with activation in the left hemisphere in Broca's area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the superior precentral sulcus, anterior and middle portions of the lateral sulcus, middle superior portions of the temporal sulcus, supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus. Further, AV sentence processing elicited activation in the right anterior and middle lateral sulcus.  

To gain insight into how cortical fields process somatic inputs and ultimately contribute to complex abilities such as tactile object perception, we examined the pattern of connections of two areas in the lateral sulcus of macaque monkeys: the second somatosensory area (S2), and the parietal ventral area (PV).  

The agranular insula (areas Iam, Iapm, Iai, and Ial) extends onto the caudal orbital surface and into the horizontal ramus of the lateral sulcus.  

Finally, in the same time with the appearance of circumvolutions the opercles that limit it come closer and give rise to the lateral sulcus.  

Areas S2 and PV had connections with areas 3a, 3b, 1-2, each other, other regions of the lateral sulcus, motor cortex (M1), cingulate cortex, frontal cortex, orbital cortex, and inferior parietal cortex. Connection patterns and recordings provided evidence for several additional fields in the lateral sulcus, including a retroinsular area (Ri), a parietal rostral area (PR), and a ventral somatosensory area (VS).  

Microelectrode mapping methods were used to define the parietal ventral somatosensory area (PV) on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus in five marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The results lead to the following conclusions: (1) Multiunit recordings from cortex on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus demonstrate that PV is somatotopically organized, with the face representation adjoining area 3b and the hindlimb and tail representations away from this border in cortex deep on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus. These results further establish PV as one of at least four somatosensory areas of the lateral sulcus of primates..  

With this procedure, we found a vertical meridian representation just medial to the medial end of the lateral sulcus.  

Within SII, the typical finding for both fingers was a representation site within the contralateral parietal operculum roughly halfway between the lip of the lateral sulcus and its fundus, whereas the representation site of the hallux was found more medially to this position at the fundus of the lateral sulcus, near the posterior pole of the insula.  

Intense anti-glucose transporter-1 staining was observed in cell processes located throughout the arcuate nucleus, in the end-feet reaching the lateral sulcus of the infundibular region, and in cell processes contacting the hypothalamic capillaries.  

Microsurgical drezotomy (MDT) consists of an incision and bipolar coagulations performed ventro-laterally in the Dorsal Root Entry Zone (DREZ) at the entrance of the rootlets into the dorso-lateral sulcus.  

Many lines of evidence implicate the somatosensory areas near the lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure) in the cortical representation of pain.  

First, there were three regions of activity in the lateral sulcus associated with stimulation of the contralateral body. The most consistent locus of activation was on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus, continuing onto the operculum.  

Auditory cortex of macaque monkeys is located on the lower bank of the lateral sulcus and the adjoining superior temporal gyrus.  

It consists of a 3 mm deep microsurgical lesion directed at a 45 degree angle in the postero-lateral sulcus, penetrating the DREZ in its ventro-lateral aspect, at the level of all the rootlets considered as involved in spasticity (and pain).  

Auditory cortex of macaque monkeys can be divided into a core of primary or primary-like areas located on the lower bank of the lateral sulcus, a surrounding narrow belt of associated fields, and a parabelt region just lateral to the belt on the superior temporal gyrus.  

Subtraction of the static random dot pattern condition from the single-axis motion reversal condition, both contrast-modulated, revealed three significant activations: the anterior parieto-occipital sulcus, the lateral sulcus and the anterior claustrum.  

Scans were selected if any of the following structures were seen: in the coronal plane the lateral, callosal and cingulate sulcus and gyrus; in the median plane the parieto-occipital and calcarine fissures, and the cingulate gyrus and sulcus; and, in an oblique section, the lateral sulcus. The gestational ages at which the structures were first imaged were: the callosal sulcus, from 14 weeks; the lateral sulcus, from 18 weeks; the parieto-occipital sulcus and calcarine fissure, from 18 weeks; and the cingulate gyrus, from 26 weeks.  

Recent studies from our laboratory have characterized the response properties of trigeminal nociceptive neurons located in the posterior parietal cortex of awake monkeys, particularly in the rostral portion of the inferior parietal lobule and parietal operculum within the lateral sulcus.  

fuscata has an unusually large auditory cortex that is more deeply placed in the lateral sulcus in comparison to that of M.  

There is a discontinuity in the representation of the upper mouth: the tongue representation is interposed between a medial region (near the lip representation), usually representing the lateral hard palate and gum, and a lateral region (near the lateral sulcus), usually representing the central hard palate. Median nerve and posterior tibial nerve stimulation did not evoke SEPs in the surface cortex near the lateral sulcus, suggesting that the most lateral portion of the postcentral gyrus is not a part of the second somatosensory area (SII).  

The anterior-posterior (A-P) length of the "SII region" exceeds 7 mm; it extends in the coronal plane from the fundus of the lateral sulcus to surface cortex near the anterior tip of the intraparietal sulcus.  

The present investigation was designed to determine the organization of somatosensory fields in the lateral sulcus of macaque monkeys using standard microelectrode recording techniques.  

Parietal projections to PMv were found to originate from a variety of somatosensory and visual areas, including the second somatosensory cortex and related areas in the parietal operculum of the lateral sulcus, as well as areas 5, 7a, and 7b, and the anterior intraparietal area.  

MDT consists of an incision and bipolar coagulations performed ventro-laterally in the Dorsal Root Entry Zone (DREZ) at the entrance of the rootlets into the dorso-lateral sulcus.  

In addition to bilateral foci at the border between Brodmann areas 19 and 37, a V1/V2 focus and a focus in the cuneus reported earlier, we observed activations in other visual areas (lower BA 19 and the parieto-occipital fissure) in the cerebellum and in two other, presumed vestibular areas, the posterior bank of lateral sulcus and at the border of BA 2/40.  

Besides these polysensory vestibular cortical fields, three other circumscribed cortical regions of the macaque brain were also found to project directly to the brainstem vestibular nuclei: a circumscribed part of the postarcuate premotor cortex (area 6pa), part of the agranular and the adjacent dysgranular cortex located around the cingulate sulcus (area 6c/23c), and a predominantly visual (optokinetic) association field located at the fundus of the lateral sulcus (area T3).  

Most of the further processing that allows tactile recognition of objects involves somatosensory areas of the lateral sulcus, where both S-II and the parietal ventral area (PV) receive activating inputs from areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2.  

The most notable loci of labelling were found inside the primary sensory cortex, the cortex deep down along the posterior lateral sulcus, the premotor region and the anterior cingulate cortex.  

In addition, weaker projections were observed from the parieto-occipital dorsal area (POd), area 7a, area prostriata, the posterior bank of the arcuate sulcus, and areas in the anterior part of the lateral sulcus.  

In penetrations made into the upper bank of the lateral sulcus in two monkeys (Macaca mulatta), cells were isolated from the second somatosensory cortex (SII).  

The primary focus of activation appeared in gray matter along a sulcus anterior to the lateral sulcus that included the anterior insula, Brodmann's area 47, and extending to area 10.  

Activity was demonstrated in the internal gray matter surrounding the ascending ramus of the lateral sulcus, deep to the cortical surface representation of Broca's area, in all the subjects.  

Intracranial cysts are most often found in the lateral sulcus between the cerebral hemispheres and at the midline in the posterior cranial cavity.  

In 16 cases (50%), we encountered, after removal of the heamorrhage, a bleeding from a cortical artery at the lateral sulcus (middle cerebral artery). The characteristic finding of such haematomas on computerized tomography (CT-scan) was an indentation towards the lateral sulcus.  

Best frequencies were most clearly determined for neurons within a densely myelinated strip of cortex on the lower bank and lip of the lateral sulcus.  

Differences between patients and controls are also reported for measurements of the length of the lateral sulcus, which borders the planum temporal, an area of the brain integral to language function. An atypical pattern of anatomic lateral symmetry is found in female schizophreniform patients, with female appearing to have a reduction in the normally occurring left greater than right length of the lateral sulcus. Such atypical asymmetry of the lateral sulcus is also associated with better cognitive function, particularly in schizophreniform patients.  

The labeling was also found in the fundus of the middle suprasylvian sulcus, the medial bank of the lateral sulcus and the superficial layers of the superior colliculus.  

Single units displaying oscillatory firing patterns were found in the upper bank of the lateral sulcus in a region where most of the neurons responded to somatosensory stimuli.  

In four Java monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) 152 vestibular neurones were recorded in the parietal cortex located in the upper bank of the lateral sulcus near the posterior end of the insula.  

Microelectrode mapping methods were used to define and describe 3 representations of the body surface in somatosensory cortex of marmosets: S-I proper or area 3b of anterior parietal cortex, S-II, and the parietal ventral area (PV) of the upper bank of the lateral sulcus. (2) Multiple injections of WGA-HRP in area 3b demonstrated dense, patchy interconnections with ipsilateral S-II, PV, area 3a, and area 1, less dense interconnections with primary motor cortex (M-I), the supplementary motor area (SMA), limbic cortex of the medial wall (L), and rostrolateral parietal cortex of the lateral sulcus (PR), and callosal connections with areas 3b, S-II, and PV. (3) Recordings from cortex on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus demonstrated a somatotopic representation of the body surface that matches that of S-II of other mammals. S-II immediately adjoined areas 3b along the dorsal lip of the lateral sulcus.  

A cluster of trigeminal nociceptive neurons was located in the lateral sulcus on the upper bank of the frontoparietal operculum in a region bordering between cortical areas SII and 7b.  

In macaque monkeys with injections of tritiated amino acids or horseradish peroxidase in the ventrolateral granular frontal cortex, we observed extensive anterograde and retrograde labeling of the premotor and somatosensory cortex in and around the lateral sulcus.  

Multiunit microelectrode recordings and injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used to reveal neuron response properties, somatotopic organization, and interconnections of somatosensory cortex in the lateral sulcus (sylvian fissure) of New World owl monkeys. 1) Representations of the face and head in areas 3b, 1, and S-II are found on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus. Most of the mouth and lip representations of area 3b were found in a rostral extension along the lip of the lateral sulcus. Adjacent cortex deeper in the lateral sulcus represented the nose, eye, ear, and scalp. 2) S-II was located on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus and extended past the fundus onto the deepest part of the lower bank. 6) A systematic representation of the body, termed the "ventral somatic" area, VS, was found extending laterally from S-II on the lower bank of the lateral sulcus. 8) A few recording sites caudal to S-II on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus were responsive to somatic stimuli.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).  

Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or tritiated amino acids were injected into the posterior part of area 7, including the caudal end of the superior bank of both the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral sulcus.  

WGA-HRP and tritiated amino-acids have been injected in the posterior part of area 7 including the caudal end of the superior bank of superior temporal sulcus and the lateral sulcus.  

To relieve a severe pain syndrome caused by trauma of the brachial plexus, the authors performed operation for destruction in places of traumatic avulsion of the posterior roots from the spinal cord in the projection of the posterior lateral sulcus ("destruction of the entry zone of the posterior roots"). The insufficient effect of the operation may be due to a coarse cicatricial-adhesive process in the region of the avulsion of the roots in the posterior lateral sulcus of the spinal cord.  

Cortex with strong links to visual, oculomotor, and association areas is confined to the middle suprasylvian gyrus and the adjacent lateral bank of the lateral sulcus.  

Representations of all major contralateral body parts were found in a small region of cortex along the lateral wing of the ansate sulcus and between the lateral sulcus and the suprasylvian sulcus.  

The technique consists of a 2 mm deep DREZ microsurgical cut directed at a 45 degree angle into the posterior lateral sulcus just ventral to DREZ and Lissauer's tract of the spinal cord.  

The thalamocortical relations of the somatic fields in and around the lateral sulcus of the macaque were studied following cortical injections of tritated amino acids and horseradish peroxidase (HRP).  

The ipsilateral corticocortical connections of the somatosensory fields of the lateral sulcus of macaques were examined with both anterograde and retrograde axonal transport methods.  

The primary auditory cortex lies largely ventral to the lateral sulcus, the only major fissure on the lateral cortex of this smooth-brained primate, but in some animals it may extend significantly down the ventral bank of this sulcus. The disposition of frequency-band contours is fan-shaped, with contours separating low-frequency octaves nearly parallel to the lateral sulcus and high-frequency (greater than 8 kHz) contours perpendicular to that sulcus.  

The left-sided predominance in the length of the lateral sulcus is observed nearly as often as the left-sided prevalence of the temporal operculum, but in a number of cases their asymmetry has an opposite direction.  

Retrograde double-labeling experiments showed that, in the newborn, some neurons on the lateral sulcus have at least two long collaterals, one running rostrally, the other caudally; such branching is not observed in adults.  

Other inputs were from layer III cells in one or more separate locations in area 5 and in one or more closely spaced foci in the expected location of S-II in the lateral sulcus.  

The cortex adjacent to and along the upper bank of the lateral sulcus (UB-LS) of a prosimian primate, Galago crassicaudatus, was explored to determine the topographical representation of low-threshold cutaneous inputs to this region.  

Each artery originated from the anterior cerebral artery, lateral to its junction with the anterior communicating artery, followed the proximal segment (A1, pars precommunicalis) of the anterior cerebral artery, then the horizontal portion (M1, pars sphenoidalis) of the middle cerebral artery towards the lateral sulcus.  

The use of supplemental methods of examination, in particular of Echo EG, allowed localization of the tumor process in the area of the lateral sulcus in all cases.  

Besides, a general principle revealing more intensive signals of different modality in the areas near lateral sulcus than in other parietal areas was established.  

Intracortical recordings revealed polarity reversals of components P23 and N44 in area 3b, P26 and N72 in area 4, and P72, N161, P280, N420, P561 and N662 in the upper bank of the lateral sulcus (SII).  

The thalamic afferents from the lateral bank of the lateral sulcus are similar to those from area 7 (crown).  

In 33.3%, one of the terminal branches of the mylohyoid nerve after perforating the homonymous muscle, anastomoses with the lingual nerve in the lateral sulcus of the tongue (Sulcus lateralis linguae) achieving, in the author's opinion, the "mylohyoid or sublingual curl".  

Ig and area 7b were the principle loci within the lateral sulcus that contained neurons responding to noxious stimulation.  

These cortical regions, which include portions of area 7b, the retroinsular (Ri) and postauditory fields (PA), and the granular insula (Ig) are largely buried within the lateral sulcus and most lie posterior to the caudal end of the insula. In area 7b, this crude map was organized mediolaterally across the inferior parietal lobule and into the upper bank of the lateral sulcus, with the head represented medially and the lower trunk and hindlimb laterally. In Ri-PA, an anteroposterior organization was noted along the fundus of the lateral sulcus with the head represented anterior to the lower trunk and hindlimb.  

The body representation in the second somatic sensory area of macaques has been studied by tracing with anatomical techniques the projections from defined parts of the body representation in the first somatic sensory area (SI) to their terminal regions within the lateral sulcus. The second somatic sensory area (SH), as identified in terms of cytoarchitecture and its connection with the thalamic ventrobasal complex, is the only region of the lateral sulcus to receive a projection from SI. The hindlimb appears behind the trunk also occupying the superior circular sulcus in addition to the deepest 2--3 mm of the upper bank of lateral sulcus immediately posterior to the insula.  

V2 and V3 are arranged side by side anterior and medial to V1 and occupy the lateral gyrus and the postlateral sulcus. In addition, V2 spreads to postlateral parts of the lateral sulcus and, occasionally, to the posterior suprasylvian gyrus. The contralateral lower hemifield is represented on the lateral gyrus, the area centralis and the horizontal meridian are found in most animals in the anterior part of the postlateral sulcus, and the representation of the upper hemifield occupies the posterior part of the postlateral sulcus.3. For example, the representation of the periphery of the horizontal meridian may be located either in the anterior portion of the postlateral sulcus or some mm more posteriorly, where the sulcus turns laterally. The representation of the area centralis in V3 is found either at the transition zone between lateral and postlateral sulcus, on the posterior suprasylvian gyrus, or in the posterior part of the postlateral sulcus.5.  

Deviations from this pattern are found in the furrows formed by the lateral sulcus and the frontal impression and also in the caudal part of the retrosplenial area.  

The auditory fields are bounded on three sides by the projection field of the medial nucleus of the pulvinar which also extends into the upper end of the lateral sulcus to bound the fields receiving fibers from the posterior nucleus.  

It occupies both walls of the lateral sulcus, and extends medially to the medial wall of the hemisphere and to the depth of the ectolateral sulcus laterally.  

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