Interpeduncular Nuclei

Additionally, a large number of retrogradely labeled cells in the caudal linear and interpeduncular nuclei projecting to the MS were found to contain VGLUT3.  

In vitro studies have demonstrated that 18-MC is a potent antagonist of alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptors (IC50=0.75 microM), which are predominantly located in the medial habenula and interpeduncular nuclei.  

In the midbrain, labeled fibers were observed in the interpeduncular nuclei, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, pericentral inferior colliculus, pretectal area, the raphe nuclei, and the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis. Retrograde tracer injections were made in areas reached by anterogradely labeled fibers including the medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, habenula, nucleus reuniens, superior colliculus, periaqueductal gray, and interpeduncular nuclei.  

Binding sites were detected throughout the brain with the highest levels found in the pedunculopontine tegmental area, the lateral dorsal tegmental area, and the lateral septal, medial habenular, and interpeduncular nuclei.  

Overall, the present results support the idea that the NI is a distinct region of the pontine periventricular gray, and together with the superior central (median raphé) and interpeduncular nuclei the NI appears to form a midline behavior control network of the brainstem..  

RGS13 mRNA was enriched in the hippocampal formation, amygdala, mammillary nuclei as well as the pontine and interpeduncular nuclei.  

Two types of morphologically different catecholaminergic systems of the brain were established: hypothalamic neurones located in the periventricular and arcuate nuclei and mesencephalic neurones located in the substance nigra and interpeduncular nuclei.  

In the mesencephalon, positive cells were found in the periaqueductal gray, the Edinger-Westphal and interpeduncular nuclei, delimited areas of the superior and inferior colliculi and the ventral tegmental area.  

Although substantial UCN-ir projections were observed to several brainstem cell groups that express CRF-R2, including the dorsal raphe and interpeduncular nuclei and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), most prominent seats of CRF-R2 expression were found to contain inputs immunopositive for piscine urotensin I, but not rat UCN.  

GFRalpha-2 mRNA was highly expressed in many regions including olfactory bulb, lateral olfactory tract nucleus, neocortical layers IV and VI, septum, zona incerta, and arcuate and interpeduncular nuclei.  

The highest concentrations of neurokinin-3 receptors were observed in cortical layers IV-V; the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus; the hypothalamic paraventricular, perifornical and supraoptic nuclei; the zona incerta; and the entopeduncular and interpeduncular nuclei.  

Fibers in the fasciculus retroflexus, interpeduncular nuclei, and periaqueductal gray were also stained with this antibody.  

GLP-1R mRNA was detected in numerous brain regions, including the mitral cell layer of the olfactory bulb; temporal cortex; caudal hippocampus; lateral septum; amygdala; nucleus accumbens; ventral pallium; nucleus basalis Meynert; bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; preoptic area; paraventricular, supraoptic, arcuate, and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus; lateral habenula; zona incerta; substantia innominata; posterior thalamic nuclei; ventral tegmental area; dorsal tegmental, posterodorsal tegmental, and interpeduncular nuclei; substantia nigra, central gray; raphe nuclei; parabrachial nuclei; locus ceruleus, nucleus of the solitary tract; area postrema; dorsal nucleus of the vagus; lateral reticular nucleus; and spinal cord.  

These included primary afferents and motor neurons, olfactory tubercles, habenular and raphe projections to interpeduncular nuclei, septum, and the hypothalamus.  

RESULTS: Compared with WKY rats, PPE mRNA levels of 16-wk-old SHR increased in hypothalamic nuclei (> 20), amygdaloid nuclei (> 23), ventrolateral central gray (21.2), reticular substantia nigra (21.5), interpeduncular nuclei (> 21), nucleus of the solitary tract (30.7), rostroventrolateral reticular nucleus (29.1), gigantocellular reticular nucleus (23.9) and thoracic spinal cord (> 30); decreased in dorsal central gray (22.7).  

NKR was found to be expressed intensely or moderately in neurons in the glomerular and granule cell layers of the main olfactory bulb; glomerular and mitral cell layers of the accessory olfactory bulb; layers IV and V of the cerebral neocortex; medial septal nucleus; nucleus of the diagonal band; bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; globus pallidus; ventral pallidum; paraventricular nucleus; supraoptic nucleus; zona incerta; dorsal, lateral, and posterior hypothalamic areas; amygdaloid nuclei; medial habenular nucleus; ventral tegmental area; midbrain periaqueductal gray; interpeduncular nuclei; substantia nigra pars compacta; linear, median, dorsal, and pontine raphe nuclei; posteromedial tegmental nucleus; sphenoid nucleus; nucleus of the solitary tract; intermediate and rostroventrolateral reticular nuclei; and lamina II of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus and spinal dorsal horn.  

RESULTS: Delta receptors had an increase in hypothalamic nuclei, periaqueductal gray, caudate and interpeduncular nuclei, and a decrease in substantia nigra in SHR than in those of WKY rat.  

No difference existed in interpeduncular nuclei between the 2 groups.  

The regional and cellular distribution of [ 3H]-labelled I-R binding sites had both similarities and differences to that reported using the imidazoline ligand, [ 3H]idazoxan, with common labelling of areas such as area postrema, arcuate and interpeduncular nuclei and pineal gland with the two ligands, and differential relative binding levels ([ 3H]Ril > [ 3H]idazoxan) associated with hippocampal pyramidal cells and brainstem and spinal motor neurones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).  

Labeled neurons and fibers were seen in the interpeduncular nuclei, dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray and dorsal central gray, and superior and inferior colliculi.  

Computerized grain counting was applied to discrete regions of the autoradiograms corresponding to caudate and interpeduncular nuclei.  

kappa 2 sites occur at high density in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, thalamus, and interpeduncular nuclei. The highest density of kappa 2 sites is in the dorsal parabrachial nucleus, interpeduncular nuclei, mammillary nuclei, and posterior thalamic nuclei.  

In addition to all these locations CRF-IR fibers were also observed in the lateral septum, supraoptic nucleus, habenula, lateral forebrain bundle, paraventricular organ, hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus, raphe and interpeduncular nuclei..  

The mesencephalon displayed low LHRH-IL fibers, present essentially in the raphe and interpeduncular nuclei and around the ependyma.  

Neurones were found intensely or moderately stained at all levels of the neuraxis, but with particularly dense clusters of cells in the periaqueductal grey area and dorsal raphe nucleus of the hindbrain, the pedunculopontine and interpeduncular nuclei, and the dorsal spinal trigeminal nucleus.  

The most pronounced decreases (-23 to -26%) were observed in the accumbens, amygdaloid, interpeduncular nuclei and in the median raphe nucleus, limbic system relays.  

Changes were sometimes seen in the cerebral cortex, the interpeduncular nuclei, the central mesencephalic grey matter, the colliculi, the tenth and twelfth cranial nerve and perihypoglossal nuclei, the gracile and cuneate nuclei and anterior horn cells.  

Distinct immunoreactive fibers were not visible using this antibody, although a diffuse immunostaining was present in the same nuclear regions as well as in the nerve roots of cranial nerve nuclei and the interpeduncular nuclei.  

Ir-fibers seemingly contact local non-immunoreactive neurons mainly in the accumbens nucleus, septum, dorsal thalamic nuclei, infundibular and interpeduncular nuclei, and in the rostral diencephalon.  

Injections of 3H-leucine in the hypothalamus demonstrated that: The anterior hypothalamic area sent many fibers through the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to terminate in the ventral tegmental area of Tsai (VTA), the rostral raphe nuclei, the nucleus Edinger-Westphal, the dorsal part of the substantia nigra, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), and the interpeduncular nuclei.  

The pars centralis is reciprocally connected with the ipsilateral lateral mammillary and interpeduncular nuclei; these projections constitute the major afferent and efferent systems of the DTN.  

This effect resulted from stimulation of the area hypothalamic lateralis, zona incerta, zonae H1 and H2, parafascicular, interstitial, and interpeduncular nuclei, and nucleus Darkschevitch.  

Ammon's horn and the subiculum also project to the posterior septal nuclei (triangular and septofimbrial), which in turn send their output to the habenular and interpeduncular nuclei.  

Formation of typical mature cilia with the 9 + 2 pattern was observed in neural cells in the following areas: habenula nuclei, interpeduncular nuclei, hippocampus, mammillary bodies, thalamus, and caudate nucleus.  

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