In both groups the perception of others in pain was associated with activation of the pain matrix, including the ACC, insula, somatosensory cortex, supplementary motor area and periaqueductal gray. When watching situations in which pain was intentionally inflicted, control youth exhibited signal increase in the medial prefrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and right temporo-parietal junction, whereas youth with CD only exhibited activation in the insula and precentral gyrus.  

RESULTS: Twelve individuals with damage in the left IFG and the insula were tested in a Go/NoGo response inhibition task.  

Percentages of cortical contacts pairs responding to PuM stimulation (CEPs response rate) ranged from 80% in temporal neocortex, temporoparietal (TP) junction, insula, and frontoparietal opercular cortex to 34% in mesial temporal regions. Reciprocally, PuM-evoked potentials (PEPs) response rates were 14% after cortical stimulation in insula and frontoparietal opercular cortex, 67% in the TP junction, 76% in temporal neocortex, and 80% in mesial temporal regions.  

Increases in BOLD signal (group analysis, corrected, 0.05, K > or =10) were found mainly in right postcentral gyrus of frontal lobe (BA 2, BA 1, BA 43), left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), secondarily, in the right inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44), left superior temporal gyrus (BA 22) and right insula (BA 40) after acupuncture at HT7; and chiefly in left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45, BA 46), secondarily in the left middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus (BA 37) as well as the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 10) after acupuncture of S16.  

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cortical regions were chosen based on sensory (Somatosensory cortex (SI and SII), motor (MI) and posterior insula), or emotional (DLPFC, Frontal, Anterior insula, Cingulate) processing of pain.  

This hedonic effect was associated with enhanced activity in anterior insula and caudal anterior cingulate cortex, areas implicated in aversive processing.  

Compared with H2H2, the H1 carriers showed up to 19% smaller GM volume in the head of the right caudate nucleus, in the right middle frontal gyrus, in the left insula and orbito-frontal cortex, and in the inferior temporal and inferior cerebellar lobes, bilaterally.  

Group analysis for AVH revealed activation in the right homologue of Broca's area, bilateral insula, bilateral supramarginal gyri and right superior temporal gyrus. Group analysis for word generation in these patients yielded activation in Broca's and Wernicke's areas and to a lesser degree their right-sided homologues, bilateral insula and anterior cingulate gyri.  

We propose this may be mediated by the interoceptive cortex in the dorsal posterior insula..  

The present study investigated the organization of dynamic mechanical allodynia processing in the rat insular cortex after chronic constriction injury to the infraorbital nerve (IoN-CCI). Light, moving stroking of the infraorbital skin resulted in strong, bilateral upregulation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase phosphorylation (pERK-1/2) in the insular cortex of IoN-CCI animals but not sham rats, in whose levels were similar to those of unstimulated IoN-CCI rats. Stimulus-evoked pERK-1/2 immunopositive cell bodies displayed rostrocaudal gradient and layer selective distribution in the insula, being predominant in the rostral insula and in layers II-III of the dysgranular and to a lesser extent, of the agranular insular cortex. In layers II-III of the rostral dysgranular insular cortex, intense pERK also extended into distal dendrites, up to layer I. These results demonstrate that trigeminal nerve injury induces a significant alteration in the insular cortex processing of tactile stimuli and suggest that ERK phosphorylation contributes to the mechanisms underlying abnormal pain perception under this condition..  

Losses activated anterior insula bilaterally in both groups, with more extensive right anterior insula activation by losses in controls.  

low EDA trials, predominantly in the insula and somatosensory cortex (S1/S2).  

RESULTS: Oligodendroglial tumors located in the nontemporal lobes were significantly more likely to have combination of LOH 1p and LOH 19q than tumors arising in the insula, temporal lobe, and temporal with another lobe (p=0.001).  

We observed that the female participants (n = 10) showed stronger activation in the right insula and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) than did the male participants (n = 12) while they were performing in the Risky-Gains task. In addition, the strength of neural activity in the insula correlated with the rate of risky behaviors for the female participants but not for the male participants. When taking the same level of risk, relative to men, women tend to engage in more neural processing involving the insula and the OFC to update and valuate possible uncertainty associated with risk-taking decision making.  

Analyses revealed that visuospatial relational reasoning across this developmental age range recruited activations in the superior parietal cortices most prominently, the dorsolateral prefrontal, occipital-temporal, and premotor/supplementary cortices, the basal ganglia, and insula. In contrast, multiple anterior neural systems showed significantly less activity with age, including dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal, paracentral, and insula cortices bilaterally, basal ganglia, and particularly large clusters in the midline anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortex, left middle cingulate/supplementary motor cortex, left insula-putamen, and left caudate.  

Several regions of interest, including the bilateral nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, anterior insula, right cerebellar lobule VI, and left putamen, were sensitive to informative feedback regardless of valence. These included the insula, amygdala, putamen, and supplementary motor area.  

Patients with noncomorbid conduct disorder showed decreased activation in paralimbic regions of the insula, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate as well as the cerebellum relative to patients with noncomorbid ADHD and healthy comparison subjects.  

Specifically, an activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis of cued response studies indicates that nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation increases during gain anticipation relative to loss anticipation, while anterior insula activation increases during both loss and gain anticipation. Additionally, anticipatory NAcc activation correlates with self-reported positive arousal, whereas anterior insula activation correlates with both self-reported negative and positive arousal. Finally, NAcc activation precedes the purchase of desirable products and choice of high-risk gambles, whereas anterior insula activation precedes the rejection of overpriced products and choice of low-risk gambles.  

RESULTS: A follow-up diagnosis of schizophrenia was associated with GM volume deficits in the left medial and left middle frontal gyrus; bipolar I disorder was related to a GM volume deficit in the left medial frontal gyrus; and not having a follow-up diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder was associated with smaller bilateral GM volumes in the insula and right middle occipital gyrus.  

Bilateral activations were shown in the cerebellum, superior temporal gyrus, insula, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, and post-cingulate gyrus. During low pitch generation, activations were present in the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, putamen, and cingulate gyrus in the left hemisphere.  

Stutterers were also found to have increased activation in the left middle and superior temporal gyri and right insula, primary motor cortex and supplementary motor cortex during the passive listening condition relative to nonstutterers.  

We suggest this effect arises from increased cross-activation between somatosensory cortex and insula for 'basic' emotions and fronto-limbic hyperactivation for more subtle emotions.  

OBJECTIVE: Surgical treatment of cavernomas arising in the insula is especially challenging because of the proximity to the internal capsule and lenticulostriate arteries. We present our technique of image guidance for operations on insular cavernomas and assess its clinical usefulness. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2003, with the guidance of a frameless stereotactic system (BrainLab AG, Munich, Germany), we operated on eight patients who harbored an insular cavernoma. Neuronavigation was used for 1) accurate planning of the craniotomy, 2) identification of the distal sylvian fissure, and, finally, 3) finding the exact site for insular corticotomy. CONCLUSION: Image guidance during surgery for insular cavernomas provides high accuracy for lesion targeting and permits excellent anatomic orientation. Accordingly, safe exposure can be obtained because of a tailored dissection of the sylvian fissure and minimal insular corticotomy..  

The risk of damaging Meyer's loop during transsylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy peaks while accessing the temporal horn through its roof by opening the inferior limiting sulcus of the insula. CONCLUSION: We have shown that there is a considerable risk of having visual field deficits after standard transsylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy owing to the interruption of the anterior bundle of the optic radiation fibers, which most likely occurs while opening the temporal horn through the inferior limiting sulcus of the insula..  

insula activity was associated with attitudes towards ingroup and outgroup members, as well as detecting appropriate behavior..  

RESULTS: The comparisons identified the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) with underlying white matter, the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior STG, and the insula as brain regions damaged significantly more often in neglect compared to non-neglect patients. CONCLUSION: Considering our results and the findings of previous studies, spatial neglect appears to be associated with a network of regions involving the TPJ, inferior IPL, posterior STG, the insular cortex, and posterior-frontal projections.  

Selection of high, relative to low, reward magnitude increased activity in insula, amygdala, middle and posterior cingulate cortex, and basal ganglia.  

Five bilateral regions of interest (ROIs), namely dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, inferior parietal cortex (INFP), thalamus and cerebellum, were correlated with normalized cerebral metabolism in the rest of the brain while covarying out Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Scores. In bipolar patients compared with controls, metabolism in the left DLPFC and INFP, and bilateral thalamus and insula had more positive and fewer negative metabolic correlations with other brain regions.  

Dorsal frontal, lateral temporal, cingulate, and especially insula, and inferior parietal areas showed less significant homologous associativity, suggesting more specific lateralized function.  

This relatively low precision was due to 47% of patients who showed BP(ND) decreases in the insula ipsilateral to the epileptogenic lobe. All TLE patients with [ (18)F]MPPF BP(ND) decreases involving hippocampus, amygdala and temporal pole together, with or without extension to the ipsilateral insula, were good candidates for anterior temporal lobectomy.  

Choices from disadvantageous versus advantageous card decks produced activation in the medial frontal gyrus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and insula.  

We found that the mirror neuron system, the insula and amygdala were more active during emotional expressions, that this circuit is engaged to a greater extent when interacting with one's own child, and that it is correlated with maternal reflective function (a measure of empathy).  

RECENT FINDINGS: In regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies with isoflurane and sevoflurane, there is a consistent pattern of rise in rCBF in the anterior cingulate cortex and insula while the thalamus, lingual cortex and cerebellum show a decrease in rCBF, in a dose range of 0.2-1 minimum alveolar concentration. In chronic pain states, prefrontal cortex and insula are activated whereas there is a decrease in activity in the thalamus.  

After TMS treatment in 14 patients, the score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression decreased significantly, and considerable decreases in rCBF were seen in the bilateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal, anterior insula, right subgenual cingulate, and left parietal cortex, but no significant increase in rCBF occurred.  

Emotion-specific rCBF also correlated with HF-HRV in the caudate nucleus, periacqueductal gray and left mid-insula.  

Relative to normal controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited gray matter reductions in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right insula.  

As compared to HC, SPP showed increased neural activity not only in regions involved in emotional processing including left amygdala and insula, as expected from previous reports, but also in the bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS), a part of the core system for face perception that is involved in the evaluation of expression and personal traits.  

Activation reductions during the bimodal condition were located in the left superior temporal gyrus and the left posterior insula.  

RESULTS: Statistical parametric mapping showed that viewing erotic film excerpts that induced sexual arousal was associated, in both groups, with activation of the middle prefrontal gyrus, bilateral temporal lobe and postcentral gyrus, thalamus, insula, vermis, left precuneus, occipital cortex, parietal cortex, and cerebellum.  

The total BDI score, as well as symptoms of psychomotor anhedonia and negative cognition, correlated positively with [ (18)F]MPPF BP in the raphe nuclei and in the insula contralateral to seizure onset, whereas somatic symptoms correlated positively with [ (18)F]MPPF binding potential in the hippocampal/parahippocampal region ipsilateral to seizure onset, the left mid-cingulate gyrus and the inferior dorsolateral frontal cortex, bilaterally. We confirm an association of depressive symptoms in TLE patients with changes of the central serotoninergic pathways, in particular within the raphe nuclei, insula, cingulate gyrus and epileptogenic hippocampus.  

The development of the human insula was studied in the foetuses from 21 to 32 gestation weeks, using silver staining, immunohistochemistry of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), activated caspase-3, and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) techniques. To test whether the insula also has a significant role in psychiatry behavior, we also mapped the major receptor of serotonin, 5HT-2A, in the developing insula as well. At this time, the cortical layers in the insula had started to organize, with silver impregnated pyramidal and stellate cells demonstrated various processes. By 25 gestation weeks, gyri in the insula were observed. Activated capase-3 positive cells were detected in the insula, along with TUNEL positive cells, confirming possibly apoptosis. Our study showed early differentiation in the insula, when compared with other parts of the human cortex in the literature. Expression of 5HT (serotonin) 2A receptor positive cells in development was indicative of the insula as a significant psychiatric center..  

RESULTS: In addition to aberrant brain structures reported previously in older individuals with FXS, we found reduced gray matter volumes in regions such as the hypothalamus, insula, and medial and lateral prefrontal cortices.  

We present herein the case of a patient with a focal orbital frontal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but an insular onset of seizures. The seizure onset zone was localized in the right anterior insula by intracranial recording. A resection of the right anterior insula and a partial disconnection of the frontal lobe were performed, rendering the patient seizure-free..  

The insula and ventral prefrontal cortex had higher grey matter volume in younger, but not older, ValVal homozygotes.  

RESULTS: Pain anticipation was associated with activation of pain matrix areas including bilateral insula, mid- and posterior cingulate cortices, and bilateral inferior parietal cortices.  

Voice-sensitive temporal cortices, as well as the amygdala, insula, and mediodorsal thalami, reacted stronger to angry than to neutral prosody.  

Partner faces also activated the insula, amygdala and thalamus.  

Through the molecular study of 12 insular GIIG, our goal was to investigate a possible anatomo-molecular relationship in insula, specific brain sub-region, known to be involved with high frequency in GIIG. Discrepancy between our results and the high reported incidence of 1p19q codeletion in oligodendrogliomas could mean that insular GIIG has a specific molecular pattern. We hypothesize that prognosis of insular GIIG is worse than in other locations, with reduced chemosensitivity.  

We observed a common network for Movement and Count Go trials in several regions of the brain including the dorsolateral (DLPFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices (VLPFC), supplementary motor area (SMA), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), insula, and superior temporal gyrus (STG).  

Frequency: EA at 100Hz induced greater attenuation of rCBV than EA at 2Hz in the S1, insula, anterior cingulate cortices, dorsolateral striatum, and thalamus. However, in the insular cortex, EA at ST36 showed stronger attenuation.  

Of specific biological relevance, smaller clusters were located in the anterior insula, orbitofrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus.  

Purpose: Recent evidence suggesting that some epilepsy surgery failures could be related to unrecognized insular epilepsy have led us to lower our threshold to sample the insula with intracerebral electrodes. Methods: During the period extending from October 2004 to June 2007, 18 patients had an intracranial study including 10 with insular coverage. The decision to sample the insula with intracerebral electrodes was made in the context of (1) nonlesional parietal lobe-like epilepsy; (2) nonlesional frontal lobe-like epilepsy; (3) nonlesional temporal lobe-like epilepsy; and (4) atypical temporal lobe-like epilepsy. Results: Intracerebral recordings confirmed the presence of insular lobe seizures in four patients. Cortical stimulation performed in 9 of 10 patients with insular electrodes elicited, in decreasing order of frequency, somatosensory, viscerosensory, motor, auditory, vestibular, and speech symptoms. Discussion: Our results suggest that insular cortex epilepsy may mimic temporal, frontal, and parietal lobe epilepsies and that a nonnegligeable proportion of surgical candidates with drug-resistant epilepsy have an epileptogenic zone that involves the insula..  

The insular cortex serves an integrative function for all the structures relevant to the features of AN and as such may be central to this impairment. We hypothesise that a rate limiting dysfunction of neural circuitry integrated by the insula can account for the clinical phenomena of AN.  

RESULTS: Compared with healthy subjects, the patients had significant glucose metabolism decreases in the right thalamus and SI (P < 0.001, uncorrected), and significant glucose metabolism increases in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (BA11), left rostral insula cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (BA10/46) (P < 0.001, uncorrected).  

Brain activity and craving was strongly correlated in 10/10-repeats in these regions and others (anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, and insula; r(2)=0.79-0.86, p<0.001 in all regions).  

Common to both disease groups were reductions in the bilateral perisylvian regions, the opercular region, the insula, prefrontal cortex, left inferior temporal gyrus, limbic system including hippocampus and amygdala, and the thalami.  

Compared to the category judgments, the parity judgments elicited increases in activation in both the dorsal and the ventral visual streams, as well as higher-order premotor areas, inferior frontal gyrus, and anterior insula. Only a subset of these areas, namely, the posterior part of the dorsal intraparietal sulcus, higher-order premotor regions, and the anterior insula showed increased activation as a function of stimulus orientation.  

This included the emergent limbic and paralimbic areas, and the insula.  

RESULTS: In the initial and final examinations the ratios of insula involvement were 64% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Even though the paralimbic system is composed of three independent anatomical parts, gliomas tend to involve all three parts, especially the insula.  

We found voxels in the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum to be involved in all three modalities of disgust, suggesting that simulation in the context of social perception and mental imagery of disgust share a common neural substrates.  

Moreover, fMRI data showed greater activation in the superior parietal cortex in control children while children with CH had greater activation in the bilateral SMA and the opercular region of the precentral gyrus, the adjacent insula and the left somatosensory parietal cortex.  

We propose apotemnophilia arises from congenital dysfunction of the right superior parietal lobule and its connection with the insula..  

Second, there were deficits observed in both patients and relatives (decreased activity in middle occipital gyrus, insula, cuneus, anterior cingulate, and Brodmann area 10 in prefrontal cortex), indicating a potential association with disease risk.  

Nonsignificant differences were found in the insula and temporopolar cortex.  

Neurally, activity in the anterior insula, a region known to respond to norm violations across affective, interoceptive, economic, and social dimensions, strongly differentiated healthy participants from individuals with BPD. Healthy subjects showed a strong linear relation between anterior insula response and both magnitude of monetary offer received from their partner (input) and the amount of money repaid to their partner (output). In stark contrast, activity in the anterior insula of BPD participants was related only to the magnitude of repayment sent back to their partner (output), not to the magnitude of offers received (input).  

Human and animal data implicate ventral (amygdala, ventral striatum, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex insula) and dorsal (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and posterior parietal cortex) systems in DD decisions. RESULTS: Hard DD choices were associated with greatest activation in bilateral middle cingulate, posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and the right rostral insula.  

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood oxygenation level-dependent signal by functional magnetic resonance imaging in the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortex during passive viewing of photographs of faces with emotional expressions. The CREB1-associated insular activation was coincident with activation associated with behavioral avoidance of angry faces. Coincident activation in the left insula is further associated with behavioral avoidance of these stimuli..  

Errors also evoked greater activity in the cuneus, retrosplenial cortex, insula, and subcortical structures including the thalamus and the region of the epithalamus (the habenula).  

The result demonstrated that there were right main hemisphere activations (temporal lobe, such as hippocampal gyrus, insula, and some area of parietal lobe) and left activated regions (temporal lobe, parietal lobule, some regions of cerebellum).  

However, in SDP (but not controls), reward notifications also activated VS and mesial frontal cortex, and loss notifications activated anterior insula.  

Agitation was associated with decreased GM values in the left insula, and in anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally.  

The main regions of activation included thalamus, mesial frontal cortex, middle parietal lobe, temporal lobe, insula, midline structures, and cerebellum.  

The insula and basal ganglia were activated during the anticipation phase while the inferior parietal lobule was activated during the outcome phase. CONCLUSION: The insula and basal ganglia might play a vital role in long-term guidance of decision-making.  

Group comparison analysis revealed that the AD group showed decreased brain activity in the left frontal pole (Brodmann area, BA, 10), the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (BA47), the left insula (BA13) and the right premotor cortex (BA6) compared to the control group.  

Activation of the midbrain, cerebellum, thalamus, and midcingulate, primary and secondary sensory, inferior parietal, insula and prefrontal cortices correlated with reported changes in pain with hypnotic and non-hypnotic suggestion. These activations were of greater magnitude, however, when suggestions followed a hypnotic induction in the cerebellum, anterior midcingulate cortex, anterior and posterior insula and the inferior parietal cortex.  

We will review findings that suggest that the nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and anterior cingulate cortex are involved evaluating both the potential rewards associated with performing a task, as well as assessing the energetical demands involved in task performance.  

By a clustering analysis based on time-resolved functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified networks with qualitatively different timing properties: sensory areas tracked the objective time of stimulus presentation, a bilateral parietoprefrontal network correlated with the PRP delay, and an extended bilateral network that included bilateral posterior parietal cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, anterior part of the insula, and cerebellum was shared by both tasks during the extent of dual-task performance.  

Theta activity decreased in a large cluster of voxels including parts of the temporal, parietal, occipital cortex bilaterally, and in the transverse temporal gyri, insula, hippocampus, and uncus on the right side. Alpha activity decreased in a relatively smaller cortical area involving the right temporo-parietal junction and surrounding parts of the cortex, and part of the insula on the right side.  

Our aim was to (1) analyze the hemispheric dominance for saccular-otolith information in healthy left-handers, (2) determine if there is a predominance of the ipsilateral saccular-otolith projection, and (3) evaluate the impact of both factors on the temporo-parieto-insular activation pattern. After subtraction of acoustic side effects, bilateral activations were found in the posterior insula, the superior/middle/transverse temporal gyri, and the inferior parietal lobule. Our study proves the importance of the hemispheric preponderance also in left-handers, which is of relevance in the superior parts of the insula gyrus V, the inferior parietal lobule, and the superior temporal gyri..  

Complementary neurophysiological recordings in macaques and functional neuroimaging in humans show that the primary taste cortex in the rostral insula and adjoining frontal operculum provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture (including viscosity and fat texture) of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness.  

Statistical source analysis could demonstrate putative contribution to the generation of this component in right temporal-limbic areas, encompassing hippocampal complex and amygdala, and in right insula. These results go beyond previous work demonstrating that musical training can change activity of sensory and motor areas during musical or audio-motor tasks, and suggest that functional plasticity in right medial-temporal structures and insula also modulates processing of subtle harmonic incongruities..  

RESULTS: The ictal hyperperfusion of the amygdala, hippocampus, temporal pole and insula were significantly higher in MTE (P<0.01), but cingulate and orbitofrontal hyperperfusion were not.  

This investigation tested the hypothesis that IPV-related PTSD individuals show exaggerated insula reactivity to the anticipation of aversive stimuli. RESULTS: Both groups showed increased activation of bilateral anterior insula during anticipation of negative images minus anticipation of positive images. Activation in right anterior/middle insula was significantly greater in the IPV-PTSD relative to the NTC group. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that changes in activation in right middle insula and bilateral anterior insula were more strongly associated with amygdala activation changes in NTC than in IPV-PTSD subjects. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed increased activation in the anterior/middle insula during negative anticipation in women with IPV-related PTSD. These findings in women with IPV could be a consequence of the IPV exposure, reflect pre-existing differences in insular function, or be due to the development of PTSD.  

RESULTS: During Stroop performance, individuals activated brain regions similar to those reported in nonaddicted individuals, including the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, parietal lobule, insula, and striatum.  

For both groups a strong relationship between questionnaire scores and brain activity was found in the anterior insula (AI), when participants were required to assess their feelings to unpleasant pictures.  

Results showed that emotionally neutral agency recruited neural networks previously associated with agency, intentionality and moral cognition, encompassing ventral and subgenual sectors of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), insula, anterior temporal cortex and superior temporal sulcus (STS).  

Recently, a series of studies have demonstrated that while watching other people experience pain (other pain), participants engage the anterior insula (AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brain regions involved in the direct experience of pain (self pain).  

The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior parietal cortex have been considered to compose a mirror neuron system (MNS) for the motor components of facial expressions, while the amygdala and insula may represent an "additional" MNS for emotional states. Results demonstrate that even passive viewing of facial expressions activates a wide network of brain regions that were also involved in the execution of similar expressions, including the IFG/insula and the posterior parietal cortex. Brain activations reflected differences in observed facial expressions, with emotional expressions activating relatively more the insula/frontal operculum, and neutral ones (blowing up the cheeks) the somatosensory cortices (SII). Using movies, fear activated the amygdala and disgust the insula, but other emotions activated these structures to a similar degree..  

The contrast between imitation and non-matching actions was associated with activation in areas previously associated with imitation and "mirror neuron" functioning, including insula, intraparietal sulcus, dorsal premotor cortex, and superior temporal gyrus.  

The response of the insula and the superior temporal gyrus cortex to disgust faces were negatively correlated with EQ.  

Regions of interest that emerged include areas previously demonstrated to respond to aversive and disgust-inducing material (amygdala and insula), as well as regions strongly associated with inhibition and control (anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortex).  

At the neural level we found that high state negative affect was associated with increased left insular activity during passive viewing of aversive stimuli. The insula has been implicated in interoceptive processes and in the integration of sensory, visceral, and affective information thus contributing to subjective emotional experience. Greater recruitment of the insula in response to aversive relative to neutral stimuli in subjects with high state negative affect may represent increased processing of salient aversive stimuli..  

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the feasibility, safety, and usefulness of depth electrodes stereotactically implanted within the insular cortex. METHODS: Thirty patients with suspected insular involvement during epileptic seizure underwent presurgical stereotactic electroencephalographic recordings using 10 to 16 depth electrodes per patient. Among these, one or two electrodes were implanted via an oblique approach to widely sample the insular cortex. RESULTS: Thirty-five insular electrodes were implanted in the 30 patients without morbidity. A total of 226 recording contacts (mean, 7.5 contacts/patient) explored the insular cortex. Stereotactic electroencephalographic recordings of seizures allowed the differentiation into groups: Group 1, 10 patients with no insular involvement; Group 2, 15 patients with secondary insular involvement; and Group 3, five patients with an initial insular involvement. In temporal epilepsy (n = 17), the insula was never involved at the seizure onset but was frequently involved during the seizures (11 out of 17). In frontotemporal or frontal epilepsy, the insula was involved at the onset of seizure in five out of 13 patients. CONCLUSION: insula can be safely explored with oblique electrodes. In temporal lobe epilepsy, insular involvement does not significantly modify the short-term postoperative outcome. Future larger studies are necessary to clarify the long-term prognostic value of insular spread..  

In the Thin-XXXX contrast, patients showed greater activation than controls at the junction of left insula, frontal and temporal lobes and in left middle and medial frontal gyri.  

The implication of the anterior insula in the occurrence of this symptom has been suggested based on the role of this region in swallowing and on the observation that electrical insular stimulation can elicit nausea and vomiting. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of a patient presenting with ictal vomiting who underwent bilateral intracranial exploration including insular depth electrodes. The seizure onset zone was localized in the left temporomesial structures, but the occurrence of ictal vomiting correlated in time with a discharge affecting exclusively the anterior part of both insular lobes. It is concluded that the occurrence of ictal vomiting reflects a propagation of the discharge to the insular cortex. Observation of this symptom at the very onset of the seizures in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy is highly suggestive of an insular seizure onset zone..  

Current sources of the pre-REM negativity were estimated in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, uncus, insula, anterior cingulated cortex, basal forebrain, parahippocampal gyrus, premotor cortex and frontal eye field.  

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a right-sided infarction of the superior part of the anterior insula and a small portion of the adjacent medial frontal operculum. These findings confirm the role of the anterior insula as a critical area in humans with regard to the origin of dysphagia..  

Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an infiltrative, slightly enhancing mass in the left mesial temporal lobe extending to the left basal ganglion and insula.  

The insula cortex (Brodmann's 13-16) has distinct auditory and multisensory areas that have been identified through imaging to be active or hypoactive in cases of severe tinnitus. As such, the insula is a candidate for inclusion in the final common pathway (FCP) for tinnitus. The insula has connection with the prefrontal and auditory cortices, amygdala, thalamus, parabrachial nucleus, orbitofrontal cortex, striate, cuneus, and cerebellum. The insula, as part of the medial temporal lobe system-which also includes the amygdala and the hippocampus-modulates its metabolic activity after high-frequency stimulation.  

Relative to the control and depressed groups the PTSD group exhibited greater sensitivity to correctly recognised stimuli in the left amygdala/ventral striatum and right occipital cortex, and more specific sensitivity to items encoded in emotional contexts in the right precuneus, left superior frontal gyrus, and bilateral insula.  

Although we noted many similarities in the fMRI activation patterns between the subjects with epilepsy and the healthy subjects in areas typically involved in memory processing, testing of the interaction effects for target-foil differences between groups revealed several differences in activation including the right insula, the left cuneus, and the bilateral subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In patients with epilepsy, these regions exhibited greater activation for targets than foils, but in healthy subjects the difference was reversed (right insula), absent (left cuneus), or included deactivation to target words (pregenual ACC).  

RESULTS: Unilateral manual acupuncture stimulation at LI-2, a point commonly used in clinical practice to treat xerostomia, was associated with bilateral activation of the insula and adjacent operculum.  

RESULTS: A positive BOLD response was detected during stimulation in brain areas associated with higher order relay nuclei of vagal afferent pathways, respectively the left locus coeruleus, the thalamus (left >> right), the left prefrontal cortex, the right and the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulated gyrus and the left insula.  

In addition, these boys exhibited no reduced activation in the orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and insular cortices. By contrast, children with pure ADHD did not show any abnormalities in amygdala activation but showed decreased neural activity in the insula only in response to negative pictures.  

For both conditions, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed bihemispheric but right-lateralized activity patterns in mid-prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and inferior parietal areas, as well as significant anterior insular and subcortical activation. Manipulating attentional demands under different listening conditions revealed an important role for right anterior insula, striatum, and thalamus in the regulation of attentive listening to spoken language..  

These included the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra regions, the striatum, and frontal lobe regions involved in (1) emotion processing (medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and insula cortex), (2) cognition (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and (3) motor/behavioral outputs (primary motor area).  

In contrast, CBD deactivated the left temporal cortex and insula.  

DS scores correlated positively with activations in brain regions previously associated with disgust (anterior insula, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex-temporal pole, putamen-globus pallidus, dorsal anterior cingulate, and visual cortex) and negatively with brain regions involved in the regulation of emotions (dorsolateral and rostral prefrontal cortices).  

At group level, there was a specific correlation between penile erection and activations in anterior cingulate, insula, amygdala, hypothalamus and secondary somatosensory regions.  

Emotional versus neutral prosody evoked BOLD responses in right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal gyrus, insula and bilateral putamen.  

Confidence correlated with activity in right anterior insula, posterior midcingulate and inferior parietal cortices during the anticipation of pain. Activity in the right anterior insula predicted a greater influence of anticipation cues on pain perception, whereas activity in right inferior parietal cortex predicted a decreased influence of anticipatory cues.  

Volumes of interest (VOIs) selected a priori included: anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus and midbrain raphe nuclei. A significant negative correlation between serotonin synthesis and 5-HT(1A) binding potential was found bilaterally in hippocampus and anterior insula and in the left ACC.  

Analyses revealed that depressed patients exhibited similar global metabolism, but decreased absolute regional metabolism in the left much more than right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral (left greater than right) insula, bilateral subgenual prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, and right precuneus.  

Before conditioning stimuli, tactile stimulation and pin-prick stimuli led to differential activations of primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (S1, S2), insula and prefrontal cortices (PFC). After induction of mechanical hyperalgesia (Stim1), increased activations were detected in somatosensory/pain-related areas (S1, S2, insula, cingulate cortex) and networks involved in attentional and cognitive processing (parieto-frontal, parieto-cingulate and frontal circuits).  

Voluntary risk in the active choice task is associated with robust activation in mesolimbic-frontal regions, including the midbrain, ventral and dorsal striatum, anterior insula, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortex (ACC/MFC), in addition to activation in visual pathway regions.  

Anatomic, imaging, and lesion studies suggest that insular or parietal opercular cortical structures mediate the sensation of nonpainful cold. These results suggest that the generator of cold EPs is close to the sylvian fissure in the parietal operculum or insula..  

Increased activation in the hippocampus, insula, and cingulate cortex following the provocation predicted subsequent self-reported rumination.  

Right insula and right frontal cortex also involved.  

Functional neuroimaging has shown activation of the insula and upper brain stem (including PAG), as well as deactivation of the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) during experimental panic attacks. Voxel-based morphometric analysis of brain magnetic resonance images has shown a grey matter volume increase in the insula and upper brain stem, and a decrease in the ACC of panic patients at rest, as compared to healthy controls. The insula and the ACC detect interoceptive stimuli, which are overestimated by panic patients.  

Consistent with previous fMRI studies of pain empathy with adults, the perception of other people in pain in children was associated with increased hemodynamic activity in the neural circuits involved in the processing of first-hand experience of pain, including the insula, somatosensory cortex, anterior midcingulate cortex, periaqueductal gray, and supplementary motor area.  

For the outside condition, controls activated the medial temporal gyrus on the left side and the rightsided precuneus and postcentral gyrus which represent the auditive source locating and the stimulus processing systems, for inside, they activated the left insula.  

The sensorimotor cortices (somatosensory cortices, supplementary motor cortex), thalamus and occasional paralimbic structures such as the insula and anterior middle cingulate cortex showed activation.  

SFO was scored according to a pre-defined scoring sheet based on the degree of overriding of the insula by the temporal lobe across gestational age.  

Relative to an autobiographical control task, the social risk identification task induced stronger sustained activity in the left supplementary motor area/dorsal ACC and increased transient activity in bilateral posterior insula.  

We found functional magnetic resonance imaging signal changes in the orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and pons and [ 11C]diprenorphine positron emission tomography signal changes in the orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, insula, thalamus, and anterior cingulate cortex.  

A neuroradiologist and a neurologist reviewed the PCT mean transit time (MTT), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume maps independently; they evaluated five anatomical regions (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital/thalami, and basal ganglia/insula) and graded them for abnormality (0 if normal, 1 if abnormal in <50% of the region, and 2 if abnormal in >or=50% of the region).  

Compared with controls, patients had a lower blood flow in multiple regions in the left hemisphere including the frontal and visual association cortices, posterior hippocampus, and insula. The flow was also lower in contralateral areas in the lateral cerebellum and vermis, thalamus, and posterior insula. On the other hand, the flow was higher in the patients predominantly in the right hemisphere, including multiple frontal and parietal regions, insula, visual association cortex, and pulvinar.  

Incipient AD showed GM atrophy in the medial temporal and temporoparietal lobes, in the insula and in the retrosplenial cortex, and GM hypoperfusion in the medial temporal and temporoparietal lobes. Relatively preserved perfusion, we could hypothesize to be compensatory in the setting of neuronal loss, was found in the posterior cingulate, in the head of the hippocampus, in the amigdala, and in the insula bilaterally, while functional depression occurred in bilateral parahippocampal gyri.  

In addition, context conditioning was associated with activation in posterior orbitofrontal cortex, medial dorsal thalamus, anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and parahippocampal, inferior frontal, and parietal cortices.  

CONCLUSIONS: Participants who responded best to CVS had suffered strokes that spared and permitted activation of the dominant parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC), which is known to be located in the non-dominant hemisphere. These findings tie in closely with the thermosensory disinhibition hypothesis for central pain, which leads us to propose that vestibular stimulation may alleviate CPSP from cross activation between the PIVC and the thermosensory cortex in the adjacent dorsal posterior insula.  

CRD elicited significant increases in rCBF as expected in sensory (insula, somatosensory cortex), and limbic and paralimbic regions (including anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala). Correlations of rCBF with EMG and with behavioral pain score were noted in the cingulate, insula, lateral amygdala, dorsal striatum, somatosensory and motor regions.  

In the pre-reflective self condition, brain areas that receive homeostatic afferents from somatic and visceral sensation of the body such as the insula and the somatosensory cortex were strongly activated as early as 134 ms after stimulus onset.  

On the basis of thermosensory disinhibition hypothesis of central pain, we suggest that vestibular stimulation has this beneficial effect because of the intimate anatomical connections between the parieto-insular vestibular cortex and the thermosensory cortex in the dorsal posterior insula.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 3 June 2008; doi:10.1038/sc.2008.47..  

The SC-WR contrast for each group showed activation in left inferior frontal and extrastriate regions, but the RD group showed significantly more activation than Controls in areas associated with linguistic processing (left middle/superior temporal gyri), and attention and response selection (bilateral insula, right cingulate gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right parietal lobe).  

Oral air pulse stimulation, covert swallowing and overt swallowing all produced activation in the primary motor cortex, cingulate cortex, putamen and insula.  

Both groups showed significant pain-related activity in a common network of areas including the insula, cingulate, posterior parietal and somatosensory cortices.  

Following tracer injections into the thalamus, retrogradely labelled neurons were found in the depth of the olfactory tubercle (particularly the hilus of the Callejal islands and the insula magna), in subdivisions of the diagonal band complex, the peripeduncular region and the thalamic reticular nucleus.  

Tentatively, it can be attributed to the posterior insula and showed a magnetic response to nonspeech motion and visual /pa/, whereas this response component was suppressed in case of visual /ta/.  

Moreover, the insula may participate more often than usually considered in (intractable) seizures.  

RESULTS: Group analyses revealed greater activation for men compared with women in the left pars orbitalis while women showed greater activation within the right insula. With individual analyses, there were no significant sex differences in laterality using two large regions of interest (ROIs) covering the inferior frontal and temporoparietal regions; however, there were significant sex effects within small, specific ROIs (insula, middle temporal and pars opercularis, triangularis, and orbitalis).  

fMRI analysis revealed that bilateral activations in anterior insula (BA45), parietal operculum (S2: BA40), premotor area, medial globus pallidus, inferior occipital gyrus (BA18), left temporal association cortex, right fusiform gyrus, right parietal association cortex and cerebellum occurred due to the task in the preconditioned group. In addition, activation of anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus and cerebellum significantly increased in the preconditioned group compared with the non-preconditioned group.  

Besides similar activation in several brain areas in response to both kinds of stimulation, we observed pronounced brain activation to selective C-fiber stimulation as compared to Adelta-fiber stimulation in the right frontal operculum and anterior insula.  

RESULTS: The first factor (depressive mood) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right insula, posterior cingulate gyrus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the left fusiform gyrus. The second factor (insomnia) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right insula, right putamen, and right inferior parietal lobule, and positively correlated with rCBF in left fusiform gyrus and bilateral cerebellar tonsils.  

Regions of interest (ROIs) included anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), middle mesial temporal cortex (MTC-m), inferior mesial temporal cortex (MTC-i), insula (INS), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and thalamus-hypothalamus (THAL).  

Multisubjects group mean analysis showed that pain-related cortex including primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (SI and S II), anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), insula were involved in three EA stimulation. In the comparing with real EA versus shallow EA, there was right-side activation over the SI, S II, motor cortex, ACC, insula, thalamus, hippocampus, occipital cortex, and cerebellum; also activation over bilateral prefrontal gyrus, caudate and pons.  

VBM identified correlations with physiological reactivity in the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and insula.  

Both groups activated left hemispheric PFC, insula, premotor cortex and cerebellum, but group comparisons revealed decreased activation in left ventrolateral PFC in the aMCI group.  

anterior insula) to regions involved in mentalizing (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex) to regions involved in executive control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex).  

The neural response which was induced by response inhibition was prominent in the midline structure, specifically the bilateral medial prefrontal gyrus and anterior cingulated cortex, as well as the left middle frontal gyrus, insula, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and limbic system.  

We demonstrated that a stronger activation in the insula-orbitofrontal-parietal regions was found in the high impulsiveness group compared to the low impulsiveness group.  

However, the at-risk individuals showed increases in activation in the right superior parietal lobule (BA 7), the right insula (BA 13), the right middle frontal gyrus (BA 10), and the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47).  

Suppression of blinking was associated with prominent activation of bilateral insular-claustrum regions, right more than left; activation was also found in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), supplementary motor areas, and the face area of the primary motor cortex bilaterally. These results suggest a central role for the insula possibly together with ACC in suppression of blinking..  

Oral somatosensory afferents implicated in sensing the texture of food including fat in the mouth also activate the orbitofrontal and pregenual cingulate cortex, as well as the insular taste cortex. Top-down cognitive modulation of the representation of affective touch produced by word labels is found in parietal cortex area 7, the insula and ventral striatum.  

In contrast, activations in the somatosensory cortex and ventral posterior insula were correlated with the intensity but not the pleasantness of the thermal stimuli.  

We found that the putamen responds to efficiency, whereas the insula encodes inequity, and the caudate/septal subgenual region encodes a unified measure of efficiency and inequity (utility).  

We present a series of 89 patients operated on from 1992 through 2007 for drug-resistant partial epilepsy, in whom surgery was performed in a functional area of the brain: the central (sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas) region in 48 cases, posterior regions (parietal and occipital) in 27, the insula in eight, and the language areas in six.  

t1>t2) of the posterior more than anterior cingulate, superior temporal lobes, insula, and right middle and superior frontal lobes (second-level analysis, t=3.0, puncorrected=0.003).  

In the last few years, brain imaging studies carried out in healthy subjects showed activation of the sensorimotor cortex and the insula during volitional swallowing. RESULTS: The first MEG measurement, carried out when the patient still demonstrated severe dysphagia, revealed strongly decreased activation of the somatosensory cortex but a strong activation of the right insula and marked recruitment of the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate parallel development to normalization of swallowing related cortical activation and clinical recovery from dysphagia and highlight the importance of the insula and the PPC for the central coordination of swallowing.  

Here, we show that ghrelin administered intravenously to healthy volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging increased the neural response to food pictures in regions of the brain, including the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior insula, and striatum, implicated in encoding the incentive value of food cues.  

A main characteristic of emotion-related brain regions (orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulated cortex, amygdala, insula) is their reciprocal anatomical connectivity with each other as well as with neuromodulatory systems (e.g., serotonergic dorsal raphe, cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert, and dopaminergic ventral tegmentum) and with other brain areas involved in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions.  

In GP versus NGP sentences, there was greater activity in the left BAs 44, 45, and 46 extending to the left anterior insula, the pre-supplementary motor area, and the right cerebellum.  

Recent insights have demonstrated a central role for dopaminergic neurotransmission in modulating pain perception and natural analgesia within supraspinal regions, including the basal ganglia, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus and periaqueductal gray.  

Bilateral air-pulse stimulation was associated with the activation of a bilateral network including the primary somatosensory cortex and the thalamus, classic motor areas (primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, cingulate motor areas), and polymodal areas (including the insula and frontal cortex).  

Patients also revealed a reversed activation pattern from controls in response to this contrast in the left anterior cingulate, insula, right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and bilateral middle frontal gyrus.  

Functional connectivity results from partial least squares analyses provided support for the hypothesized involvement of 3 networks corresponding to: 1) visceral afferent information processing (thalamus, insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex), 2) emotional-arousal (amygdala, rostral and subgenual cingulate regions, and locus coeruleus complex) and 3) cortical modulation (frontal and parietal cortices).  

Moreover, a correlation analysis between differences in the cognitive performances during the two recordings and LORETA-computed intracortical activity showed, in the alpha1 frequency band, better cognitive performance with increased cortical activity in the left insula.  

Secondly, in a voxel-based morphometric study, we obtained a significant decreased gray matter concentration in the insula (bilateral), superior temporal gyrus (bilateral), and amygdala (left) in patients compared to healthy subjects.  

Peri-insular hemispherotomy is a surgical technique used in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy of hemispheric origin. It is based on the exposure of insula and semi-circular sulci, providing access to the lateral ventricle through a supra- and infra-insular window. Peri-insular hemispherotomy provides a functional disconnection of the hemisphere with minimal resection of cerebral tissue.  

RESULTS: A group analysis of contrast 1) showed activation of the right prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, the insula bilaterally, the left precuneus, the parietal operculum bilaterally, the cerebellum bilaterally (q(FDR)< or =0.001), the right anterior cingulate gyrus (q(FDR)< or =0.005) and the right anterior mid pons (q(FDR)< or =0.05). Contrast 2) showed activation in the right frontal area, the left insula, the parietal operculum bilaterally and the left cerebellum (q(FDR)< or =0.001). Only the right insula showed stronger activation during the COMBINED condition.  

RESULTS: Lornoxicam, which significantly reduced pain sensation [ VAS: mean (sd) 4.6 (0.7) vs 1.2 (1.5)], completely suppressed pain-induced activation in the SII/operculum, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, parietal (inferior), prefrontal (inferior, medial), temporal (inferior, medial/superior) lobe, cerebellum, and contralateral (e.g.  

A direct contrast between the motor imagery and observation conditions revealed stronger activation for imagery in the posterior insula and the anterior cingulate gyrus.  

Compared with other areas of the forebrain, the function of insular cortex is poorly understood. This study examined the unisensory and multisensory function of the rat insula using high-resolution, whole-hemisphere, epipial evoked potential mapping. We found the posterior insula to contain distinct auditory and somatotopically organized somatosensory fields with an interposed and overlapping region capable of integrating these sensory modalities. In light of the established connections of the posterior insula with the amygdala, we propose that integration of auditory and somatosensory modalities reported here may play a role in auditory fear conditioning..  

Functional connectivity analyses of rCBF changes during trauma versus neutral scripts demonstrated left amygdala coupling with right ACC and bilateral anterior insula, as well as coupling between the amygdala and contralateral hippocampus.  

When compared with controls, migraine patients had significant GMV reductions in the bilateral insula, motor/premotor, prefrontal, cingulate cortex, right posterior parietal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex (P < 0.001, uncorrected for multiple comparisons at a voxel level; corrected P < 0.05 after small volume corrections).  

Compared with normal reading, mirror reading resulted in an activation of the dorsolateral occipital cortex, medial occipital cortex, superior parietal cortex, medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as anterior insula and cerebellum.  

A relative increase in gray matter volume was found in the left insula of PD patients compared with controls. The insula and anterior cingulate abnormalities may be relevant to the pathophysiology of PD, since these structures participate in the evaluation process that ascribes negative emotional meaning to potentially distressing cognitive and interoceptive sensory information.  

The insula is the only cortical part of the brain that is not visible on the surface of the hemisphere, because it is totally covered by the frontoparietal and temporal opercula. The insula is triangular in shape and is separated from the opercula by the anterior, superior, and inferior peri-insular sulci. It is morphologically divided into two parts by the central insular sulcus. The anterior part of the insula bears three short gyri, and its posterior part contains two long gyri. The vascular supply of the insula is mainly provided by the M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery, a substantial obstacle to any open or stereotactic procedure aiming at the insular region. The insula is functionally involved in cardiac rhythm and arterial blood pressure control, as well as in visceromotor control and in viscerosensitive functions. There is substantial evidence that the insula is involved as a somesthetic area, including a major role in the processing of nociceptive input. The role of the insula in some epilepsies was recently investigated by means of depth electrode recordings made following Talairach's stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) methodology. It appears that ictal signs associated with an insular discharge are very similar to those usually attributed to mesial temporal lobe seizures. Ictal symptoms associated with insular discharges are mainly made up of respiratory, viscerosensitive (chest or abdominal constriction), or oroalimentary (chewing or swallowing) manifestations. Ictal signs arising from the insula occur in full consciousness; these are always simple partial seizures. Seizures arising from the temporal lobe always invade the insular region, but in approximately 10% of cases, the seizures originate in the insular cortex itself. These data explain that there has been a rebirth of interest in the insula from a surgical perspective over the past few years. The literature contains no reports of cases of resection of insular cortex alone; most insular resections are performed in the context of temporal resection, when there is some evidence of seizures originating in the insula itself. In this context, less invasive procedures, such as SEEG-guided radiofrequency thermolesions of the insular cortex, are under investigation..  

A regions of interest (ROI) analysis revealed that pictures of high-calorie foods produced significantly greater activation in the obese group compared to controls in medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens/ventral striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, ventral pallidum, caudate, putamen, and hippocampus.  

Neuroanatomical and neuroimaging research in anxiety disorders has centered on the role of the amygdala, reciprocal connections between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, and, most recently, alterations in interoceptive processing by the anterior insula.  

These alterations were different for each pain syndrome, but overlapped in the cingulate cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the insula and dorsal pons.  

Fear was associated with additional atrophy of the right insula and left and right lateral orbitofrontal cortex.  

non-self-images, control subjects had greater activation than patients in the middle frontal gyri, insula, precuneus, and occipital regions while the patients did not have greater activation in any region. We conclude that AN patients process non-self-images similarly to control subjects, but their processing of self-images is quite discrepant, with a lack of activation of the attentional system or the insula.  

Mineralised organic remains (including apple pips and cereal grains) collected during the ongoing excavations of insula IX at the Roman town of Silchester, Hampshire have been analysed by a combination of SEM-EDX, powder XRD and IR spectroscopy.  

Furthermore, the tendency to accept unfair proposals was associated with increased activity in right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in emotion regulation, and with decreased activity in the anterior insula, which has been implicated in negative affect.  

The anterior insula has been implicated in both the experience and the anticipation of negative outcomes. Although individual differences in insular sensitivity have been associated with self-report measures of chronic anxiety, previous research has not examined whether individual differences in insular sensitivity predict learning to avoid aversive stimuli. In the present study, insular sensitivity was assessed as participants anticipated monetary losses while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that insular responsiveness to anticipated losses predicted participants' ability to learn to avoid losses (but not to approach gains) in a behavioral test several months later. These findings suggest that in addition to correlating with self-reported anxiety, heightened insular sensitivity may promote learning to avoid loss..  

The group with early dementia had more atrophy than the group with late dementia in some areas, while the late dementia group had symmetrical reduction in concentration of grey matter in the insula bilaterally compared to the early dementia group.  

Compared with normal controls, both familial and sporadic schizophrenia patients showed lower GMD in many areas including bilateral insula, right temporal lobe, right occipital lobe, left lenticula, right cerebellum and left rectal gyrus extending to anterior cingulated gyrus. Familial parents also showed lower GMD in several areas including right insula extending to right temporal lobe and right parietal lobule.  

Relative to the picture perception, disgust, and happiness imagery provoked activation of the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and parietal cortex. insula, amygdala, parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) during disgust imagery.  

A marked correspondence was observed in regions affected by both first-episode schizophrenia and chronic schizophrenia, including gray matter decreases in the thalamus, the left uncus/amygdala region, the insula bilaterally, and the anterior cingulate.  

In contrast, although there was some inter-individual variability in the pattern of responses to pain, all subjects including the callosotomized patient showed ipsilateral responses in at least two of the target pain-related areas (S1, S2, insula and/or cingulate cortex).  

We observed significant fMRI adaptation effects within the bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS), planum temporale (PT) and right anterior insula for location changes. For pattern changes, we found adaptation effects within the bilateral superior temporal lobe, in particular along the superior temporal gyrus (STG), PT and posterior STS, the bilateral anterior insula and inferior frontal areas. In contrast, inferior frontal cortex and anterior insular exhibited adaptation effects mainly during the location matching task. Given that the location matching task was significantly more difficult than the pattern matching, our data suggest that frontal and insular regions were modulated by task difficulty rather than feature-specific attention..  

The relationship between the insular surface and the underlying fiber tracts, and between the medial lower surface of the claustrum and the lateral lenticulostriate arteries is described. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of the fiber dissection technique and DT imaging-based tractography supports the presence of the claustrocortical system as an integrative network in humans and offers the potential to aid in understanding the diffusion of gliomas in the insula and other areas of the brain..  

We derived volumes of total brain and volumes of cortical and subcortical reward-related structures including the dorsolateral-prefrontal, orbitofrontal, cingulate cortices, and the insula, as well as the amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens septi (NAc), and ventral diencephalon. Volume reduction was most pronounced in right dorsolateral-prefrontal cortex, right anterior insula, and right NAc, as well as left amygdala. In alcoholics, NAc and anterior insula volumes increased with length of abstinence, and total reward-network and amygdala volumes correlated positively with memory scores.  

Functional neuroimaging studies point to increased activity in amygdala and insula in patients with social anxiety disorder, and genetic studies are increasingly focusing on this and other (eg, personality trait neuroticism) core phenotypes to identify risk loci.  

fMRI-statistical maps identified several brain regions with stimulus and frequency dependent activation consistent with TSSP, including ipsilateral and contralateral thalamus, medial thalamus, S1, bilateral S2, mid- and posterior insula, rostral and mid-anterior cingulate cortex.  

Different lines of evidence have suggested an involvement of the insular cortex in pain processing. Direct electrical stimulation (ES) of the human insular cortex during surgical procedure sometimes induces painful sensations and painful stimuli induce activation of the insular cortex as shown by functional neuroimaging. Invasive evaluation of epileptic patients by deep brain stereotactically implanted electrodes provides an opportunity to analyze responses induced by ES of the insular cortex in awake and fully conscious patients. For this study, we included 25 patients suffering from drug refractory focal epilepsy with at least one electrode stereotactically implanted in the insular cortex using an oblique approach (transfrontal or transparietal). Out of the 83 responses induced by insular ES, eight (9.6%) were reported by five patients as painful sensations. All sites inducing painful sensations were restricted to the upper portion of the middle short gyrus of the insula.  

Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have implicated insula and anterior cingulate cortices in the empathic response to another's pain. The presentation of the emotional sounds was associated with increased pupil diameter and activation of limbic regions (insula and cingulate cortices) during meditation (versus rest). During meditation, activation in insula was greater during presentation of negative sounds than positive or neutral sounds in expert than it was in novice meditators. The strength of activation in insula was also associated with self-reported intensity of the meditation for both groups.  

When matching for performance and response speed there was additional hypoactivation in the insula.  

In complex partial seizures with automatisms, SISCOM and SPM analysis showed antero-mesial temporal hyperperfusion (overlapping the EZ), extending to the insula, basal ganglia, and thalamus in the group of patients having dystonic posturing (DP group) in addition to automatisms.  

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