Inferotemporal Cortex

RESULTS: Patients having PD with VHs demonstrate increased serotonin 2A receptor binding in the ventral visual pathway (including the bilateral inferooccipital gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, and inferotemporal cortex) as well as the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and insula.  

In contrast, the visual pattern-matching condition was associated with lesions in posterior portions of the left hemisphere that subserve visual processing, namely, occipital and inferotemporal cortex.  

To test this idea, we recorded from neurons in monkey inferotemporal cortex (IT) and assessed visual search performance in humans using pairs of images formed from the same local features in different global arrangements.  

We demonstrate face discrimination learning-induced changes in inter- and intra-hemispheric connectivity and in the hemispheric predominance of theta and gamma frequency oscillations in sheep inferotemporal cortex. The results provide the first evidence for connectivity changes between and within left and right inferotemporal cortexes as a result of face recognition learning..  

There are few or no inputs to the cerebellum from inferotemporal cortex.  

Here we demonstrate a correlate and possible mechanism in monkey inferotemporal cortex (IT).  

Each monkey received either selective cholinergic depletion of inferotemporal cortex (including the entorhinal cortex and perirhinal cortex) with injections of the immunotoxin ME20.4-saporin or saline injections as a control and was postoperatively retested. Cholinergic depletion of inferotemporal cortex was without effect on either task. Fornix transection mildly impaired scene learning in monkeys that had received saline injections but severely impaired scene learning in monkeys that had received cholinergic lesions of inferotemporal cortex. These findings confirm a synergistic interaction in a macaque monkey model of episodic memory between connections carried by the fornix and cholinergic input to the inferotemporal cortex. Finally, cholinergic depletion of inferotemporal cortex, in this study, appears insufficient to impair memory functions dependent on an intact inferotemporal cortex..  

The ECoG had been recorded through 8 x 8 arrays of 64 electrodes, from the surfaces of auditory, visual, or somatic cortices of 9 rabbits, and from the inferotemporal cortex of a human subject.  

This fMRI evidence suggests that such a face-selective area exists in human anterior inferotemporal cortex, comprising the apparent homologue of the fMRI-defined ATFP in macaques..  

We tested these ideas by measuring the responses of inferotemporal cortex neurons to sets of stimuli in which two attributes-shape and color-varied independently.  

We have extended our approach to experimental data: multi-electrode array (MEA) local field potential (LFPs) recordings from the inferotemporal cortex of sheep and LFP vs.  

We recently reported how illusory contours based on abutting-line gratings affect neurones in the monkey inferotemporal cortex, an area essential for object and shape vision. A set of line drawings, silhouettes, their illusory contour-based counterparts, and control shapes have been presented to awake, fixating rhesus monkeys while single-cell activity was recorded in the anterior part of the inferotemporal cortex. These results reveal differences in processing for Kanizsa figures and shapes having real contours in the monkey inferotemporal cortex..  

In the inferotemporal cortex (IT)--an area important for processing information about object shape--there is a substantially reduced response to the second presentation of an image.  

Paradoxically, in cortical areas like the inferotemporal cortex, where presumably memory lifetimes are longer than in the medial temporal lobe, neural representations are less sparse.  

We used an evolutionary stimulus strategy and linear/nonlinear response models to characterize three-dimensional shape responses in macaque monkey inferotemporal cortex (IT).  

We evaluated the effects of DLPFC lesions (including both banks of the principal sulcus) in rhesus monkeys on tests of scene learning and strategy implementation that are severely impaired following crossed unilateral lesions of frontal cortex and inferotemporal cortex.  

These results speak against fully size-invariant representation of object information in human LOC and are hence congruent with findings in monkeys showing object identity and size information in population activity of inferotemporal cortex.  

In this report, we examine neural responses in inferotemporal cortex (IT) during the interpretation of ambiguous photographs created by morphing between two photographs.  

The method is extensively tested with toy models, and successfully applied to experimental datasets, including (1) gene microarray data of HeLa cell cycle; (2) in vivo multi-electrode array (MEA) local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the inferotemporal cortex of a sheep; and (3) in vivo LFPs recorded from distributed sites in the right hemisphere of a macaque monkey..  

We have recently proposed a model of visual processing in which object recognition through the ventral stream into inferotemporal cortex is facilitated by an initial rapid feedforward sweep through the dorsal stream activating parietal and frontal regions prior to subsequent feedback to primary visual cortex (V1). Modulation of inferotemporal cortex also requires feedback from frontal regions, and horizontal connections from the dorsal stream.  

Our 'partial Granger causality' measure is extensively tested with toy models, both linear and nonlinear, and is applied to experimental data: in vivo multielectrode array (MEA) local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the inferotemporal cortex of sheep.  

We tested whether PFC directly inhibits visual object representations in inferotemporal cortex (IT) during reversal learning by studying the effect, in macaque monkeys, of disconnecting PFC from IT by crossed unilateral ablations.  

Combined with previously reported impairments after uncinate fascicle transection, the interaction between frontal cortex and inferotemporal cortex is likely to be important in discrimination learning in background scenes because learning depends on associating the visual elements of a scene together with the appropriate choice object.  

We present a convolutional neural network (CNN) model of inferotemporal cortex (IT) and show that it is cardinality invariant.  

We tested their learning on the task following frontal-temporal disconnection, achieved by crossed unilateral aspiration of the frontal cortex in one hemisphere and the inferotemporal cortex in the other, and again following the addition of Fx.  

Surgical disconnection of the frontal cortex and inferotemporal cortex severely impairs many aspects of visual learning and memory, including learning of new object-in-place scene memory problems, a monkey model of episodic memory.  

Given that typical single units onset times in inferotemporal cortex (IT) are about as long as the shortest behavioural responses measured here, we conclude that visual processing involved in ultra rapid categorizations might be based on rather simple shape cue analysis that can be achieved in areas such as extrastriate cortical area V4.  

Representation of regular and irregular shapes in macaque inferotemporal cortex.  

We show that these properties are in good agreement with both psychophysical data and with the neurophysiology of the inferotemporal cortex in the monkey, a cortex area known to be specifically involved in classification tasks..  

Anterior inferotemporal cortex (aIT) contributes to the ability to discriminate and classify complex images.  

Physiological results for the size of face-specific units in inferotemporal cortex (IT) support an extraordinarily large range of possible sizes--from 2.5 degrees to 30 degrees or more.  

This computational feat involves a network of brain regions including the fusiform face area (FFA) and anterior inferotemporal cortex (aIT), whose roles in the process are not well understood.  

We constructed a module of prefrontal cortex neurons exposed to two different inputs, which we envision to originate from the inferotemporal cortex and the basal ganglia.  

We found that, during face categorization, face-selective inferotemporal cortex, lateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal striatum are more responsive to faces near the category boundary, which are most difficult to categorize.  

Although selectivity and tolerance are found at the highest level of the primate ventral visual stream [ the inferotemporal cortex (IT)], both properties are highly varied and poorly understood.  

In the present study, we investigated the extent to which bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the MDmc impair a preoperatively learnt strategy implementation task that is impaired by a crossed lesion technique that disconnects the frontal cortex in one hemisphere from the contralateral inferotemporal cortex.  

Although performing at matched levels, nmDYT1 mutation carriers overactivated the lateral cerebellum and the right inferotemporal cortex relative to age-matched controls (P < 0.001).  

Rhesus monkeys were preoperatively trained on two behavioral tasks, the performance of both of which is severely impaired by the disconnection of frontal cortex from inferotemporal cortex.  

The identification of direct anatomical connections with the inferotemporal cortex suggests that AIP also has a unique role in linking the parietofrontal network of areas involved in sensorimotor transformations for grasping with areas involved in object recognition.  

The reverse comparison yielded activations in the retrosplenial and the lateral anterior inferotemporal cortex.  

Visual object perception is thought to be mediated by a ventral processing stream running from occipital to inferotemporal cortex, whereas most spatial processing and action control is attributed to the dorsal stream connecting occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex.  

By training the animals to perform a two-alternative temporal forced-choice task, we obtained criterion-free thresholds from five visual areas--V1, V2, V3A, MT, and the inferotemporal cortex.  

Disconnection of the frontal lobe from the inferotemporal cortex produces deficits in a number of cognitive tasks that require the application of memory-dependent rules to visual stimuli. However, when disconnection from inferotemporal cortex was completed by ablating this region contralateral to the neurotoxic prefrontal lesion, new learning was substantially impaired.  

BOLD responses to these faces as compared to Fourier-phase-scrambled images revealed widespread activation of the superior temporal sulcus and inferotemporal cortex and included activity in the amygdala.  

Repetition priming might depend on repetition suppression, a phenomenon first observed in monkey inferotemporal cortex (IT) whereby, when a stimulus is repeated, the strength of the neuronal visual response is reduced.  

It had connections with high-order visual processing regions in the inferotemporal cortex and posterior parietal cortex, higher-order auditory and polymodal processing regions in the superior temporal cortex.  

'Spontaneous' and visually evoked action potentials were recorded from single neurons in cytoarchitectonic area 17 (striate cortex, area V1) of anaesthetized and immobilized cats, prior to, during and after brief reversible inactivation of the ipsilateral postero-temporal visual (PTV) cortex (presumed homologue of primate inferotemporal cortex).  

Our methods have been validated using both simulated spike data and recordings from sheep inferotemporal cortex..  

In the present study, we investigated whether the stimulus selectivity of neuronal responses in the monkey inferotemporal cortex, which is the final unimodal stage in the ventral visual pathway, changes with the varying levels of discrimination required for different task conditions. Our results suggest that representation of object images in the inferotemporal cortex is stable and rather insensitive to these kinds of shifts in behavioral context. Neuronal adaptations to behavioral context may occur downstream of the inferotemporal cortex..  

We compared shape encoding in anterior inferotemporal cortex (AIT), a high-level ventral area, with that in lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP), a high-level dorsal area, during a fixation task. We found shape selectivities of individual neurons to be greater in anterior inferotemporal cortex than in lateral intraparietal cortex.  

It was found that behavioral relevance reduces the latency in the inferotemporal cortex and it was concluded that behavioral significance accelerates information processing.  

In the primate brain, this depends on information processing in a multistage pathway running from primary visual cortex (V1), where cells encode local orientation and spatial frequency information, to the inferotemporal cortex (IT), where cells respond selectively to complex shapes.  

middle temporal mean = 26.9 ms) and inferotemporal cortex (IT mean = 43.4 ms vs.  

Many visually responsive neurons in the inferotemporal cortex of macaque monkeys respond selectively to faces, sometimes to only one or a few individuals, while showing little sensitivity to scale and other details of the retinal image. Here we show that face-responsive neurons in the macaque monkey anterior inferotemporal cortex are tuned to a fundamental dimension of face perception. Using a norm-based caricaturization framework previously developed for human psychophysics, we varied the identity information present in photo-realistic human faces, and found that neurons of the anterior inferotemporal cortex were most often tuned around the average, identity-ambiguous face. As such, these findings link the tuning of neurons in the inferotemporal cortex to psychological models of face identity perception..  

Regions of the left inferotemporal cortex are involved in visual word recognition and semantics. These results demonstrate an involvement of inferotemporal cortex in verbal working memory and provide neurophysiological support for the notion that nonphonological language representations can be recruited in the service of verbal working memory.  

Here we review the two cortical regions in which these mechanisms have been studied so far in macaques: a small subpart of inferotemporal cortex called TEs, and the caudal intraparietal (CIP) region.  

When considering multiple cognitive components simultaneously, object perception and the integrity of the inferotemporal cortex is important in the completion of functional abilities in general and IADLs in particular among AD patients..  

We also know that much later in the visual pathway, in inferotemporal cortex, cells respond to extremely complex visual patterns such as images of faces.  

After intravitreal injections, we were able to demonstrate transfer of Mn2+ into several subcortical and cortical areas, including the inferotemporal cortex.  

Because the recognition of written words appears to occur in a similar part of inferotemporal cortex as other visual objects, the complexity of written words may be similar to that of other visual objects for humans; for this reason, I measure the complexity of written words, and use it as an approximate estimate of the complexity more generally of visual objects.  

The model consists of multiple brain regions containing neuronal populations with realistic physiological and anatomical properties, including extrastriate visual cortical regions, the inferotemporal cortex, the PFC, the striatum, and midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons.  

We found that functional connectivity between the right hippocampus and a set of regions was disrupted in AD; these regions are: medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), right inferotemporal cortex, right cuneus extending into precuneus, left cuneus, right superior and middle temporal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC).  

Our results reveal an early transient activation of inferotemporal cortex, which was accompanied by the onset of a sustained activation of posterior parietal cortex. We propose that these neural signatures reflect the cognitive stages of task processing, perceptual evaluation (inferotemporal cortex), storage buffer operations (posterior parietal cortex), active retrieval (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), and action selection (medial frontal and premotor cortex).  

How does the brain synthesize low-level neural signals for simple shape parts into coherent representations of complete objects? Here, we present evidence for a dynamic process of object part integration in macaque posterior inferotemporal cortex (IT).  

We propose that rapid object-in-place learning requires the interaction of frontal cortex with inferotemporal cortex because visual object and contextual information which is captured over multiple saccades must be processed as a unique complex event that is extended in time.  

They mapped this distinction between vision-for-perception and vision-for-action onto the two prominent visual pathways that arise from early visual areas in the primate cerebral cortex: a ventral "perception" pathway projecting to inferotemporal cortex and a dorsal "action" pathway projecting to posterior parietal cortex.  

Crossed unilateral dopaminergic lesions of the nigrostriatal bundle and unilateral inferotemporal cortex ablations (DA x IT lesions) in marmoset monkeys produced impaired retention of object discriminations first learnt before, or after, the DA lesion but no impairment on new learning of the same type of task.  

We developed an algorithm that decodes categorical signals from the single-trial activity of a neuronal population in the monkey inferotemporal cortex. These results suggest that signals concerning global and fine categories as well as object identification can be decoded using the single-trial activity of a neuronal population in the inferotemporal cortex..  

However, whereas neuronal responses in monkey inferotemporal cortex (IT) can show robust tolerance to position and size changes, previous work shows that responses to preferred objects are usually reduced by the presence of nonpreferred objects.  

In this study, we provide information about the distribution of Zn in inferotemporal cortex, a region at the interface of the visual and hippocampal networks.  

We show here for the first time by way of a functional imaging technique that face- and object-selective neurons form spatially distinct clusters at the cellular level in monkey inferotemporal cortex.  

Some neurons in the inferotemporal cortex (IT) of the macaque monkey respond to visual stimuli by firing action potentials in a series of sharply defined bursts at a frequency of about 5 Hz.  

Monkeys with crossed unilateral lesions of the dorsomedial thalamus and contralateral ablations of the inferotemporal cortex were mildly impaired on acquisition and retention of visual conditional tasks requiring the integration of information about objects and their positions in space. This impairment pattern resembles, qualitatively, that found following crossed unilateral lesions of the anterior thalamus and the inferotemporal cortex or bilateral lesions of the anterior and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei. Although the flow of visual information from the inferotemporal cortex through the hippocampal-fornix-anterior thalamic circuit plays a major part in memory for objects in places, the flow of information between inferotemporal cortex and mediodorsal thalamus, possibly by means of the frontal cortex, also makes some contribution..  

the inferotemporal cortex, makes an important contribution to the perceptuo-mnemonic processes necessary for this type of learning.  

In contrast, pyramidal cells in inferotemporal cortex are quite variable among primate species.  

Wiener filter-MEG imaging for half field stimulation with the chromatic stimulus resolved fast, slow and late responses in V1, V4 and the inferotemporal cortex, respectively.  

The single-unit activity of 217 cells was recorded from the inferotemporal cortex (IT) of two awake macaque monkeys while they performed a fixation task.  

Similar studies indicate that the inferotemporal cortex does not mediate the learning of new categories.  

Age-related differences in activity were observed in the premotor cortex, putamen, hippocampus, inferotemporal cortex, and parietal cortex.  

In a second, event-related experiment, a distinct area of inferotemporal cortex was revealed during identification of familiar landmarks relative to unknown buildings in addition to activation of many of those regions identified in the navigation tasks.  

In the present study we carried out comparisons of dendritic structure of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and compared their structure with those sampled from inferotemporal cortex (IT) and the primary visual area (V1) in macaque monkeys.  

Object perception depends on shape processing in the ventral visual pathway, which in monkeys culminates in inferotemporal cortex (IT).  

Monkeys with crossed unilateral excitotoxic lesions of the anterior thalamus and unilateral inferotemporal cortex ablation were severely impaired at learning two tasks which required the integration of information about the appearance of objects and their positions in space. These results indicate that the whole of the inferotemporal cortex-anterior thalamic circuit, which passes via the hippocampus, fornix, mamillary bodies and mamillothalamic tract, is essential for the topographical analysis of information about specific objects in different positions in space.  

Our results suggest that distinct populations of neurons in human FG may be tuned to the features needed to individuate the members of different object classes, as has been reported in monkey inferotemporal cortex, and that the FFA contains neurons tuned for individuating faces..  

We illustrate how to use this method by analysing two different sets of data, recorded respectively in the temporal cortex of freely moving rats and in the inferotemporal cortex of behaving monkeys engaged in a visual fixation task.  

Compared to the control task, naming tools engaged left inferior and middle frontal gyri, bilateral parietal lobe, and posterior inferotemporal cortex.  

The macaque inferotemporal cortex, which is involved in encoding and retrieval of visual long-term memory, consists of two distinct but mutually interconnected areas: area TE (TE) and area 36 (A36).  

In this report, we further investigate the connections between anterior inferotemporal cortex (area TE) and CA1.  

These patterns, and those of earlier perceptual studies, can be explained by the distribution of different orientation tunings found in physiological studies of inferotemporal cortex in macaques..  

Similar treatment with guanfacine had no beneficial effect on visual discriminative learning, a task that involves the inferotemporal cortex.  

Although these mechanisms are poorly understood, it is thought that they elaborate neuronal representations in the inferotemporal cortex that are sensitive to object form but substantially invariant to other image variations.  

Parietal cortical areas have generally been considered as part of the dorsal stream and, as such, only indirectly connected with inferotemporal cortex.  

The model represents the role of other intra-parietal areas, working in concert with inferotemporal cortex and F5, to provide AIP with a full range of information from which affordances may be derived.  

The model consists of the left and right hemispheres, each of which has IT (inferotemporal cortex) and PC (prefrontal cortex) networks.  

Cells in the inferotemporal cortex (area TE) selectively respond to complex visual object features and those that respond to similar features cluster in a columnar region elongated vertical to the cortical surface. What are the functional roles of the column structure in the inferotemporal cortex? Selectivity of cells within a column is similar but not identical. The enormous number of objects present in nature can be efficiently described by combining outputs of the multiple differential amplifiers in the inferotemporal cortex.  

This work was designed to assess the effects of cholestasis and hepatic encephalopathy on argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region (Ag-NOR) activity in the hippocampus and inferotemporal cortex (INF).  

These results show that area V4 is an important step in shape and form processing along the ventral visual stream leading to the inferotemporal cortex..  

In addition, weaker labeling was found in the inferior and dorsal parietal cortex, and perirhinal and inferotemporal cortex.  

Permanent electrodes were implanted in anterior and posterior positions of both inferotemporal cortex (IT) and hippocampal formation (HF).  

Areas TE and TEO of the inferotemporal cortex, portions of the superior temporal gyrus, and the granular region of the insula project primarily to the lateral nucleus, with little or no innervation of other amygdaloid nuclei.  

The human cortical visual system is organized into major pathways: a dorsal stream projecting to the superior parietal lobe (SPL), considered to be critical for visuospatial perception or on-line control of visually guided movements, and a ventral stream leading to the inferotemporal cortex, mediating object perception.  

Removal of the orbital and ventral prefrontal cortex (PFv+o) in 1 hemisphere and inferotemporal cortex (IT) in the other, thus completing a surgical disconnection of these 2 regions, yielded an impairment on all 3 tasks.  

inferotemporal cortex (IT) provided nearly 7% of feedback connections, whereas the dorsomedial area (DM) contributed about 3%.  

This argues that it is the cholinergic projection to the inferotemporal cortex, rather than to the rest of the cortex, which contributes to visual discrimination learning and memory..  

The model is analogous to neural columns in both inferotemporal cortex in the macaque for achieving constancy in object recognition and in the inferior colliculus of the barn owl for resolving ambiguous phase disparities for sound localization.  

These characteristics appear to parallel those of cells in the high end of the visual form processing pathway (such as inferotemporal cortex).  

In higher areas, such as the inferotemporal cortex, translation-invariant, rotation-invariant, and even view point-invariant responses can be observed.  

Visual shape recognition in primates depends on a multi-stage pathway running from primary visual cortex (V1) to inferotemporal cortex (IT).  

Results from this first-pass computation are then sent back by feedback connections to areas V1 and V2 that act as 'active black-boards' for the rest of the visual cortical areas: information retroinjected from the parietal cortex is used to guide further processing of parvocellular and koniocellular information in the inferotemporal cortex..  

The short response latencies of face selective neurons in the inferotemporal cortex impose major constraints on models of visual processing.  

The scheme is extended by existing reports that inferotemporal cortex connects to the caudomedial pole of this axis-reflecting an occipitotemporal cortical gradient, in that V1 and other prestriate areas, e.g., V3, connect to the opposite pole.  

These changes were all categorical and were observed mainly in the right middle occipital gyrus, the right posterior fusiform gyrus, and the right inferotemporal cortex.  

To examine the neural mechanism for behavioral inhibition, we recorded single-cell activity in macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which is known to receive visual information directly from the inferotemporal cortex.  

Studies using PET and fMRI show that when subjects learn which actions are appropriate given the visual context, there are learning-related increases in the inferotemporal cortex and the ventral prefrontal cortex to which it projects. An event-related fMRI study shows that the activity in the inferotemporal cortex is time-locked to the presentation of the visual cue and the activity in the ventral prefrontal cortex to the response.  

We recorded from cells in the anterio-ventral (TEav) and anterio- dorsal (TEad) parts of area TE of the inferotemporal cortex and examined their responses to a set of 100 visual stimuli in awake, fixating monkeys.  

Because vocal responding is controlled by the inferotemporal cortex, that result shows that prime-target compatibility effects are not primarily mediated by the dorsal stream, but appear to reflect modality-unspecific visuomotor links that allow rapid activation of motor responses that may later be subject to inhibition..  

Cells in area TE of the inferotemporal cortex of the monkey brain selectively respond to various moderately complex object-features, and those responding to similar features cluster in a columnar region elongated vertical to the cortical surface.  

Labeled neurons were also found in other proposed extrastriate areas such as the dorsomedial visual area (DM), dorsointermediate area (DI), middle temporal crescent (MTc), medial superior temporal area (MST), ventral posterior parietal area (VPP), and caudal inferotemporal cortex (ITc), but these connections were more variable and less dependent on the retinotopic position of injection sites in V2.  

Saccadic reaction times (SRTs) were significantly prolonged in patients with temporo-parietal and prefrontal lesions, but were unaffected in the patients with lesions in the inferotemporal cortex.  

This type of neuron is found in the inferotemporal cortex of monkeys.  

The present study compared the effect on visual working memory of lesions restricted to the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the monkey with that of lesions to the anterior inferotemporal cortex, a region of the temporal cortex specialized for visual memory. Increasing the delay during which information had to be maintained in visual working memory impaired performance after lesions of the anterior inferotemporal cortex, but not after mid-dorsolateral prefrontal lesions.  

On the other hand neurons in the inferotemporal cortex respond to moderately complex features called icon alphabets, and such neurons respond invariantly to the stimulus position.  

This study used a novel approach to examine a much studied question, the nature of visual deficits caused by lesions of the inferotemporal cortex (IT).  

How are objects represented in the brain during natural behavior? Visual object recognition in primates is thought to depend on the inferotemporal cortex (IT).  

The inferotemporal cortex (area TE) of monkeys, a higher station of the visual information stream for object recognition, contains neurons selective for particular object features.  

We examined the connections between the anterior inferotemporal cortex and the superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the macaque monkey by injecting Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) or wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the dorsoanterior and ventroanterior subdivisions of TE (TEad and TEav, respectively) and observing the labeled terminals and cell bodies in STS.  

However, the impairment resulting from bilateral lesions of the basal nucleus plus the diagonal band, or from bilateral inferotemporal cortex ablations, is severe and persistent. Bilateral inferotemporal ablations deprive the hippocampus of much of its visual input by producing a discontinuity in cortico-cortical transmission, whereas basal nucleus lesions may merely prevent the modification of visually-derived information in the inferotemporal cortex without depriving the hippocampus of visual input. In the monkeys with crossed unilateral basal nucleus plus inferotemporal cortex lesions, the addition of a diagonal band lesion to the basal nucleus lesion produced an impairment on retention of visual discriminations and sustained the acquisition impairment. Further addition of an excitotoxic hippocampal lesion to the hemisphere with the inferotemporal cortex ablation did not add to the learning impairment. This supports the suggestion that the inferotemporal cortex ablation has deprived the hippocampus of its visual input.Overall, these experiments demonstrate that the cholinergic projections from the basal nucleus and diagonal band participate in the learning and memory functions of the temporal lobes..  

The organization of backward projections from the anterior part of the inferotemporal cortex (area TE) to the posterior part of the inferotemporal cortex (area TEO) was studied in the macaque monkey by using the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L).  

Form is confined within a stream that projects ventrally from V1 to the inferotemporal cortex, and motion within a stream that projects more dorsally, to the posterior parietal cortex [ 1] [ 2] [ 3] [ 4] [ 5] [ 6] [ 7].  

We speculate that the hallucinations of the present case were produced by the dysfunctions not only of the temporooccipital and temporoparietal regions but also of the posterior inferotemporal cortex which has strong interactions with amygdala and works as the visual memory center..  

This double dissociation provides clear evidence that, in humans as in other animals, reward-related learning (conditioned reward) critically depends on a circuit involving inferotemporal cortex and the ANC..  

Position sensitivity was also found among cells recorded from the inferotemporal cortex.  

The importance of medial occipitotemporal cortices bilaterally and right inferotemporal cortex likely reflects the critical role of the ability to quickly and accurately perceive and learn multiple topographical scenes.  

Visually responsive pattern-selective neurons in the inferotemporal cortex of macaque monkeys responded more similarly to members of a lateral mirror-image pair than to members of a vertical mirror-image pair.  

There was a progressive increase in size and complexity of dendritic trees with rostral progression from V1 and V2, through the "ventral stream," including the dorsolateral area (DL) and the caudal and rostral subdivisions of inferotemporal cortex (ITc and ITr, respectively). Neurones in MT and inferotemporal cortex had relatively high spine densities, with those in ITr having the highest spine density of all neurones studied.  

Area V4 is an important intermediate stage in this pathway, and provides the major input to the final stages in inferotemporal cortex.  

We describe a new hierarchical model consistent with physiological data from inferotemporal cortex that accounts for this complex visual task and makes testable predictions.  

Binocular rivalry experiments have shown that late stage visual processing associated with the recognition of a stimulus object is highly correlated with discharge rates in inferotemporal cortex.  

The results support previous reports of involvement of the right mesial temporal region in object-location memory tasks, and suggest that right inferotemporal cortex is involved in extracting the invariant relational features of a visual scene..  

Neuronal activities were recorded in areas TEO and TE of the inferotemporal cortex in four hemispheres of two monkeys during the performance of a visual pattern discrimination task.  

When monkeys perform a delayed match-to-sample task, some neurons in the anterior inferotemporal cortex show sustained activity following the presentation of specific visual stimuli, typically only those that are shown repeatedly. Thus, inferotemporal cortex may contain neural machinery for generating long-term stimulus-stimulus associations..  

In late 1988, Miyashita published work reporting recordings of single cells in the inferotemporal cortex of the macaque monkey (Miyashita 1988 Nature 335 817-20).  

No appreciable activity change was observed in the inferotemporal cortex (IT) following saccades.  

To investigate the functional organization in the monkey inferotemporal cortex, which is the last exclusively visual area along the ventral visual cortical pathway, optical imaging based on intrinsic signals was carried out.  

Using anesthetized and immobilized monkeys, this study investigated the representation of the visual field in the superior temporal sulcus in the posterior inferotemporal cortex. Of 1043 neurons in the posterior inferotemporal cortex including the sulcus and the gyrus, and surrounding areas that were tested, 540 (52%) responded to visual stimuli and their receptive fields were mapped. These findings suggest that the cortex in the sulcus in the posterior inferotemporal cortex is involved in the central vision, similarly to the cortex in the gyrus..  

Its properties are consistent with the response characteristics of the shape-tuned neurons in the inferotemporal cortex and may reveal the underlying dimensions of early shape encoding..  

Columnar organization has been described at the highest level of the ventral stream, inferotemporal cortex (IT, Saleem et al., 1993; Fujita & Fujita, 1996; Tanaka, 1996), but has not been well characterized at the higher levels of the dorsal stream.  

Here, distance-dependent changes in neural response were also found to be common in neurons in the ventral pathway leading to inferotemporal cortex of monkeys.  

The training effects on the stimulus selectivity of cells in area TE of the inferotemporal cortex were then examined in anesthetized preparations.  

Aberrant expression of cyclin D, cdk4, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and cyclin B1 were identified in the hippocampus, subiculum, locus coeruleus, and dorsal raphe nuclei, but not inferotemporal cortex or cerebellum of AD cases.  

Brain areas in midlevels of the processing hierarchy, including extrastriate visual cortex extending into inferotemporal cortex and left dorsal prefrontal cortex, showed reductions in the amount of activation after repetition.  

Using anesthetized and immobilized monkeys, responses of neurons in the posterior inferotemporal cortex to visual patterns were examined. These results suggest that the cortex in the sulcus in the posterior inferotemporal cortex is involved in the detection of features of visual patterns, similarly to the cortex in the gyrus..  

Visual evoked potentials were recorded in the amygdala, hippocampus, mid- and inferotemporal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and lateral frontal cortex of seven epileptic patients while they were engaged in a difficult task requiring the discrimination between repeated and nonrepeated faces.  

The model represents the role of other intraparietal areas working in concert with the inferotemporal cortex as well as with corollary discharge from F5 to provide and augment the affordance information in the AIP, and suggests how various constraints may resolve the action opportunities provided by multiple affordances.  

We studied whether target-directed, externally commanded saccadic eye movements (saccades) induced activity in single units in inferotemporal cortex, the hippocampal formation, and parahippocampal gyrus.  

It does not depend on visual stimulation: both auditory and tactile stimuli can trigger selective delay activity in inferotemporal cortex when animals expect to respond to visual stimuli in a DMS task. These results suggest that neurons in inferotemporal cortex contribute to abstract memory representations that can be activated by input from other sensory modalities, but these representations are specific to visual behaviors..  

The feature-based representations of object images in the inferotemporal cortex of macaque monkeys have been further characterized by optical imaging experiments. The human homologue of the monkey inferotemporal cortex has been identified through use of new non-invasive techniques..  

To demonstrate these properties and a methodology for measuring their values, we present a detailed account of the spike activity recorded from a single cell in the inferotemporal cortex of a monkey performing a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task of visual images.  

Furthermore, the strong link manifested between individual items across a varying number of intervening intervals and added items suggests that a phenomenon highly similar to the "stimulus specific adaptation" (SSA), displayed by units in macaque inferotemporal cortex, occurs for each item to be recognized.  

Recent studies from our laboratory have found substantial single unit activity, of extra-retinal origin, in medial temporal and inferotemporal cortex with each saccade (even in the dark).  

Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity was examined in vivo in two cortical areas of the adult monkey visual system, the primary visual and inferotemporal cortex, the first and late cortical stages essential for object recognition. In the inferotemporal cortex, long-term potentiation of extracellular field potentials in layer 2/3 was induced, whereas in the same pathway of V1, identical stimulation protocol elicited long-term depression.  

Patients with damage in the anterior inferotemporal cortex showed no overall impairment.  

After training with 12 pairs of pictures, we injected a grid of ibotenic acid unilaterally into the entorhinal and perirhinal cortex that provide massive backward projections ipsilaterally to the inferotemporal cortex.  

Single electrode recording in the inferotemporal cortex of monkeys during delayed visual memory tasks provide evidence for attractor dynamics in the observed region.  

Cells in area TE of the inferotemporal cortex of the monkey brain selectively respond to various moderately complex object features, and those that respond to similar features cluster in a columnar region elongated vertical to the cortical surface.  

The comparisons of scalp potential and current density mappings support the proposal that some neuronal networks are active both for faces and scrambled faces and are compatible with the involvement of the superior temporal sulcus, the inferotemporal cortex and the parahippocampal and fusiform gyri, whereas the processing negativity would only involve the deepest generators of this network.  

One of the cortical regions that is a source of input to the basal ganglia is area TE, in inferotemporal cortex.  

A robust stimulus-specific adaptation (i.e., a reduced response to a repeated image) was seen in the population of single units recorded from inferotemporal cortex during these same trials. Thus, stimulus-specific adaptation in inferotemporal cortex units is not required for recognition..  

To investigate the functional organization of object recognition, the technique of optical imaging was applied to the primate inferotemporal cortex, which is thought to be essential for object recognition.  

The ventral stream of projections from striate cortex to inferotemporal cortex is critical to the visual perception of objects and is intimately connected with the cognitive operations, while the dorsal stream projecting from striate cortex to the posterior parietal region is essential for the required visuomotor transformations for the on-line control of skilled actions directed at those objects.  

We also found a visual input for this area that is separate from the one going to the heart of inferotemporal cortex and suppressing this input also impairs performance of DMS.  

One is associated with the inferotemporal cortex and includes areas of the ventral bank and fundus of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), lateral FEF and ventral prestriate cortex.  

It is proposed that the posteroventral insula is involved in tactual feature analysis, by analogy with the similar role of the inferotemporal cortex in vision, whereas the perirhinal cortex is further involved in the integration of these features into long-lasting representations of somatosensory experiences..  

In most patients, stimulation of inferotemporal cortex at relatively low stimulus intensities (< or = 5 mA) during either ARN or VCN elicited reproducible errors in which patients could describe, gesture, spell, or draw, but not name, in response to auditory or visual cues.  

These cooling-induced deficits resemble those induced by cooling of the topologically equivalent inferotemporal cortex of monkeys and provides evidence that the equivalent regions contribute to visual processing in similar ways..  

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