Hyperstriatum Accessorium

Nicotine stimulated increases in c-fos mRNA in the hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum ventrale, nucleus accumbens, bulbus olfactorius, paleostriatum augmentatum, and stratum griseum et fibrosum superficiale. Acute chlorisondamine increased the level of c-fos mRNA in the cerebellum, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, locus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, tectum opticum, paleostriatum augmentatum, and stratum griseum et fibrosum superficiale but had no effect on its own 24 hr after administration.  

The sectors of the hyperstriatum composing the Wulst (i.e., the hyperstriatum accessorium intermedium, and dorsale), the hyperstriatum ventrale, the neostriatum, and the archistriatum have been renamed (respectively) the hyperpallium (hypertrophied pallium), the mesopallium (middle pallium), the nidopallium (nest pallium), and the arcopallium (arched pallium).  

The avian telencephalon has two visual areas, (1) a 'Wulst' that consists of hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum intercalatus superior and hyperstriatum dorsale, and (2) the ectostriatum.  

Two of the forebrain areas highly active during first courtship (as demonstrated by the 14C-2-deoxyglucose technique), the imprinting locus latral neo/hyperstriatum ventrale (LNH) and the secondary visual area hyperstriatum accessorium/dorsale (HAD), demonstrate enhanced fos expression.  

All four species showed a similar distribution of SP throughout the brain with the exception of two areas, the hippocampal complex (including hippocampus (Hp) and parahippocampus (APH)) and the Wulst (including the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA)).  

The expression was also localized in the septum, the hyperstriatum accessorium, and the ventral portions of the archistriatum in the telencephalon.  

Other sources of input to the HVo surround include the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA), the supralaminar area of the frontal neostriatum (NAs), the ventral anterior archistriatum (AAv), the medial archistriatum (Am) and the medial HV.  

DARPP-32-ir cells were also observed in telencephalic and mesencephalic areas (hyperstriatum accessorium, paleostriatum, nucleus intercollicularis, optic tectum).  

The brain regions analysed were the left and right IMHV and the left and right hyperstriatum accessorium (HA), a visual projection area.  

Depletion of testosterone by castration or application of cyproterone acetate leads to a decrease in spine density in secondary sensory areas like lateral neo- and hyperstriatum and hyperstriatum accessorium and dorsale, or in associative areas such as the caudal archi- and neostriatum.  

The telencephalic areas where the most intense signals for PACAP mRNA were found included the hyperstriatum accessorium, the hippocampus, and the archistriatum.  

In the forebrain GRP-immunoreactive (GRP-ir) cells were found in the hyperstriatum accessorium, medial and lateral parts of the neostriatum, corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporoparieto-occipitalis areas, hippocampus, pre- and parahippocampal areas and prepiriform cortex.  

These are the hyperstriatum accessorium/dorsale (HAD), the archi-neostriatum caudale (ANC), the medial neo/hyperstriatum (MNH) and the lateral neo/hyperstriatum (LNH).  

An avian "pyramidal tract" was defined in zebra finches and green finches by making injections of neuronal tracers into the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) of the rostral Wulst.  

We have previously shown that the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) of the rostral wulst in zebra finches and green finches is the origin of a pyramidal-like tract with substantial projections to the brainstem and cervical spinal cord.  

Intense gastrin releasing peptide (GRP)-immunoreactivity was found in the neuropil of LPO, the ventral paleostriatum and the caudal archistriatum; further GRP-immunoreactive varicosities were found in the neostriatum and the hyperstriatum ventrale - particularly in its medial part - whereas GRP-immunoreactive cells occurred in the medial neostriatum, the hyperstriatum accessorium and the ventral archistriatum.  

caeruleus, quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to localize NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate)-sensitive [ 3H]glutamate, [ 3H]MK801, and [ 3H]AMPA binding sites, in six regions of the forebrain: hippocampus and parahippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium (vision) and ventrale (sensory integration), neostriatum (auditory), and lobus parolfactorius (basal ganglia).  

Tissue was removed, 9.5 hr or 24 hr after training, from the left and right IMHV, hyperstriatum accessorium, and posterior neostriatum. There were no learning-related effects in either the hyperstriatum accessorium or the posterior neostriatum..  

Tissue was removed from the left and right IMHV, hyperstriatum accessorium and posterior neostriatum 9.5 h or 24 h after training.  

DIVA projects to the ipsilateral rostral Wulst where it terminates in the intercalated hyperstriatum accessorium, in a distinct, regular patchy fashion.  

A detailed analysis of the binding capacity for [ 125I]CLO was performed for parts of several functional systems: hypothalamic structures (nucleus inferior hypothalami, nucleus magnocellularis preopticus, nucleus paraventricularis), limbic system (habenula, nucleus septalis lateralis, nucleus striae terminalis), circumventricular organs (organum pineale, organum subfornicale, plexus choroidei ventriculi tertii and ventriculi lateralis), visual system (hyperstriatum accessorium, nucleus reticularis superior, tectum opticum), and associative cortex (hyperstriatum ventrale).  

Only the secondary visual areas also show effects of rearing conditions on the spine density: isolation of the birds from day 40 reduces spine density in the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) of the thalamofugal pathway, and enhances spine density in the lateral neo/hyperstriatum (LNH, tectofugal pathway) significantly from day 80, if compared to aviary-reared birds.  

NCL receives telencephalic projections from the hyperstriatum accessorium, cells along the border of hyperstriatum dorsale and hyperstriatum ventrale, anterolateral hyperstriatum adjacent to the vallecula, confined cell groups within the anterior neostriatum, and subdivisions of the archistriatum.  

In addition, lectin-containing fibres continued in the dorsal septal region and a thin band in the hyperstriatum accessorium, adjacent to the lateral ventricle.  

We studied the ultrastructural morphology of corticostriatal projections from two different avian 'neocortical' regions, namely, the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) and the pallium externum (PE).  

The hippocampus, parahippocampal area, and hyperstriatum accessorium contained cells expressing moderate amounts of aromatase message.  

In particular, efferent pathways from the granular layer (Intercalated nucleus of the hyperstriatum accessorium, IHA), supragranular layer (hyperstriatum accessorium, HA), and infragranular layers (hyperstriatum intercalatus superior and/or hyperstriatum dorsale, HIS/HD) were investigated.  

Clusters of immunoreactive cell bodies were also detected in the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA), the ventral portions of both the archistriatum and the corticoid area, the preoptic area (POA), the anterior hypothalamus (AHy) and the dorsolateral thalamus (DL).  

Such "limbic" pallial areas also project to medialmost LPO and lateralmost PA, while the hyperstriatum accessorium portion of the Wulst, the PE, and the dorsal parts of the archistriatum were found to project primarily to the remainder of LPO (the lateral two-thirds) and PA (the medial four-fifths).  

In the hyperstriatum accessorium, significantly fewer immunopositive nuclei were counted in good learners than in poor learners or in dark-reared chicks.  

Specific labeling densities were associated with avian equivalents of the mammalian pyramidal system (hyperstriatum accessorium; archistriatum intermedium and tractus occipitomesencephalicus) and extrapyramidal system (paleostriatum augmentatum, paleostriatum primitivum and lobus parolfactorius), as well as several limbic structures (hippocampal formation, nucleus taeniae and the caudal part of the archistriatum).  

Distinct populations of labeled cells were also detected in the hyperstriatum accessorium, hippocampus, area parahippocampalis, nucleus of the diagonal band, cortex dorsolateralis, and cortex piriformis.  

In the E19 groups metabolic activity in visual regions of the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) was significantly higher than that in the hyperstriatum dorsale (HD), the region which receives the thalamofugal visual projections.  

Other areas of prominent binding were the superficial layers of optic tectum, one of the isthmic nuclei, the hippocampus, the hyperstriatum accessorium and the archistriatum ventrale.  

It was possible to localize these changes in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity into forebrain structures contained within the dorsal ventricular ridge comprising the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA), hyperstriatum ventrale (HV), hyperstriatum dorsale (HD), and parts of neostriatum (N).  

L1 and L3 project predominantly to the dorsal neostriatum (Nd) caudolateral to Field L, and have fewer projections to the caudomedial paleostriatum and anterior hyperstriatum accessorium.  

Intensely stained neurons and fibers were found in most parts of the telencephalon, in particular in the neostriatum, paleostriatum augmentatum, olfactory tubercle, lobus parolfactorius, hyperstriatum accessorium, and hyperstriatum ventrale.  

The only exceptions were the hyperstriatum intercalatus superior, a small medial area in the hyperstriatum accessorium and in the dorsolateral cortex, and the dorsomedial part of the hippocampal complex, which were virtually devoid of staining.  

In 2 experiments we explored the effects of lateral versus medial laminar lesions of the hyperstriatum in pigeons (Columba livia); medical lesions were largely confined to the hyperstriatum accessorium, and lateral lesions to the hyperstriatum dorsale and hyperstriatum ventrale.  

isthmi parvocellularis (Ipc) and the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) subdivision of the telencephalic visual Wulst.  

The results show that a sparse and diffuse projection to the red nucleus arises from deep regions of the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) of the anterior Wulst, and that a much more dense projection arises from the caudal part of the nucleus principalis precommissuralis and the medial part of the medial spiriform nucleus (SpMm).  

Injection of approximately 0.2 nmol D-AP5 into the left IMHV, or of approximately 0.7 nmol D-AP5 into the left hyperstriatum accessorium, was without significant effect on imprinting.  

No such effects were found in a visual projection area, the left hyperstriatum accessorium. In the left IMHV 18 out of a total of 115 recording sites (16%) responded significantly to the stimuli; in the left hyperstriatum accessorium 39 out of 126 recording sites (26%) did so. No significant effects were found in the left hyperstriatum accessorium.  

Here we have investigated whether the demands of varying visual environments will increase the activity of the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) in 2-day-olds.  

Since the asymmetry of the thalamo-hyperstriatal system results in a differential input of fibres to regions of the hyperstriatum which in turn project to the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA), one of the major differences expected within this region would be an asymmetry in the numerical density of synapses (Nv.syn/microns3). When this was examined in the hyperstriatum accessorium of 2-day-old male chicks, the density of synapses in the right HA was found to be significantly higher (22%, P less than 0.05) than in the left HA.  

Somatosensory neurons are distributed in the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA), the hyperstriatum intercalatus superior (HIS) and the hyperstraitum dorsal (HD), mainly in HA.  

A single microelectrode penetration was made through the left IMHV simultaneously with a single penetration through the right IMHV; a single penetration was also made through a visual projection area, the left hyperstriatum accessorium. Spontaneous activity in the right IMHV changed in respect of activity in the left IMHV with time after training; no such effects were found in the left hyperstriatum accessorium..  

Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. A qualitatively good matching was found in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, hyperstriatum dorsale, hyperstriatum accessorium, nucleus septi lateralis, nuclei dorsomedialis and dorsolateralis thalami, and in some hypothalamic areas.  

In the forebrain there was a high level of binding of mu and kappa ligands in the hyperstriatum, and for the mu ligand there was a very distinct lamination of binding sites in hyperstriatum accessorium, intercalatum supremum, dorsale and ventrale.  

The superficial layer of the wulst, the hyperstriatum accessorium, contained the highest densities of TH-, 5-HT-, SP-, NPY-, SRIF-, CRF-, and VIP-positive neuropil in the wulst, whereas the highest density of CCK- and NT-staining was found in the deepest layer of the wulst, the hyperstriatum dorsale.  

The telencephalic target of the thalamofugal visual pathway in birds, the visual wulst, is part of the hyperstriatum accessorium/dorsale in the bird's brain. Contralateral visual information arrives in the hyperstriatum dorsale (HD) and is processed further to the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA).  

The [ K+] found in CSF was 3.79 +/- 0.57 (n = 8), in the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) 3.70 +/- 0.32 (n = 13) and in the neostriatum (N) 3.51 +/- 0.32 (n = 13; mmol/l; mean +/- SEM).  

Two areas of the forebrain were investigated, the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) and the intermediate part of the medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV).  

Telencephalic afferents of the DLP came from the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) and a group of cells at the borderline between the hyperstriatum intercalatus superior (HIS) and the hyperstriatum dorsale (HD).  

Medial lesions damage primarily the hyperstriatum accessorium and lateral lesions, the hyperstriatum ventrale; but no significant correlations between the extent of damage to either of these structures and severity of behavioural disruption were obtained.  

In the chick forebrain, the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA), receives an orderly ascending projection from the dorsolateral thalamus, a primary visual centre.  

A multiple regression analysis indicated that those components of the Wulst that were critical for increasing the numbers of errors on each reversal were the laminae that receive the thalamofugal visual projections, that is, the nucleus intercalatus of the hyperstriatum accessorium and the hyperstriatum dorsale. Lesions in the other laminae of the Wulst (the hyperstriatum accessorium and the hyperstriatum intercalatus superior) had no effect on errors.  

Intermediate levels were found throughout the paleostriatal regions, septum, thalamus, archistriatum, hyperstriatum accessorium and area parahippocampalis whilst in hippocampus and ectostriatum the density of [ 3H]naloxone binding sites was low.  

One somatosensory area is located rostrally in the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA), rostral to the visual "Wulst".  

The major structures labelled only by [ 125I]-alpha bungarotoxin binding included hyperstriatum accessorium and the nuclei: preopticus medialis, medialis hypothalami posterioris, semilunaris, olivarius inferior, and the periventricular organ.  

These areas, the hyperstriatum accessorium-dorsale (HAD), a part of the medial neo-hyperstriatum (MNH), the lateral neo-hyperstriatum (LNH), and a portion of the caudal archi-neostriatum (ANC), show enhanced 2-[ 14C]deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake according to the experimental situation.  

unfixed tissue of 14 brain structures were determined (telencephalon, diencephalon, nervus opticus, tectum, cerebellum, tegmentum and hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum ventrale, neostriatum, paleostriatum, hippocampus, septum, regio praepiriformis, bulbus olfactorius).  

The physiological recordings generally confirmed the findings of Delius and Bennetto (Brain Research, 37 (1972) 205-221) of somatosensory sites within the dorsal thalamus, anterior hyperstriatum and caudomedial neostriatum, and the anatomical results show that the thalamic cells of origin of the projections to the two telencephalic regions are largely separate: a rostral cell group comprising nucleus dorsalis intermedius ventralis anterior projects to the anterior hyperstriatum accessorium (HA), whilst a caudal cell group comprising caudal regions of nucleus dorsolateralis posterior (DLP) projects to the medial neostriatum intermedium and caudale (NI/NC).  

The undifferentiated spontaneous multi-unit activity recorded bilaterally from anaesthetized chicks 1-13 h after training on the above task exhibited a significant increase in the methylanthranilate-trained over water-control chicks within three structures of the right hemisphere: the hyperstriatum accessorium (47%, P less than 0.05), the medial hyperstriatum ventrale (49.1%, P less than 0.02) and the medial portion of the paleostriatum augmentatum (47.5%, P less than 0.02). The statistically significant increase in activity within the right hyperstriatum accessorium and medial paleostriatum augmentatum and the non-significant increase in these structures in the left hemisphere was produced almost entirely by tonic spiking.  

The efferent projections of the pigeon visual Wulst upon the diencephalon and mesencephalon were investigated using the autoradiographic technique following the combined injection of [ 3H] proline and [ 3H] leucine into the rostral hyperstriatum accessorium.  

Moderate to high levels of NT binding were observed within the archistriatum, neostriatum intermedium, and hyperstriatum accessorium.  

3 and 4, but not in 1 and 2: part of the neostriatum intermedium; part of the lateral neostriatum, both with adjacent parts of the hyperstriatum ventrale, hyperstriatum accessorium and hyperstriatum dorsale, a portion of the caudal neo/archistriatum.  

Large portions of the telencephalon including the hyperstriatum accessorium, most of the hyperstriatum ventrale, much of the archistriatum, and much of the neostriatum do not receive projections from AVT or TPc neurons.  

Large portions of the cerebral hemispheres including the hyperstriatum accessorium, much of the neostriatum and hyperstriatum ventrale, and all but the dorsal portion of the archistriatum receive little or no input from either the locus coeruleus or subcoeruleus cell groups.  

In addition to identified intrinsic connections within Hp and APH, both Hp and APH were found to be in receipt of ipsilateral forebrain afferents from each other, the hyperstriatum accessorium, nucleus of the diagonal band, nucleus taeniae, and area corticoidea dorsolateralis.  

Increased 2-deoxyglucose incorporation were found in 3 rostral forebrain areas of separated chicks, namely the hyperstriatum accessorium/hyperstriatum dorsale, the lateral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale and the medial neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale.  

Samples from the hyperstriatum accessorium and IMHV of the right and left sides were analyzed.  

The hyperstriatum ventrale is a region known to be involved in the learning process of imprinting, and hyperstriatum accessorium is a primary telencephalic visual projection area. In contrast, hyperstriatum accessorium showed a greater degree of stability.  

The effects of visual experience on neuronal responsiveness in the hyperstriatum accessorium, a visual projection area, were investigated in 4 groups of domestic chicks, each comprising dark-reared (total = 44) and visually experienced (total = 34) birds. In some chicks at least one site responding briskly to greater than or equal to 15 successive flashes was found deep to the hyperstriatum accessorium. The effect of visual experience on the response of units in the hyperstriatum accessorium varied between the groups of chicks. Thus visual experience alone was not adequate consistently to bring about long-term changes in the responsiveness of neurones in the hyperstriatum accessorium.  

The mean firing rate from greater than or equal to 3 sites was calculated for IMHV and for the hyperstriatum accessorium of the Wulst. The effect was: stimulus specific since it was not found in chicks trained on the jungle fowl; and regionally specific since approach activity, depending on conditions which are described, was either not correlated or positively correlated with mean firing rate for neurons in the hyperstriatum accessorium. The positive correlation was not dependent on the training stimulus but on the presence of a visually responsive lamina deep to the hyperstriatum accessorium..  

The projections were found to arise from the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) of the Wulst, were essentially ipsilateral and topographically organized with respect to the dorsoventral and lateromedial plane of HA.  

Following horseradish peroxidase injections into the pigeon tractus septomesencephalicus, the efferent outflow bundle of the avian Wulst, retrogradely labeled neurons within the Wulst were confined to the superficialmost layer, the hyperstriatum accessorium. These results suggest that the hyperstriatum accessorium is the sole source of Wulst efferent projections.  

After lesions of the DLL, degenerating terminals are seen in a dorsolateral portion of the nucleus intercalatus hyperstriatum accessorium where the types II, III, and IV neurons are distributed.  

The chicks were then anaesthetised and a lesion placed in (i) the left IMHV (N = 12 chicks), (ii) the right IMHV (N = 12), (iii) the left hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) (N = 12) or (iv) the right HA (N = 12).  

Nuclei projecting to the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA) or the HIS region (lamina hyperstriatica intercalatus superior) were: (1) ipsilaterally the n.  

After exposure, chicks were anaesthetized and two vertical electrode penetrations were made, one through the visual projection area, hyperstriatum accessorium (HA), and one through the intermediate and medial part of hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV), a region which has been implicated in the imprinting process.  

Each telencephalic structure (based on terminology used by Karten and Hodos, '67) was characterized by a specific range of birthdates: some regions such as the core of the ectostriatum or the paleostriatum primitivum, were generated within a single day, while others, such as the hyperstriatum accessorium, required up to five days for generation of the complete population.  

In contrast muscarinic receptor sites, with an affinity for [ 3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), are present in relatively high concentration in a medial forebrain sample containing IMHV and also in a visual projection area, the hyperstriatum accessorium (HA).  

Labelled neurons were observed bilaterally in part of the visual Wulst (hyperstriatum accessorium and Hyperstriatum intercalatum superior) following unilateral injection of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase into the Tectum opticum of pigeons. Horseradish peroxidase positive fibres running through the Tractus septomensencephalicus and ending bilaterally in the Tectum opticum were found following injection of the enzyme into hyperstriatum accessorium.  

Following either extensive or restricted injections of the enzyme into different regions of the latter, differential bilateral or unilateral projections onto the Wulst (hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum intercalatus superior, hyperstriatum dorsale) were demonstrated from the dorsal thalami complex (nucleus dorsolateralis anterior thalami, pars lateralis).  

Structures identified as annulate lamellae, lamellar bodies and subsurface cisternae were found in neurons of the hyperstriatum accessorium of the avian forebrain.  

The brains of the swift Streptoprocne zonaris, the flycatcher Tyrannus melancholicus, the tanager Ramphocelus dimidiatus and the finch Oryzoborus angolensis were compared with respect to the hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, hyperstriatum ventrale, neostriatum, ectostriatum, paleostriatum augmentatum and paleostriatum primitivum.  

This initial loss was correlated with the extent of damage to three components of the visual Wulst: nucleus intercalatus hyperstriati accessorii, hyperstriatum intercalatus suprema, and hyperstriatum accessorium.  

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