Frontal Region

The spread of the epileptic activity to the "healthy" frontal region was the cause of the reversible frontal syndrome.  

BACKGROUND: Modified CIT (mCIT) was performed in a stroke patient with a lesion in the left medial frontal region including the supplementary motor area (SMA), which is part of the higher-motor area, and whose primary symptom was motor ignition difficulty observed at the start of voluntary movement of the right leg.  

The PET analysis focused at prefrontal regions where group differences in task-related activation patterns were expected. During dual task performance, the patients showed attenuated activity in the left inferior frontal region when compared to the controls.  

In 38 (79%) patients, they were localized over the frontal region.  

Previous results revealed a frequency- and region specificity of this effect, suggesting that only fast, but not slow spindle-related oscillatory activity over the frontal region correlated with cognitive performance.  

A 24-day-old female Holstein calf had a soft, painless fluctuating swelling on the median plane in the frontal region, but did not show any clinical symptoms including neurological signs.  

CASE OUTLINE: The case described is one of a 43-year-old patient with purulent frontal sinusitis developing into osteomyelitis of the anterior wall of the right frontal sinus, accompanied by the exteriorisation of the process into the frontal region soft tissues.  

In patients with leptomeningeal collateral flow, the trailing edge was longer in the anterior frontal region (2436 +/- 275 versus 1648 +/- 201 ms, P = .03) and shorter in the occipital region (1815 +/- 128 versus 2388 +/- 203 ms, P = .04), compared with patients without leptomeningeal collaterals.  

Left-sided and not right-sided atrophy in the medial middle frontal region distinguished the bvFTD group from controls.  

Skull X-ray films show intracranial air in the frontal region and in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th ventricles, reminiscent of an pneumoencephalogram. Computed tomography (CT) of the head shows air in the right frontal region and lateral ventricles.  

Parosteal lipoma of the head and neck is very rare, and there is no reported case of parosteal lipoma in the frontal region. Here, we present the first case of parosteal lipoma in the frontal region..  

Average air temperature differed 2.3 degrees C between lateral and frontal region at high effort level and 2.7 degrees C at low effort level.  

It was discovered in a 29-year-old female who complained of a painful swelling in the right frontal region.  

Six intra-oral measurement points were used: left side region, right side region and frontal region, for upper and lower jaw, respectively. Assessment of intra-oral UTV showed significantly higher values both for mandibular side regions (female 1713 +/- 153 m/s, male 1734 +/- 221 m/s) and the maxillary frontal region (female 1665 +/- 189 m/s, male 1648 +/- 82 m/s) than for maxillary side regions (female 1538 +/- 177 m/s, male 1583 +/- 90 m/s).  

These results suggest that activity in the inferior frontal region is causally related to artificial syntax processing..  

Comparison between modalities showed similar frontal region activations for 17/20 S1 responses and for 13/20 S2 responses.  

Eleven interictal epileptiform spikes (seven from the frontal region and four from parietal region) in an epilepsy patient undergoing surgical evaluation were analyzed.  

The present findings demonstrate that at Day 7, cannabis users continued to display increased blood volumes in the right frontal region, the left and right temporal regions, and the cerebellum.  

Eruption failures in the maxillary frontal region occur during the mixed dentition period.  

To determine the basic word order in Japanese, oxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the frontal region of 32 healthy men were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy.  

RESULTS: Patients with OCD demonstrated significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in a large region of right inferior parietal white matter and significantly increased fractional anisotropy in a right medial frontal region. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that OCD is associated with white matter abnormalities in parietal and frontal regions.  

Imaging revealed a tumor located in the left frontal region with a broad attachment suggesting meningioma in the convexity dura mater.  

We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with sickle cell disease who presented to the emergency room after being hit by a mud pie in the left frontal region.  

The SPM(t) of the ERPs showed significant effects in the middle frontal region and most areas of the parietal lobe (about 200 ms), the bilateral prefrontal and frontal regions (260 approximately 320 ms), and the left occipital region (500 approximately 580 ms). CONCLUSION: Retention of semantics-location relation involves more brain regions than that of color-location relation, and the largest effect occurs in the frontal region..  

CASE REPORT: We presented a case of 32 year-old-woman with headaches, located in the orbital and the left frontal region.  

However, the analysis of ERP waveforms revealed a larger negative wave peaking at about 170ms over the left than the right hemisphere only in controls; a negative displacement (N450) at parietal sites for positive and negative words only for persons with MDD; in both groups, processing negative and positive words was associated with a positive displacement that peaked at about 450ms and was larger over the left lateral frontal region; and, the N450 modulation correlated with negative automatic thinking and depressive symptoms.  

In three children, who successfully completed the auditory-language task, high-frequency gamma-augmentation sequentially involved: i) the posterior superior temporal gyrus when listening to the question, ii) the posterior lateral temporal region and the posterior frontal region in the time interval between question completion and the patient's vocalization, and iii) the pre- and post-central gyri immediately preceding and during the patient's vocalization.  

A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal region.  

Six patients had their foreheads reconstructed after the excision of neglected tumours in the frontal region.  

The patient was operated on at a peripheral center for swelling in the right frontal region.  

Both groups showed significant positive correlations of the NoGo-microstate duration with the white matter signal in the superior frontal region, the optic radiation, the posterior cingulate, and the inferolateral fascicle.  

Attention skills were negatively correlated to ADC in LWM and NAWM in frontal regions and with frontal region visual scale scores.  

Sinusitis is one of the most relevant causes of epidural abscesses, mostly in the frontal region.  

Interhemispherically, delta and theta coherences were low across the frontal region.  

The regression model predicting disability selected GM mean MTR of the right medial inferior frontal region (P = .031).CONCLUSIONS:The study results showed that this regional MTR approach is reproducible, reliable and clinically relevant.  

The [ HbO2] and [ HHb] signals measured over the frontal region were found to have a varying association with the MBP signal across different volunteers.  

The accuracy of the approach-to-target responses declined as the stimulus duration was reduced, particularly for lateral and posterior locations, although responses to sounds presented in the frontal region of space and directly behind the animal remained quite accurate.  

Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed intraparenchymal hemorrhage in the left posterior frontal region with a blood-fluid level.  

RESULTS: In part 1 of the study, the statistically significant localizing semiology for the mesial frontal region in the early phase was ictal body turning along the horizontal axis (57% of patients), crawling (57% of patients), restlessness (64.3% of patients), facial expressions of anxiety (42.9% of patients) and fear (35.7% of patients), grimacing produced by bilateral facial contraction (42.9% of patients), barking (32.1% of patients), head shaking (25% of patients), and pelvic raising (25% of patients) (all P< .001).  

High-resolution computed tomography of the frontal region in multiple planes is essential for predicting the degree of frontal injury, associated injuries, and the type of procedure indicated.  

Eight months later he developed a new-onset seizure disorder, which was localized by electroencephalography to the right frontal region.  

CT scan revealed a hyperdense subdural lesion at the right frontal region following head injury.  

Ventral frontal region and parietal lobe activation were greater in the right hemisphere.  

RESULTS: The principal finding was an underadditive effect of FH plus HIV/AIDS on P300 area over the frontal region: FH reduced frontal scalp P300 to such a degree that the additional effects of HIV/AIDS were blunted.  

When exposing skins under the sun or to electric bulbs in a cold room, temperature increases were significantly higher in the black ear tufts than in the frontal region of the head, suggesting that the melanized ear patch of G.  

An area of subependymal nodular heterotopia in the right frontal region was detected.  

Radiography revealed a radiolucent osteolytic lesion in the right frontal region.  

Activation in the left frontal region was also observed for the perception of pitch pattern change within the words.  

Reduced lateralization in the IFG was due to decreased activity in the left frontal region rather than to increased activity in the right frontal region.  

The IhC and SAC values were lowest in the frontal region, consistent with the main pathological involvement in the anterior two-thirds of the corpus callosum and early involvement of frontal cortex.  

CSD was evoked on the right frontal region and monitored at two parietal points on the same hemisphere.  

Intracranial electrocorticography captured spontaneous and electrically induced seizures with onset in the left inferior frontal region, which was resected.  

Good agreement was found between the two modalities, both showing higher activation in the middle upper frontal region and similar temporal trend.  

We report a patient affected by this disease who at the age of 20 years developed a bone tumour involving the right frontal region of the calvaria.  

The sites of the subcutaneous masses were bilateral posterior auricular regions in two cases, frontal region in two cases, temporal region in two cases, head region in one case, parotid region in two cases, parotid and temporal regions in one case, and left earlobe in one case.  

Extensive and symmetric activation and deactivation areas were assessed in bilateral hemispheric regions respectively, and these signals decreased gradually from the parieto-occipital region to the frontal region. Activations were found in cuneus, insulae, mesial midfrontal region, midline and bilateral cerebellum and thalamus, while the deactivities were in the bilateral anterior frontal region and parietal region as well as the posterior cingulate gyri.  

A 47-year-old woman presented with throbbing headache in her right frontal region followed by right trochlear nerve palsy.  

The first analysis of the frontal region compared electrodes in the left, right and left/right hemispheres combined, with the frontal midline electrode (FZ) included in the analysis.  

Furthermore, results showed an unexpected high frequency of EEG abnormalities in children with depressive symptoms (75%) characterized by sharp waves and polyspikes in the frontal region.  

The cutaneous lesions involved the left frontal region, ipsilateral to the cerebral hemisphere with cortical dysplasia, in all of the patients.  

Fronto-orbital advancement was the most commonly performed procedure, and 83.3 percent of late cephalohematomas occurred in the frontal region.  

Most data came from the frontal region, and reported "no change" in older subjects; however, a meta-analysis revealed a decrease in frontal NAA (p=0.05) and increases in parietal choline (p=0.003) and creatine (p<0.001).  

A region of stable cortical glucose hypermetabolism in the left frontal region was noted with 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET. This was consistent with the frequent interictal discharges evident over the left fronto-temporal region and the stereotypic high amplitude ictal discharges arising with highest amplitude from the left frontal region.  

Neuroimaging and neuropsychological data indicate that the frontal regions are implicated in semantic organizational strategies in verbal learning. Finally, the right frontal region appears to play an important role in the self-initiation of semantic organizational strategies..  

Overall, the findings are interpreted to support a cerebral model of frontal region capacity limitation for regulation of vestibular stress that is independent of psychosocial mechanisms..  

BACKGROUND: Defects of the frontal region are mostly caused by the ablation of tumors.  

Peak intensities of the main metabolites were expressed as ratios of one another and were compared with values obtained in the white matter of the left frontal region in a control group of 16 healthy volunteers.  

Interactions between age and schizophrenia status on total creatine and choline-containing compounds were observed; only schizophrenia participants showed age-related decreases of these metabolites in the right frontal region.  

Neuroimaging studies demonstrated a diffuse supratentorial hypomyelination, with in some patients, additional areas of more prominent signal change in the frontal region.  

Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed dilatation of the lateral and third ventricles with cavum septi pellucidi et vergae and generalized polymicrogyria, most prominent in both perisylvian regions and the right frontal region.  

We found the pattern of overall frontal EEG power was linearly related to affective intensity of the ID speech, such that EEG power was greatest in response to fear, than surprise than love/comfort; this linear pattern was specific to the frontal region.  

Bromophenol blue allowed the distinction of haemocytes and detection of a glycoprotein secretion in the secretory cells of the frontal region.  

The present study investigated oxygenated ([ oxy-Hb]) and deoxygenated ([ deoxy-Hb]) hemoglobin concentration changes during the performance of a word fluency task in the frontal region of five drug-naive patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia and in 33 age-, sex-, and task performance-matched healthy volunteers by using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).  

Five techniques are presented, reflecting a transition from mere reshaping with metallic fixation to the increased use of primary bone grafting and resorbable fixation to expand the frontal region.  

On SPECT, hypoperfusion was seen in the left frontal region, the left parieto-temporal region, and the right frontal region to a lesser extent.  

Compared with ADHD children with ODD, there were no significant differences in pure ADHD children and normal controls in terms of the dominant probability of 8 Hz(P> 0.05)h (2) The entropy value of the ADHD with ODD group was significantly higher than that of the normal controls in the right frontal region, right central region, and bilateral occipital region(P< 0.05).  

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed encephalomalacic-gliotic changes in the anterior superior medial temporal lobe (including bilateral amygdala), hydrocephalus, bilateral abnormal signal intensity in the white matter of the frontal region, and bilateral infarction in the centrum semiovale.  

When DB and multiclausal relative sentences were directly compared, they showed overlapping neural substrates in the dorsolateral left frontal region, supporting a single source of vWM for syntactic and nonsyntactic tasks.  

At the end of the program, the re-staging demonstrated the presence of metastasis in both the left parotid gland and subcutaneously on the frontal region of her face while the primary locoregional tumour manifestation was radiologically down-staged (reduction in N staging from N1 to N0).  

In fact, the patient presented a verrucous carcinoma with unusual location at her head frontal region and a concomitant calcified meningioma of the frontal region of the brain.  

The BPRS Total score was negatively correlated with the P300 current density in the left superior temporal gyrus (r=-0.615, corrected p=0.009) and that in the right medial frontal region (r=-0.571, corrected p=0.019) by means of SPM single-subject covariates model. A subsequent region-of-interest analysis of Pearson correlations revealed specific relationships between the Positive subscale score and the mean current density in the left superior temporal gyrus (r=-0.528, p=0.005) and between the Negative subscale score and the mean current densities in the medial frontal region (r=-0.551, p=0.003) and left superior temporal gyrus (r=-0.499, p=0.009).  

RESULTS: Bad performers presented significantly reduced ERCoh at the right frontal region (in alpha, beta-1 and beta-2 bands), while no consistent group differences emerged for parietal ERCoh.  

Before surgery, a computed tomography scan is carried out with 2-mm slices both in the axial and coronal projections, mandatory to evaluate the orbital roof and frontal region. The peripheral limits of the frontal region fracture are marked on the skin, a punctiform incision made in the area of maximum depression, and a calibrated drill inserted.  

Imaging showed significant pneumocephalus in the subarachnoid space of the frontal region and in the cisterns.  

Computed tomography CT scan of brain and paranasal sinus revealed opacity of maxillary, left ethmoid, frontal sinus opacity and epidural collection in the right frontal region with post contrast enhancement.  

In addition to major differences between responders and nonresponders in the rostral ACC, we have identified a nearby region in the midline orbito-frontal region..  

The first patient was brought with one plug pin firmly driven into the skull in the right frontal region.  

This pattern of overall high EEG activity that is specific to the frontal region is similar to that observed in socially anxious profiles.  

On April, 2005, he presented a progressive abscess in the frontal region and erythematous papules in the extremities, that extended to face, thorax and mucoses, becoming nodular and violaceous lesions.  

As predicted, brain activation distinguished anxious groups in a left inferior frontal region associated with speech production and in a right-hemisphere inferior temporal area. Addressing a second hypothesis about left-frontal involvement in emotion, distinct left frontal regions were associated with anxious apprehension versus processing of positive information.  

Results indicated that declines in FA in the pericallosal frontal region and in the genu of the corpus callosum, but not in other regions, mediated the relationship between perceptual speed and episodic retrieval RT. These findings suggest that white matter integrity in prefrontal regions is one mechanism underlying the relation between individual differences in perceptual speed and episodic retrieval..  

MR imaging of a patient with epilepsy and psychomotor retardation at 5 months revealed parieto-occipital pachygyria with almost normal cortical appearance and thickness in the frontal region; this appearance evolved into diffuse pachygyria at 7 years.  

We used a 22-channel near-infrared spectroscopy device with eight light-incident fibers and seven detector fibers, each with an interoptode distance of 2.5 cm on the frontal region.  

Delta band power, delta dipole density (DDD, the number of accepted single dipole fits per second in parieto-frontal region) and delta dipole strength (DDS, the average of the accepted dipoles strengths) were evaluated in both hemispheres, separated on the basis of the lesion level (cortical and subcortical involvement) and correlated with lesion volume, clinical status in acute phase and recovery level.  

Both common and specific genetic factors influenced the bands, with common genetic and specific genetic factors having more influence in the occipital and frontal regions, respectively. Non-additive genetic effects on beta power and a common environment effect on delta, theta, and alpha powers were observed in the frontal region..  

Conversely, the patient with complete destruction of Broca's area showed a posttraining activation in the right mirror frontal region.  

The data showed that low-consistency characters elicited greater N170 amplitude in the temporal-occipital region and greater P200 amplitude in the frontal region than high-consistency characters, whereas high-consistency characters showed greater amplitude of the N400 negativity than low-consistency characters.  

Following trauma to her right frontal region, a 68-year-old woman suffered bilateral, benign, paroxysmal, positional vertigo and a left-sided, longitudinal petrosal bone fracture, with secondary facial palsy and ossicular luxation.  

EEG revealed periodic epileptiform discharges arising from the anterior temporal and frontal region, predominantly from the right.  

Moreover, the differential activation in the right inferior frontal region was modulated by stimulus conflicts.  

Regional differences were observed for white matter (-13.1%, P = 0.0008) and CSF (36.3%, P < 0.0001) in the frontal region, for CSF (20.9%, P = 0.0002) in the temporal region, and for gray matter (-3.0%, P = 0.04) and CSF (17.6%, P = 0.01) in the parieto-occipital region. Hypoperfusion in the frontal region was associated with gray matter atrophy (P < 0.0001).  

In addition, patients with PB had frontal region involvement..  

Eleven days after catheter insertion, a dull, persistent headache occurred in the frontal region, and it worsened gradually.  

However, peak location was different in the left middle frontal region between groups.  

The sites of occurrence were the parietal region in six patients and the frontal region in one patient.  

Coffin-Lowry Syndrome is characterized by mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, delayed bone development, short stature, tapered fingers, large ears, orbital hypertelorism, anteverted nares, and a prominent frontal region.  

Alteration ratios were different between the normal and delayed groups, in all of the regions but the frontal region (p < 0.05).  

The safety and efficacy of endoscopic approaches to a variety of conditions affecting the craniofacial frontal region are well established.  

They had all suffered direct banal traumatic injury to the frontal region due to different causes.  

Topographic mapping revealed a maximal increase in the lateral leads in the theta band and a maximal change in the centro-frontal region in the remaining bands.  

Initial EEG waves appearance is statistical linked with main sensory projections: visual (occiput), auditory (temples) and somatic (parietal region) with addition of frontal region.  

In parallel, induced theta activity was recorded in the frontal region for detection and n-back memory tasks, but not for the passive task, suggesting its dependency on focused attention to the stimulus.  

At Post 1 and Post 2, the rCBF in the frontal and limbic regions continued to be lower in the patients than in the controls although the successive recovery of decreased rCBF in the frontal region was observed. Regarding the time course among the patients, the rCBF in the right medial frontal region significantly increased (toward normal) at Post 2, not at Post 1. These findings suggest that depressive patients have decreased CBF in the frontal and limbic regions, and the medial frontal region plays a crucial role in ECT and recovery from depression.  

Several brain areas show signal decreases during many different cognitive tasks in functional imaging studies, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and a medial frontal region incorporating portions of the medial frontal gyrus and ventral anterior cingulate cortex (MFG/vACC).  

He complained of a painless mass over the left frontal region for two months. Radiograph of the skull revealed an osteolytic mass about 4-5 cm in size over the left frontal region. A cranial computerized tomography demonstrated a destructive lesion with soft tissue mass over the left frontal region.  

Positive emotional valence enhanced activation in a left posterior inferior frontal region involved in representation of prototypic actions, whereas increasing arousal enhanced activation in presupplementary motor area cortex involved in higher-order motor control.  

Cerebral blood flow single-photon emission computed tomography revealed decreased perfusion, predominantly in the frontal region of all nine patients during their clinical course.  

Age was associated with reduced peak HRF in left frontal region.  

Even so, there were differential responses in asymmetry in the beta frequencies in the frontal region and for alpha and beta frequencies in the parietal region, indicative of decreased activity in the left frontal and right parietal regions after exercise compared to after rest.  

11 cirri in frontal region, two ventral cirri located anterior to five TC, three CC present; one left and one right row of marginal cirri not confluent posteriorly.  

The findings indicate that the frontal lobes are necessary for inhibitory control and, furthermore, that the integrity of the right superior medial frontal region is key for rapid inhibitory control under conditions controlling for strategically slow responses, forcing reliance more on a rapid, "kill-switch" inhibitory system.  

Stimulation to the affected (neuropathic) side resulted in predominantly frontal region and basal ganglia activation compared with the control side.  

At the same time, the oxygenation in the right and left frontal region was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).  

They also displayed decreased activation to positive stimuli in a dorsomedial frontal region associated with processing of self-related stimuli.  

This study explored an effective method for repairing cranio-maxillofacial soft-tissue defects following radical craniofacial surgery in four patients with malignant tumours involving the skull base and frontal region.  

No sweating was induced in the right frontal region at 40 degrees C for 15 minutes of sweat challenge test.  

These results support the hypothesis that O2Hb levels in the right frontal region correlate with anxiety or heightened negative affect..  

During olfactory stimulation, cerebral HbO2 concentration increased over the frontal region.  

We propose to understand this frontal region as a highly flexible sequence processor, with the PMv mapping sequential events onto stored structural templates and Broca's Area involved in more complex, hierarchical or hypersequential processing.  

In the single-subject analysis, whereas the first two of the above three areas were found to be crucial for writing in all individuals, an interindividual inconsistency of involvement with writing was observed in three areas: the lower part of the anterior limb of the left supramarginal gyrus (60% involved); the right frontal region (47%); and the right intraparietal sulcus (47%)..  

CONCLUSION: In women with perimenopausal depression, physiologic brain changes in the right frontal region during estrogen augmentation were associated with remission of depression..  

High amounts of TPPII mRNA are seen in the neocortex, especially in the frontal region and the hippocampus.  

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that reductions in neuronal viability occur in the frontal region of OCD patients and that these reductions may be partly reversible..  

The negative components were recorded at the recording electrode corresponding with the stimulation site (N10, N18), as well as at recording electrodes over the frontal region of the contralateral, unstimulated, hemisphere (N40) and bilaterally over the central hemispheres with its maximal representation at the stimulation site (N100). The positive components were instead detected at the frontal region of the right, unstimulated, hemisphere (P14), over the central electrodes Cz, Fz and the frontal region of the right hemisphere (P30), at the stimulation site (P60), and over the frontal regions of both hemispheres.  

She was classified in Engel's Class II and had no seizure originating from temporal epileptic focus, but few seizures originating from the frontal region continued after the surgery.  

The parenchymal changes consisted of a well-demarcated area of hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images involving the cortex and underlying white matter in the ipsilateral temporal and posterior frontal region.  

Part of the left inferior frontal region (BA 45) was specifically related to syntactic violations and showed no sensitivity to local substring familiarity.  

The analyzed specimen has been surgically removed in the superior frontal region in a 12 year-old boy and submitted to conventional histopathological analysis.  

Past research using a variety of methods has suggested that the frontal cortex is asymmetrically involved in the experience and expression of positive (or approach motivational) and negative (or withdrawal motivational) affects, with the left frontal region being involved in positive affects (or approach) and the right frontal region being involved in negative affects (or withdrawal).  

Computed tomography indicated an ossified epidural hematoma in the left frontal region.  

The original site of tumor was the sphenoid wing in four patients, the middle fossa in two patients, and the left frontal region in one patient.  

During a dispute, a boy was injured by a curtain rail which penetrated the skull in the left frontal region and led to severe brain injury.  

Verb generation was associated with the highest average concurrence ratios within the inferior frontal region of interest (R(overlap) = 45.2; R(volume) = 70.9). In general, the concurrence ratios were lower within the temporoparietal region of interest compared with the inferior frontal region of interest.  

Although six patients responded well to the therapy, two girls who had hypoperfusion in the right frontal region as well as hypo- / hyperperfusion in the basal ganglia did not respond to therapy.  

The frontal lobes (FL), are they a general adaptive global capacity processor, or a series of fractionated processes? Our lesion studies focusing on attention have demonstrated impairments in distinct processes due to pathology in different frontal regions, implying fractionation of the "supervisory system." However, when task demands are manipulated, it becomes evident that the frontal lobes are not just a series of independent processes. Increased complexity of task demands elicits greater involvement of frontal regions along a fixed network related to a general activation process. In other conditions, there is a bottom-up nonfrontal/frontal network, with impairment noted maximally for the lesser task demands in the nonfrontal automatic processing regions, and then as task demands change, increased involvement of different frontal (more "strategic") regions, until it appears all frontal regions are involved. With other measures, the network is top-down, with impairment in the measure first noted in the frontal region and then, with changing task demands, involving a posterior region.  

It is note-worthy that he had a lesion of the right frontal region but exhibited both verbal and non-verbal memory impairment, although his intelligence, remote memory and digit span were normal. SPECT after surgery showed an area of low perfusion limited to the right frontal region.  

A frontal energy increase (event-related synchronization, ERS) around 15 Hz could be observed in the frontal region after the examiner's movement; this frontal ERS was significantly larger in the non-imitation paradigm.  

Relation between stroke location in left frontal region and left basal ganglia has not been demonstrated in further epidemiological studies.  

MATERIAL AND METHOD: In adult dogs, two straight lines were drawn: one along the median line of the frontal region; and the other at 45 masculine from the pupil.  

INTERVENTIONS: Near infrared spectroscopy probe placement on left and right frontal regions of patients undergoing ECLS, before vessel cannulation or within 24 hrs of initiation of ECLS. Ligation of the right carotid artery resulted in a 12-25% decrease in rSO2i from baseline in the right frontal region for a duration ranging from 17 to 45 mins before returning toward baseline. No substantial change in the left frontal region rSO2i was detected during cannulation. A brief period of cerebral oxygen desaturation of the right frontal region at the time of right carotid ligation was seen in all three study patients examined during cannulation, followed by an increased rSO2i with initiation of ECLS flow.  

For defects larger than 2 cm, flaps raised from the frontal region and face are used.  

Regression analyses demonstrated that during the experience of pain, ASI scores predicted activation of a medial prefrontal region associated with self-focused attention, whereas FPQ scores predicted activation of a ventral lateral frontal region associated with response regulation and anterior and posterior cingulate regions associated with monitoring and evaluation of affective responses.  

RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in diploeic thickness between males and females in the frontal region only. CONCLUSION: Males overall have a thicker diploe, albeit this difference is statistically significant only in the frontal region. Since the thickness of the diploe may be an important parameter in biomechanical modelling of the cranial vault, this means that the diploe can be built into such models based on the total cranial thickness, except for the frontal region where the sexual dimorphism must be taken into account.  

Moreover, FDG-PET images in fv-FTD were further characterized by a metabolic covariance in two clusters comprising the subcallosal medial frontal region, the temporal pole, medial temporal structures and the striatum, separately in the left and in the right hemisphere.  

CT scan on arrival showed a large mass of the left frontal region and slightly high-density linear lesion in the right cerebellar hemisphere. MRI also revealed well-enhanced mass in the left frontal region and parallel linear striation in the right cerebellar hemisphere.  

The responses to 24TJQ exercise were different from those to cycle ergometry exercise when the heart rate returned to the resting level: (1) alpha increased and theta decreased significantly in the frontal region, while theta decreased significantly in the central and occipital regions; (2) in the POMS test, an improved positive mood was found following 2 exercises, while negative mood was suppressed following 24TJQ exercise; (3) significant correlations were found between the increased alpha in the frontal region, the decreased theta in the central or occipital region and the vigor of the POMS test.  

In the upper alpha band, hemispheric differences in intrahemispheric connectivity of the frontal regions were found to be modulated by focused attention instructions. That is, attention to the right ear exaggerates the pattern of higher synchronization likelihood for the right frontal region, while attention to the left ear has an opposite effect.  

A couple of conventional dental implants are also needed in the frontal region of the maxilla to stabilize the prosthesis.  

The most common sites of dural injury were the cribriform area (4) and frontal region (2).  

METHODS: Short and middle-latency MN SEPs were recorded by chronically implanted electrodes in the fronto-temporal cortex and in particular in the mesial frontal region of 14 drug-resistant epileptic patients.  

On the topographic mappings, a negative response area was observed in the frontal region of the scalp in the stimulated site followed by the shifting of the area to the contralateral frontal region and occipital region, during the first 100 msec. The negative response area in the frontal region in the stimulated site, contralateral frontal and temporal region, and occipital region were corresponded to N1, P2, and N2 on the flash VEP, respectively, according to their latencies. On the topographic mapping, only the early negative response area was detected on the stimulated site of the frontal region of the brain.  

Interictally, one patient had temporal sharp waves, and another had run of spikes in the right frontal region.  

RESULTS: Focal spikes were located in the perisylvian region in 13 children, in the occipital region in seven, and in the frontal region in one.  

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: SPECT in 38 (88,37%) cases showed hypoperfusion mostly on the left side and in the frontal region.  

In one patient with equally bilateral scatters, scatters overlapped a prominent tuber and interictal/ictal-onset zones in the right frontal region.  

The redistribution of EEG power within the delta band in the frontal region in mice with a well developed Probst bundle, suggests a role of intracortical connectivity in local sleep regulation..  

RESULTS: Significant facial expression effects occurred separately in the left parietal and bilateral occipital regions (280-340 ms), left frontal region (400-420 ms), and right prefrontal region (480-500 ms). In 4 time periods, significant difference was observed between positive and neutral emotion wave in the right frontoparietotemporal and left prefrontal regions (60-80 ms), right occipital region (120-140 ms), left occipital region (280-320 ms), and left frontoparietal region (400-440 ms).  

In all six patients, the frontal region (cortex and white matter) was clearly involved.  

Operation time of tasks and cerebral blood flow of frontal region were measured during tasks.  

We describe a 74-year-old patient with diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in the right frontal region with the appearance of multiform glioblastoma..  

The results of SPECT showed that the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the bilateral frontal region had increased in four out of six patients when comparing before and after treatment.  

A positive correlation was found between D2 test improvement and MPH-induced power changes in the Theta band over the left frontal region. CONCLUSION: Main effects induced by medication were found in frontal regions.  

ANOVAs of age-by-frontal Gamma synchrony also showed a significant effect of age on Gamma phase synchrony in the left frontal region that corresponded modestly to the age effect found on executive task performance, with reduced performance associated with increased gamma synchrony. The results indicate that age-related changes in cognitive function evident among elderly individuals may in part be related to decreased ability to integrate information and this may be reflected as a compensatory increase in gamma synchrony in frontal regions of the brain..  

Significant reduction of the gamma band response in the frontal region during target stimulus processing was observed in alcoholic compared to control subjects.  

Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) plotted on a standard brain indicate the inferior frontal region and the superior temporal gyrus for 400 ms component, and the middle temporal gyrus for 600 ms component.  

We have addressed this question in the macaque monkey by combining quantitative architectonic analysis of the cortical areas within the ventrolateral frontal region with electrophysiological recording of neuron activity and electrical intracortical microstimulation.  

Further, results suggest that the left ventro-lateral frontal region/frontal operculum is involved in searching for task-relevant information (BA 47) and subsequent monitoring or scrutiny (BA 44/45) while regions in the dorsal inferior frontal cortex are important for information selection (BA 45/46)..  

A full array of 21 EEG electrodes and 2 BIS XP (Quatro) strips over each frontal region of the scalp were applied.  

A tomographic analysis of the Italian specimen is reported here in order to describe size and shape, vascular traces, and other features of the endocranium, as well as some relevant ectocranial traits (particularly of the frontal region).  

Greater articulatory recoding demands for processing of pseudowords resulted in increased activation for pseudowords relative to other conditions in this frontal region.  

The lowest perfusion index values were observed in the left anterior frontal region followed by the left prefrontal-frontoparietal-anterior, parietal-orbito frontal, and anterior temporal regions where perfusion is predominantly supplied via the anterior and middle cerebral arteries, while these differences did not reach statistical significance in a single dominant region compared to the other regions examined using ANOVA (P > 0.05) with this sample size.  

The most caudal frontal region, the motor region on the precentral gyrus, is involved in fine motor control and direct sensorimotor mappings, whereas the caudal lateral prefrontal region is involved in higher order control processes that regulate the selection among multiple competing responses and stimuli based on conditional operations. Further rostrally, the mid-lateral prefrontal region plays an even more abstract role in cognitive control. The mid-lateral prefrontal region is itself organized along a dorsal-ventral axis of organization, with the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex being involved in the monitoring of information in working memory and the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal region being involved in active judgments on information held in posterior cortical association regions that are necessary for active retrieval and encoding of information..  

Both age groups showed significant activation in major olfactory brain structures, including the primary olfactory cortex, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex and its extension into the inferior lateral frontal region.  

When the two activation conditions were contrasted with each other and masked for their respective comparison with baseline, significant activation was found in right frontal areas for general mental images, whereas a significant increase in activation in the left superior frontal region and the right thalamus was detected during the generation of specific mental images.  

No relapses occurred in the frontal region and none occurred in the posterior fossa outside the boost volume.  

The typical TMD patient has cephalalgia, mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal region, pain upon chewing food, pain upon opening and closing the mouth, TMJ pain, pain in the back of the neck and difficulty chewing food.  

Of the other two patients, one demonstrated marked increases in binding in the superior frontal region (supplementary motor region) contralateral to the affected limbs.  

Direct comparison between phonological matching and semantic association task yielded semantic related activation in the anterior portion of the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47) and the right inferior frontal region (Broca's homology; BA 45).  

The epilepsy focus was in her left frontal region, where blood was supplied by the contralateral fronto-orbital artery.  

The extent of lesions within the executive attention network was marginally related to ADHD symptomatology (p = .088; effect size = 0.66), whereas the extent of lesions in the specific frontal region of interest was significantly related to ADHD symptomatology (p = .040; effect size = 0.82).  

RESULTS: Our small series of patients all demonstrated abnormal signal changes in the frontal region on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging, suggestive of oedema, and spectroscopic abnormalities of increased taurine, myoinositol and glucose levels.  

RESULTS: In males, mean lifetime alcohol intake was positively associated with cerebral white matter volume, particularly in the frontal region.  

The decrease in the responsive search score, which is the total number of sections on which the eyes fixed in response to questioning in a comparison task, was significantly correlated with the decreased gray matter in the right frontal eye field (rFEF) including the right supplementary eye field (rSEF), right parietal eye field (rPEF), and right inferior frontal region. These results suggest that disturbance in exploratory eye movement in schizophrenia spectrum patients may be related to neural network dysfunction in FEF, SEF and PEF, which are the eye movement related areas, and in the inferior frontal region that may be related to information organization..  

In PBS patients, 70.6% of the independent components had dipole sources within the dorsolateral frontal region, and 56.5% of the independent components in SBS patients were within the medial frontal region (P=0.012).  

Confidence interval testing further revealed group differences on gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in the superior medial and ventromedial prefrontal regions, WM in the lateral frontal region, and GM, WM, and CSF in the temporal region.  

A six years old feale had a fistula at the left frontal region for about three years.  

Tomodensitometry reveal a huge liquid collection which starts from the right cerebellopontine angle to the frontal region and invading the orbital cavity.  

Although there were no significant group differences in white matter hyperintensities in the frontal region, a significant direct correlation emerged between the severity of frontal periventricular white matter hyperintensity and scores on the Hamilton scale for depression in the group with heart failure and depression (P = 0.016, controlled for the confounding influence of age). This pattern of results adds support to a relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and depressive symptoms, and provides preliminary evidence that the presence of white matter hyperintensities specifically in frontal regions may contribute to the severity of depressive symptoms in cardiac disease..  

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