The ASH was initially misdiagnosed as a fornix rupture with infrarenal urinoma, but clinical and radiological examination led to the right diagnosis.  

Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were calculated for six fiber tracts (uncinate fasciculus [ UF], arcuate fasciculus [ AF], fornix [ FORX], parahippocampal cingulum [ PHC], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [ IFOF], and corticospinal tract [ CST]).  

The inter-rater (and intra-rater) intraclass correlation coefficients for FA values were as follows: rostral cingulum 0.89 (0.87), dorsal cingulum 0.85 (0.90), parahippocampal cingulum 0.85 (0.95), uncinate fasciculus 0.85 (0.87), medial prefrontal white matter 0.97 (0.99), ventromedial prefrontal white matter 0.92 (0.93), crus of fornix 0.80 (0.81).  

Among late post-surgical complications (33.6%) there were 77 granulomas or prosthetic expositions (11.3% [ 6.7% in the vaginal anterior wall, 2.1% in the vaginal posterior wall and 4.8% in the fornix]), 80 prosthetic retractions (11.7%), 36 relapse of prolapse (6.9%) and 37 SUI de novo (5.4%).  

The study was to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of transplanted bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transfected never growth factor (NGF) gene and GFP gene (as a reporter gene), in treating the rat with fimbria-fornix lesion. After transduction of NGF gene via recombinant retroviral vectors into the rat BMSCs, BMSCs were therefore transformed into the GFP-NGF positive BMSCs, nearly 100% of BMSCs expressed NGF, and then transplanted into basal forebrain of rat with fimbria-fornix lesion.  

Using a tract-based atlasing approach on six-direction diffusion tensor imaging data, we examined FA within the cingulum, corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, fornix, optic radiations, superior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and the superior and inferior occipitofrontal fasciculi in an all-male sample of 17 children and adolescents with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls.  

In the mouse model of demyelination-remyelination induced by oral administration of cuprizone, in situ hybridization showed an upregulation of the DDR1 gene in three different white matter areas (corpus callosum, dorsal fornix, and external capsule) during the remyelination period.  

In 1985, the authors developed a interhemispheric, transcallosal, subchoroidal, fornix-sparing approach that allowed safe total resection of the colloid cyst and that appeared to be superior to the endoscopic approach. Methods Fifty-seven consecutive colloid cysts were totally removed via a 3 x 3-in paramedian craniotomy flap and a microscopic interhemispheric, transcallosal, subchoroidal approach sparing the ipsilateral fornix. Conclusions The interhemispheric, transcallosal, subchoroidal, fornix-sparing approach to gross-total resection of colloid cysts is safe and led to a zero recurrence rate with no permanent neurological sequelae including epilepsy, and these results are superior to any reported results with endoscopy..  

Because there was tension on the wound, a relaxing conjunctival incision on the fornix was performed.  

Fimbria-fornix (FF), the septo-hippocampal pathway, was transected to model Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by loss of cholinergic afferent fibers in hippocampus.  

Brain injury emerged in anxious OSA versus nonanxious controls in bilateral insular cortices, caudate nuclei, anterior fornix, anterior thalamus, internal capsule, mid-hippocampus, dorsotemporal, dorsofrontal, ventral medial prefrontal, and parietal cortices.  

RESULTS: Sonorectovaginography has helped us create acoustic interfaces and enhanced simultaneous visualization of the vaginal walls, posterior vaginal fornix, retrocervical area, rectovaginal septum, rectal wall, and pouch of Douglas.  

Adhesions were removed to reveal the minor pelvis and the vaginal fornix.  

Recombined cells were co-labelled with Neu-N, but not with GAD67, and were characterized by long range projections (corpus callosum, fornix, thalamocortical).  

The pig was then flipped to the right flank position and a transvaginal approach was used: the gastroscope was introduced through the posterior fornix of the vagina.  

On upper endoscopy, the submucosal tumor from greater curvature of gastric fornix invaginated into the duodenal bulbus, showing so-called "ball valve syndrome (BVS)". This is the first report that GIST arising from the muscularis mucosae in gastric fornix showed a BVS..  

All patients had amniotic membrane and autologous conjunctival transplantation, and the pseudopterygium was preserved to reconstruct the fornix.  

Despite increasing evidence that the fornix is important for memory, uncertainty remains about the exact nature of subsequent impairments arising from damage to this tract. The present study involved a young man, DN, who had almost complete bilateral loss of the rostral columns of the fornix and much of the surrounding septum in the left hemisphere following the surgical removal of a cavernous angioma.  

Multiples ulcerations were found in the sublingual caruncula region, at the vestibular fornix and at the lingual apex.  

Upon exposure to slit-lamp illumination, a sudden movement of the worm toward the fornix was noted.  

In 2 (13%) eyes, the superior and inferior flaps partially dehisced, resulting in a 2- to 3-mm gap; in 1 (6.5%) eye, the inferior flap dehisced completely and retracted to the lower fornix; and in 1 (6.5%) eye, both flaps completely dehisced and retracted, leaving an area of bare sclera.  

More commonly, the stability of an ocular prosthesis can be affected by orbital implant migration, sunken superior sulcus, eyelid malformations, shallow inferior fornix, and contracted sockets (Charlton & Weinstein, 1995).  

Combined bilateral subcortical lesions to the magnocellular mediodorsal thalamus and fornix impaired postoperative retention of the preoperatively acquired information.  

A swab was taken from the lower fornix using a sterile swab and inoculated into bloody eosin methylene blue, chocolate, and Sabouraud dextrose agar media.  

Fifty-six point four percent (31/55) eyes got enough deep conjunctival fornix and resolution of eye movement restrict.  

METHODS: To study the formation of functional filtration bleb after trabeculectomy, the result of trabeculectomy with the limbus based conjunctival flap in 165 eyes and the fornix based conjunctival flap in 207 eyes (372 eyes in 372 cases with primary glaucoma in total) was compared. In patients with trabeculectomy using the limbus based conjunctival flap, the success rate of the formation of the filtration bleb was 83.03% in 1 week and 78.69% in three months postoperatively, while in those using the fornix based conjunctival flap, the success rate was 55.07% in 1 week and 53.03% in 3 months.  

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the homogenous amniotic membrane (HAM) as a biological dressing for oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the labial fornix region of inferior incisors in rats.  

The cerebral peduncle, the middle cerebellum, and cingulum had the highest variation in FA, while fornix, optic radiation, and optic tract had the highest variation in ADC.  

RESULTS: Three WM tract regions had significantly reduced FA: 1) arcuate fasciculus in left superior temporal gyrus, 2) cingulum bundle by the posterior tail of the left hippocampus, and 3) the left body of the fornix.  

Here we used Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats to explore whether the entorhinal cortex and fornix, which are the major cortical and subcortical interfaces of the hippocampus, are also involved in the context-dependence of extinction. In contrast, rats with neurotoxic lesions in the entorhinal cortex or electrolytic lesions in the fornix did not exhibit a renewal of fear when tested outside the extinction context. Impairments in freezing behavior to the auditory CS were not able to account for the observed results, insofar as rats with either entorhinal cortex or fornix lesions exhibited normal freezing behavior during the conditioning session.  

Fluorescence images from the eye surface showed that mucoadhesive microdiscs remain for at least 1 h in the lower fornix.  

Seventy-three percent of lesions were located on the cervix, whereas 15% of lesions were located on the vaginal wall or fornix.  

Second, neuropsychological studies of patients with colloid cysts confirm the importance of at least one of these routes, the fornix, for episodic memory.  

Conjunctival swabs from the upper and lower lid margins and lower fornix were taken before and after Vigamox instillation.  

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Multiple regions of lower FA appeared within white matter in the OSA group, and included fibers of the anterior corpus callosum, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and cingulum bundle, right column of the fornix, portions of the frontal, ventral prefrontal, parietal and insular cortices, bilateral internal capsule, left cerebral peduncle, middle cerebellar peduncle and corticospinal tract, and deep cerebellar nuclei.  

Previously, we studied the effects of EPO given to fimbria-fornix transected rats at the moment of injury.  

PurposeTo measure the depth and area of the fornix in normal adults and patients with symblepharon.MethodsThe fornix depth of normal eyes (n=20) and patients with symblepharon (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, n=4) was measured at six locations in each eye using non-invasive, dull-edged stainless steel metric scale. Before and after conjunctival reconstruction surgery, the depths of fornix were also measured by the same method. The overall area was assessed from those fornix depth at six points.ResultsThe mean depths of the superior nasal and temporal, inferior nasal and temporal, fornices as well as mean depths of medial nasal and temporal canthi fornices in normal eyes were 14.1+/-2.5, 14.1+/-2.5, 10.0+/-2.1, 10.4+/-1.8, 3.0+/-0.9, and 5.2+/-1.2 mm, respectively. The mean overall area of the conjunctival fornix in normal subjects was 909.6+/-162.2 mm(2).  

Trabeculectomy was performed using fornix-based conjunctival flap, standard trabeculectomy punch, adjustable scleral flap sutures and antimetabolite treatment.  

Ocular lesions consists of chronic conjunctivitis, progressive subepithelial fibrosis on the conjunctival fornix together with symblepharon formation, obstruction of the Meibomian ducts, sicca syndrome, and occasionally, entropion associated with consequent trichiasis and corneal ulcers.  

Reconstructive techniques included eyebrow reconstruction with a frontal hairline transposition flap, eyelid reconstruction with a hard palate mucosa-lined sliding myocutaneous flap, and conjunctival fornix reconfiguration using a mucous membrane graft.  

RESULTS: The score was significantly higher in the skills required for insertion into the esophagus, passing from the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) to the antrum, passing through the pylorus, and examination of the duodenal bulb and the fornix.  

Materials and Methods Sixty-six patients that underwent trabeculectomy were randomly divided into two groups: in the first group (group A, 33 eyes) a standard fornix-based trabeculectomy was performed by using a conjunctival chain suture. Conclusions The employment of a fornix-based conjunctival chain suture for the flap allows the use of the removable scleral flap suture, which has proved very effective in preventing insufficient flap resistance with aqueous overdrainage and hypotony, and which is also easy to apply and to remove.  

Uncovering the functional relationship between temporal lobe amnesia and diencephalic amnesia depends on determining the role of the fornix, the major interlinking fiber tract. In this study relating fornix volume with memory, we made magnetic resonance imaging-based volume estimates of 13 brain structures in 38 individuals with surgically removed colloid cysts. fornix status was assessed directly by overall volume and indirectly by mammillary body volume (which atrophies after fornix damage). Furthermore, as the volumes of the left fornix and the left mammillary bodies decreased, the difference between recall and recognition scores increased.  

The fornix is the primary efferent neural pathway of the hippocampus and has been shown to be abnormal in adults with schizophrenia. Measures of cross-sectional area and water diffusion properties were obtained on regions of interest of the fornix performed by a trained radiologist. RESULTS: The volume of the fornix was significantly smaller (10.9%) in children and adolescents with schizophrenia compared to controls (Cohen d = 0.87, p = .025). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the early stages of schizophrenia are associated with a decrease in fornix volume without microstructural white matter changes.  

PURPOSE: To identify surgical strategies of fornix reconstruction for symblepharon graded according to the length from the limbus to the lid margin, to the width, and to associated inflammation. METHODS: In 61 eyes with symblepharon, cicatrix lysis and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) were performed with sutures (n = 34) or fibrin glue (n = 27) together with (n = 47) or without (n = 14) intraoperative mitomycin C (MMC), plus fornix reconstruction using anchoring sutures without (n = 30) or with (n = 7) oral mucosal graft or with conjunctival autograft (n = 4). Overall, success was defined as an outcome of complete success (restoration of an anatomically deep fornix) or partial success (focal recurrence of scar), and failure was defined as the return of symblepharon.  

In order to address the issue from the perspective of functional posttraumatic recovery, we studied 6 experimental groups of rats--3 groups undergoing a fimbria-fornix transection, and 3 groups remaining neurally intact.  

Men and women, examined separately, showed similar age-related increases in longitudinal and transverse diffusivity in fibers of the internal and external capsules bilaterally and the fornix.  

Also the timing of previously reported fornix abnormalities in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is unknown. We report longitudinal volumetic MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings of the hippocampus and fornix in a patient following status epilepticus.  

CA1 efferents in the dorsal fornix were similarly transected. Fimbria transections, but not dorsal fornix transections, resulted in deficits for the encoding of spatial information during learning of a Hebb-Williams maze. Dorsal fornix, but not fimbria, transections resulted in deficits for retrieval of spatial memory during learning of a Hebb-Williams maze.  

DESIGN: Full-thickness human vaginal fornix samples were obtained from 20 normal human specimens obtained at surgery for pelvic relaxation.  

While some memory inadequacies in OSA may result from earlier-described structural deficits in the hippocampus, mammillary body injury also could contribute, since these structures receive projections from the hippocampus via the fornix, project heavily to the anterior thalamus, and have been implicated in other conditions with memory deficiencies, such as Korsakoff's syndrome.  

During simulated intercourse, the phallus further pushed the gel delivered with the CA into the fornix, whereas it spread the gel delivered with the PVA more evenly throughout the mucosal surface.  

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Six fiber variables of the corpus callosum, fornix, and peduncular projections were obtained.  

MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 21 patients with a Schirmer test without anaesthesia of <2mm in 5 min, a Medtronic 60-ml reservoir was implanted into a pocket under the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall and connected to a silicone catheter that ascended subcutaneously along the chest, neck and temple to the upper conjunctival fornix.  

RESULTS: To use the parotid gland as a source of substitute lubrication its secretory duct is transposed to the lower conjunctival fornix.  

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The reformation and maintenance of a conjunctival fornix requires the addition of epithelial tissue, or a basement membrane which can be populated by healthy host epithelial cells.  

The major concept of conjunctival surgery for dry eye is to smoothen the surface in order (1) to reduce blink-associated microtrauma, (2) to reconstruct the tear meniscus and conjunctival fornix and their respective functions as reservoirs for tears, and (3) to reduce conjunctival inflammation by the removal of abnormal fibrous tissue combined with the use of mitomycin C and/or amniotic membrane.  

METHODS: In ten female embalmed bodies the transversal and sagittal diameter of the fornix posterior vaginalis was measured by two observers. By internal vaginal examination the connective tissue borders of the fornix posterior were palpated and the impression in the cast was measured. RESULTS: The mean fornix posterior diameter was 2.6 cm (standard deviation, SD 0.5 cm) with a range of 2.0-3.4 cm.  

A negative linear correlation was found between age and WM volume decline in the corona radiata, anterior cingulum, body and crus of the fornix and left superior cerebellar peduncle.  

BACKGROUND: The fornix is a major projection of the hippocampus to and from other brain regions. A previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study has reported disrupted integrity of the fornix in patients with schizophrenia. However, functional significance of the DTI abnormalities of the fornix in schizophrenia has not been fully studied yet. We investigated an association between DTI abnormalities of the fornix and impairment of memory organization in schizophrenia. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with schizophrenia and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent DTI, and fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in cross-sections of fornix tractography. RESULTS: Statistically significant reduction of FA and increase of MD were found in the fornix of patients with schizophrenia compared with controls with no significant lateralization. A significant patients-specific correlation was found between increased MD in the left fornix and lower scores on utilization of semantic organization in the verbal learning task. In addition, increased MD in the right fornix showed a patients-specific association with poorer performance on the category fluency test, which indexes organization of long-term semantic memory. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that disrupted integrity of the fornix contributes to impaired memory organization in schizophrenia..  

Forniceal preaponeurotic fat prolapse was assessed by pulling the lower lid margin to the level of the inferior orbital rim and comparing the meniscus of protruding fat in each fornix. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: fornix fat prolapse.  

In addition, results from a series of experiments indicate that CERE-110 is neuroprotective and neurorestorative to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the rat fimbria-fornix lesion and aged rat models, and has bioactive effects on young rat basal forebrain cholinergic neurons.  

The hippocampal tail and fimbria-fornix are disrupted posteriorly.  

A fornix-based conjunctival flap trabeculectomy with MMC was performed within 4 weeks following administration of IVB.  

METHODS: A 43-year-old male had left lower eyelid and left inferior fornix/anterior orbital masses.  

The surgeon injected about 2 ml of the mixture of lidocaine (2%) and bupivacaine (0.5%) in equal proportions into the bottom of the fornix at 11 o'clock or 1 o'clock position into one of the two upper eye quadrants.  

The medial septum diagonal band area (MS/DB) projects to the hippocampus through the fornix/fimbria pathway and is implicated in generating hippocampal theta oscillations. Here, we investigated the physiological role of hippocamposeptal feedback to the MS/DB in a complete in vitro septohippocampal preparation containing the intact interconnecting fornix/fimbria pathway. We next determined the mechanism underlying the rebound spiking that followed the IPSPs in MS/DB GABAergic neurons using phasic electrical stimulation of the fornix/fimbria pathway.  

The optic and a dissector were inserted through the posterior fornix of the vagina under laparoscopic control from the umbilicus and a transvaginal gallbladder removal was performed.  

Participants were then randomly assigned to preinduction cervical ripening with a dinoprostone vaginal insert (10 mg) administered into the posterior fornix for a total of 12 hours without oxytocin (group I); with oxytocin (group II), and with misoprostol (50 microg) intravaginally in the posterior fornix with repeat dosing at 6-hour intervals with a maximum dose of four with oxytocin (group III).  

The fornix was spared.  

Our findings provided histologic evidence that excision of the posterior vaginal fornix was necessary to completely remove large rectovaginal endometriotic nodules..  

Both frontal-inferotemporal disconnection and fornix transection (Fx) in the monkey impair object-in-place scene learning, a model of human episodic memory. If the contribution of the fornix to scene learning is via interaction with or modulation of frontal-temporal interaction--that is, if they form a unitary system--then Fx should have no further effect when added to frontal-temporal disconnection. However, if the contribution of the fornix is to some extent distinct, then fornix lesions may produce an additional deficit in scene learning beyond that caused by frontal-temporal disconnection. The increased impairment following the addition of Fx provides evidence that the fornix and frontal-inferotemporal interaction make distinct contributions to episodic memory..  

It permits the use of the device also as submerged screw in both intraalveolars areas covered by cheratine gum and extraalveolars area covered by mobile mucosa as fornix.  

Edema, which may indicate underlying inflammation, was observed in the vaginal fornix of 2 women exposed to UC781.  

Peritoneal access was gained via a transvaginal approach through the posterior fornix.  

Recurrent conjunctival inflammation results in subepithelial fibrosis, which leads to fornix shortening, symblepharon formation and subsequent trichiasis and entropion.  

Additional sutureless AM patch (ProKera; Bio-Tissue, Inc, Miami, Florida, USA) was used in seven patients, and mitomycin C was applied on the cornea in four eyes and during fornix reconstruction in seven eyes.  

METHODS: Adenovirus-specific PCR was used to analyze sample scrapings from the inferior fornix of patients with follicular conjunctivitis and clinical suspicion of adenovirus from January 2005 to December 2006.  

Three (11%) patients needed further intervention, which included pyogenic granuloma excision (1) and fornix formation (1).  

The pledgett is then placed in the inferior fornix, which is exposed by pulling down the lower lid.  

This suggests that fornix transection should impair postoperative new learning more severely than the recall of preoperatively acquired information. Here, postoperative recall of 288 concurrent visuo-spatial discrimination problems acquired preoperatively was unaffected after fornix transection in the macaque, whereas new postoperative learning of 72 problems was impaired. This and other recent evidence supports the idea that the main function of the fornix in macaque monkeys is to support new learning about spatio-temporal context..  

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Misoprostol 50 microg tablets were applied in the posterior vaginal fornix in 130 primigravidae which were (Bishop score 6 or <6) in late pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Insertion of misoprostol dose of 50 microg in the posterior vaginal fornix resulted in successful cervical ripening, successful labor induction, low incidence of hyperstimulation, without side effects, and labour has been completed with relative lower cesarean section rate.  

METHODS: Using a circle that had its center around the junction of the columns of the fornix and conforming to the surface of the frontal lobe on an axial computed tomography scan 2.5 cm superior to the lateral orbital roof, we simulated the introduction of a catheter perpendicular to the cortex by drawing the radii of the circle in 70 patients with an acute subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

Endoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor (SMT) , which eroded with a depression on its surface in the fornix.  

BACKGROUND: Reports of amnesia due to bilateral fornix lesions are rare. A unilateral right fornix lesion is not known to cause an amnestic confabulatory syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of right fornix lesion in amnesia, the association of confabulation with executive disorders, and to evaluate the long-term recovery of memory and executive functions after surgical removal of a pilocytic astrocytoma in the right orbitofrontal region extending to the right fornix. CONCLUSIONS: The authors hypothesize that the lesion of the right fornix was sufficient to cause amnesia by disconnecting the hippocampal formations from the anterior thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies and interrupting the cholinergic efferents to the hippocampus from the medial septum, according to the extended hippocampal system framework. Sparing of the left fornix may be sufficient to ensure a good recovery of memory.  

The other one, with shallowed inferior fornix, is transplanted autogenous hard palatal mucosa into inferior fornix in secondary operation.  

They are produced by a small group of neurons located in the area of the brain, round the nucleus of the fornix (posterior hypothalamus), in the paraventricular nucleus, the dorsomedial nucleus, the ventromedial hypothalamus, as well as in the lateral hypothalamic region; these are sites that are known to be involved in regulating feeding in mammals.  

INTRODUCTION: Various methods have been reported for reconstructing the lower eyelid, but there is still the problem of creating a deep fornix and a supportive eyelid for housing an artificial eye.  

INTERVENTION(S): Cryopreserved seminal plasma from the patient's partner or sodium chloride (placebo) was injected into the cervix and the posterior fornix of the vagina just after follicle aspiration.  

METHODS: PMMA rings were fabricated by duplicating an impression of a rabbit conjunctival fornix.  

All cases were operated by extensive removal of subconjunctival fibrovascular tissue and intraoperative application of 0.04% mitomycin C in the fornix, followed by amniotic membrane transplantation by using either fibrin glue (14 eyes) or sutures (13 eyes).  

The fornix body was reconstructed by diffusion tensor tractography, and the integrity of this tract was evaluated using fractional anisotropy (FA). Meanwhile the mean FA of the fornix body was significantly reduced in patients, indicating the damage in the hippocampal anatomical connectivity in schizophrenia.  

The aim of this study is to elucidate the microscopic structures above the superior fornix relation to blepharoptosis operation. According to Whitnall's description, we called the thickened portion the "conjoint fascial sheath" (CFS) of the levator and superior rectus attached to the conjunctival fornix. CFS was located 2.5 +/- 0.2 mm (range, 2-8 mm) posterior to the fornix. Anteriorly superficial and deep extensions of CFS were continued approximately 2 mm to the superior conjunctival fornix and then 2 to 3 mm distally along and beneath the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva.  

RESULTS: Topical tacrolimus 0.03% ointment (Protopic; 0.5 cm) was applied into the lower fornix twice a day.  

PURPOSE: To evaluate the surgical outcomes of auricular cartilage grafts to correct inferior fornix retraction and eyelid malposition in anophthalmic patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of consecutive anophthalmic patients whose posterior lamella was lengthened by an autogenous ear cartilage graft to correct inferior fornix retraction and eyelid malposition. Surgical and postoperative complications, additional procedures, recurrence of fornix retraction, eyelid malposition, and donor-site complications were documented. Thirty-nine patients had moderate fornix retraction and 15 had severe retraction. Conjunctival fornix retraction recurred in 4 patients. Two patients developed mild inferior fornix retraction and were able to wear a cosmetic external prosthesis after surgery. CONCLUSION: Inferior fornix retraction and eyelid malposition in anophthalmic patients can be successfully treated with posterior lamella lengthening using an auricular cartilage graft..  

This study explored the putative role of the principal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurones that project to the hippocampus from the median raphe nucleus in this response to an aversive environment by lesioning the 5-HT fibres that project through the fornix/fimbria and cingulum bundles.  

Crystal nephropathy (basophilic foci, tubule or pelvic dilatation, birefringent crystals in the pelvic fornix, or transitional cell hyperplasia) affected most rats at 300 mg/kg/day, all at 400 mg/kg/day, but none at < or =150 mg/kg/day.  

In this way the conjunctival fornix was reconstructed.  

AIM: The purpose of this report is to present the clinical and histological features of a canalicular adenoma (CA) occurring in the upper lip and vestibular fornix of a 62-year-old woman. Extra and intraoral examination revealed a mobile nodular lesion located in the right aspect of the upper lip near the nose and in the vestibular fornix between the lateral incisor and canine.  

CONCLUSIONS: Single-dose povidone-iodine is an inexpensive alternative to postoperative antibiotic/steroid prophylaxis following routine strabismus surgery performed through a fornix incision.  

Also, a contracted socket was present with shallow lower fornix, making ophthalmic prosthesis fitting almost impossible. The lower fornix was expanded with a mucosal graft in order to overcome the socket contraction and the conjunctival shortage.  

We have noted that another anatomic structure, the columns of the fornix, can be mistaken for the CSP and result in the missed diagnosis of agenesis of the corpus callosum. METHODS: We describe a case in which the columns of the fornix were misinterpreted as representing the CSP during a sonographic evaluation at 18 weeks' gestation. A prospective study was then performed in 20 patients to determine the prevalence of visualization of the columns of the fornix. RESULTS: In 86 of 100 patients, the columns of the fornix were retrospectively identified as discrete and separate structures from the CSP. When additional views were obtained prospectively in the forebrain, the fornix could be identified in all 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The columns of the fornix may simulate the appearance of the CSP on second- and third-trimester sonograms. The distinction between these structures can be made because the columns of the fornix will show a linear reflection (3 lines) at their interface, whereas the CSP will appear as a fluid-filled triangular or rectangular fluid-filled space without a central line..  

This structure was adherent to but not fused to the deep surface of the fornix.  

Typical ocular lesions include chronic scarring conjunctivitis with progressive subconjunctival fibrosis, fornix foreshortening and synechia formation between the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva, occasionally resulting in blindness.  

These studies implicate common regions of injury, including the upper brainstem, base of the frontal lobe, hypothalamic-pituitary axis, medial temporal lobe, fornix, and corpus callosum.  

Swabs from the posterior vaginal fornix and from the endocervical canal as well as CVL samples were obtained from 32 patients with vaginitis/cervicitis and 29 healthy women (control group).  

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of fornix-based trabeculectomy with corneal valve to traditional limbal-based trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) in eyes with open-angle glaucoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative study, 42 eyes that underwent limbal-based trabeculectomy with MMC were compared with 32 eyes with fornix-based trabeculectomy with corneal valve with MMC. mean IOPs were 23.5 +/- 12.2 and 11.5 +/- 5.3 mm Hg, respectively, in the limbal-based group and 24.8 +/- 11.1 and 11.7 +/- 2.5 mm Hg, respectively, in the fornix-based group (P < .001 and P = .85, respectively). The fornix-based group had significantly less hypotony (3% vs. CONCLUSIONS: fornix-based corneal valve trabeculectomy with posterior placement of MMC sponges provides IOP control comparable to limbal-based traditional trabeculectomy, with decreased incidence of hypotony..  

A 72-year-old man underwent excisional biopsy for salmon-pink lesions involving the whole circumference of the conjunctiva in the right eye and the lower fornix in the left eye.  

To investigate such a role, six macaque monkeys received a bilateral transection of the fornix to disconnect subcortical inputs and outputs of the hippocampus. In the initial acquisition stage, control and fornix animals were equally proficient in learning the discriminations. In the five reassigned stages, however, monkeys with fornix transection made on average three times as many errors as the controls in learning the discriminations. These findings are consistent with other recent evidence for a role beyond the spatial domain for the fornix in monkeys..  

When combined with an inferior fornix incision, the transcaruncular approach allows for continuous exposure from the frontozygomatic suture laterally to the frontoethmoidal suture medially.  

However, 14 years later, DTI revealed structural anomalies not visible on CMRI involving limbic white matter tracts, notably the fornix, which could explain the amnesia..  

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mamillary body and fornix asymmetry are frequent findings on MR imaging of the brain. We sought to determine the prevalence of asymmetry of the fornix and mamillary body on MR imaging in patients with or without seizures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR images were retrospectively evaluated for asymmetry of the mamillary body and fornix in 178 patients who had a history of seizures, of whom 35 had suspected mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). RESULTS: In the patients who had no limbic system pathology or seizure history, 6.5% (23/353) had MR imaging evidence of asymmetric mamillary bodies and 7.9% (28/353) had asymmetric fornix size. Asymmetry of the mamillary body and fornix size was found in 37.1% (13/35) and 34.3% (12/35), respectively, of subjects with suggested hippocampal sclerosis. The prevalence of asymmetry of the mamillary body and fornix was statistically significantly higher in the patients with MTS (chi(2) test, P <.0001).  

In this restudy abdominal CT we observed positive enhancement of the left adrenal mass, indicating that the adrenal mass was a diverticulum derived from posterior gastric fornix.  

One drop of interferon alfa-2b (1 million units/ml) was placed into the superior fornix four times daily for three months.  

The hippocampus and mammillary body are small and the fornix is thin; in contrast, the amygdaloid complex is large and the cortex of the limbic lobe is extended.  

A draining sinus tract was present in the left ventral conjunctival fornix and another in the left pterygopalatine fossa. Removal of the orbital foreign body was attempted under ultrasound guidance via the discharging sinuses in the ventral conjunctival fornix and the pterygopalatine fossa.  

The optic and a dissector were inserted in the posterior fornix of the vagina, and a 5-mm trocar was inserted deep in the umbilicus.  

The medication was given under aseptic conditions with a sterile drape and lid speculum and after an incubation of 5% povidone-iodine for 60 s in the conjunctival fornix.  

During surgery, samples of blood were collected jointly with healthy tissue removed from the endometrium, proximal fallopian tube, vaginal posterior fornix and portio vaginalis. RESULTS: Ulifloxacin mean concentrations were always higher in group C than in group B patients, both in plasma (0.76 vs 0.53 microg/mL) and in gynaecological tissues, namely fallopian tube (1.38 vs 0.81 microg/g), posterior fornix (1.48 vs 1.05 microg/g), portio vaginalis (1.46 vs 1.45 microg/g) and endometrium (2.20 vs 1.39 microg/g), as expected after repeated drug administrations.  

In addition, ICSS facilitates operant and spatial learning, and ameliorates fornix-lesion induced behavioral deficits.  

Experiment 2 assessed the impact of fornix lesions on the acquisition of one version of this task (CS+ 1.5s, CS- 0.5s). Experiment 3 examined whether rats with either fornix or hippocampal lesions affected discriminations between 12.0 s and 3.0 s stimuli. The results not only reveal that neither the fornix nor the hippocampus is necessary for distinguishing temporal intervals within the ranges tested but also showed how under some circumstances these lesions can leave trace conditioning intact..  

fornix cleaning and daily rodding was not tolerated, and there was no response to medical drug therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In the acute phase of severe Stevens-Johnson syndrome, conservative measures of daily fornix cleaning and rodding may not be practical.  

Limbic structures that show consistent patient/control differences in both postmortem and neuroimaging studies include the anterior cingulate and hippocampus, although differences in the amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and fornix have also been observed.  

METHODS: We examined 20 healthy volunteers by conventional DTI with a voxel size of 1.6 x 1.6 x 3.0 mm and by high-resolution DTI with a voxel size of 1.6 x 1.6 x 1.6 mm and generated tractographs of three limbic nerve bundles: the fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. RESULTS: The entire pathways of the fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus were more readily visualized by high-resolution DTI than by conventional DTI. Among these, the fimbria of the fornix and the uncinate fasciculus adjacent to the temporal pole were identified more frequently by high-resolution DTI (visualization rate 83 and 100%, respectively) than by conventional DTI (visualization rate 63 and 83%, respectively) at a statistical significance of P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Fractional anisotropy values in the fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus by high-resolution DTI were significantly higher than those by conventional DTI (P < 0.01); in contrast, the apparent diffusion coefficient values of all these fibers except that of the fornix remained unchanged between the two techniques.  

PSPMNs located around the fornix express orexin, whereas those located around the cerebral peduncle are more likely to express MCH.  

The use of a limbus-based or fornix-based conjunctival flap, the size and architecture of the scleral flap, the size of the sclerostomy, as well as the use of antimetabolites are currently being debated.  

fornix lesions did not affect either version of the task, demonstrating that the extended hippocampal system has no role in stimulus-outcome (S-O) associations.  

Relative to controls, the fractional anisotropy (FA) values were significantly smaller in both regions of interest in the right hemisphere, in contrast to a control region (the fornix), indicating an alteration of anatomical connections within the attention and EF cerebral systems in adults with childhood ADHD.  

Anterograde amnesia due to infarction of the anterior fornix is a rare but unique neuropsychological syndrome. Here we report a patient of infarction of the anterior fornix and genu of the corpus callosum who developed sudden apathy and anterograde amnesia.  

Simulated transection of the fornix, effectively eliminating hippocampal and prefrontal influence over the nucleus accumbens, abolishes normal contextual modulation of behavior.  

We have previously found that EPO given to fimbria-fornix transected rats at the moment of injury is able substantially to improve the posttraumatic acquisition of allocentric place learning tasks administered in a water maze as well as in an 8-arm radial maze. Consequently, we presently studied the effects of similarly administered EPO in fimbria-fornix transected and control operated rats, respectively--evaluating the posttraumatic behavioural/cognitive abilities in a spatial delayed alternation task performed in a T-maze. Administration of EPO to the hippocampally injured rats was associated with a substantial reduction of the lesion-associated behavioural impairment--while such an impairment was clearly seen in the saline injected fimbria-fornix transected group.  

Cerebral CT examination was performed, showing a 0.5 cm ischaemic lesion of the left hippocampal fornix.  

Do lesions of the fornix or the hippocampus impair the performance of spatial conditional associative learning tasks, and to what extent does damage to these brain structures result in comparable deficits in this type of spatial behavior? The available evidence is not clear. In the present study, rats with lesions of the fornix, hippocampus, and normal control animals were trained on two spatial-visual conditional learning tasks in which they had to form arbitrary associations between visual stimuli and the context in which these stimuli were embedded. Rats with fornix transection were able to learn both conditional tasks at a rate comparable to that of normal control animals, but rats with hippocampal damage were severely impaired under both conditions. In addition, the results argue that the fornix is not necessary for the acquisition of certain spatial conditional learning tasks and that this brain structure cannot be used as an indicator of hippocampal dysfunction under all learning situations..  

PURPOSE: To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) control and other clinical outcomes after 1-site fornix-based and 2-site limbus-based phacotrabeculectomy. METHODS: Forty-four eyes were assigned randomly to receive a 1-site phacotrabeculectomy with a fornix-based conjunctival flap, and 46 eyes were assigned randomly to receive a 2-site phacotrabeculectomy with a limbus-based conjunctival flap. CONCLUSIONS: One-site fornix-based and 2-site limbus-based phacotrabeculectomy were similarly effective in lowering IOP and reducing the need for antiglaucoma medications over a 3-year follow-up period..  

Preoperative endoscopic and barium meal exams showed a submucosal tumor in the gastric fornix. We performed a stapled resection of the gastric fornix associated with Hiss angle reconstruction.  

We present a case of PUK associated with a hard contact lens (CL) retained in the superior fornix for over 16 years.  

Although the precise location of CLF within the conjunctiva varied from species to species, all CLF were found in the fornix of the conjunctival sac.  

We assessed age-related changes of quantitative diffusivity parameters and fiber characteristics within the fornix and the cingulum. Quantitative fiber tracking was performed for 3D-segmentation of the fornix and the cingulum to determine fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), eigenvalues (lambda1, lambda2, and lambda3), number of fibers (NoF), and mean NoF/voxel (FpV). In the fornix, all diffusivity parameters (FA, MD, and eigenvalues) were moderately correlated with age. Differences in correlations between the fornix and the cingulum were significant for all diffusivity parameters and for NoF, but not for FpV. The strongest relative changes per decade of age were found in the fornix: FA -2.1%, MD 4.2%, NoF -10.6%, and FpV -4.6%. Our quantitative 3D fiber tracking approach shows that the cingulum is resistant to aging while the fornix is not..  

MMC, 0.2 mg/mL for 2 to 3 minutes, was applied under a fornix-based conjunctival flap.  

Occasionally, they are located in the caruncle, but rarely are nevi found in the fornix or tarsal conjunctival surface.  

The inferior thalamic peduncle is a bundle of fibers connecting the orbito-frontal cortex with the non-specific thalamic system in a small area behind the fornix and anterior to the polar reticular thalamic nucleus.  

Sampling of the fornix, caruncula, and ocular material in children is difficult with the Biopore method, and exfoliative cytology seems to be the favorable test in those situations..  

Histopathology showed involvement of the conjunctiva substantia propria, superior conjunctival fornix, and episclera, as well as extension from the lateral rectus muscle sheath.  

Four samples (before and 90 days after surgery) were collected from the women by means of swabs: (1) anterior vaginal fornix, (2) posterior vaginal fornix, (3) posterior wall of lower vagina, and (4) endocervix (except in cases after hysterectomy).  

We therefore investigated the effects of 4OH-GTS-21, a selective partial agonist for these receptors, on septohippocampal cholinergic and GABAergic neuron survival following fimbria fornix (FFX) lesions in three strains of mice: C57BL/6J wild type mice; human presenilin-1 mutant M146L (PS1) transgenic mice; and mice expressing both mutant PS1 and Swedish mutant K670N/M671L amyloid precursor protein (APP).  

We collected paired cervical and vaginal specimens; vaginal specimens were collected from the fornix to minimize cervical contamination.  

Provided that the samples are taken from equivalent locations (the vaginal fornix) and analyzed according to the same scoring criteria, there is no discernable difference in the diagnostic accuracy of the three smear-staining methods.  

The current study investigated the effects of galantamine (0.0 or 3.0mg/kg) in rabbits sustaining knife-cut lesions to the fimbria-fornix, a major projection pathway connecting the hippocampus to cortical and subcortical brain structures involved in the formation of long-term memories. Experiment one assessed the effects of knife-cut lesions to the fornix or sham surgeries on trace eyeblink (EB) conditioning. Results indicate that fornix lesions significantly retarded EB conditioning when trace parameters were employed. Experiment 2 assessed whether treatment with galantamine would reverse the deficits caused by fornix damage. Results indicate that 3.0mg/kg GAL reversed trace EB conditioning deficits in animals with fornix knife-cut lesions.  

In the genitourinary medicine clinic setting, the most practical and widely used method of diagnosing Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is direct microscopy of a wet mount preparation (WMP) of a sample taken from the posterior vaginal fornix.  

The second swab was obtained from the posterior fornix of the vagina and inoculated in the InPouch for culture of T.  

(Haptic contact lenses fit over the entire anterior surface of the globe from superior to inferior and medial to lateral fornix.  

A modified phacotrabeculectomy surgical technique was used that included a 2-site incision approach, fornix-based flap, use of mitomycin-C, acrylic intraocular lens implantation, sutured scleral and conjunctival flaps, and sutured temporal clear corneal incision.  

These observations may be explained by the optimal conditions for presence and development of fungi in the conjunctival fornix microenvironment in Amiata donkeys..  

A dorsal pathway from the dorsal third of field CA1 innervates moderately the retrosplenial area; a moderately strong ventral pathway from the ventral two thirds of field CA1 passing through the longitudinal association bundle sends offshoots to visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory, main and accessory olfactory, and visceral areas-as well as the basolateral amygdalar complex and the agranular insular and orbital areas; and a cortical-subcortical-cortical pathway through the fornix from the whole longitudinal extent of field CA1 innervates rather strongly a rostral region that includes the tenia tecta along with the anterior cingulate, prelimbic, infralimbic, and orbital areas.  

The posterior fornix was evaluated accurately with an up-and-down sliding movement of the probe.  

In small type III HH, GKS is the safer procedure because of the very close relationship to the fornix and mammillary bodies.  

METHODS: Prospective study of all eyes, undergoing NPGS with 0.04% MMC (1 to 2 min topical or 0.04 mL subconjunctival injection into the superior fornix) or 5FU (25 mg/mL topically for 5 min).  

Tract- specific analysis can also apply for the limbic-related tracts such as fornix, cingulum, uncinate fasciculus and etc.  

Luminal obstruction by debris was noted in nine eyes, ocular discomfort in four, improper tube size selection in two, malposition in one, infection in one, diplopia in one, corneal abrasion in one, and reflux of intranasal secretion into fornix in another.  

Among preclinical FAD mutation carriers (n = 12), mean whole brain white-matter FA (P = 0.045), FA of the columns of the fornix (P = 0.012), area of the perforant pathways bilaterally (right side: P = 0.028, left side: P = 0.027) and left orbitofrontal lobe (P = 0.024) were decreased relative to that of non-carriers (n = 8). We also found that FA in the columns of the fornix (P = 0.008) and left orbitofrontal lobe white matter (P = 0.045) were decreased in the eight presymptomatic mutation carriers compared to seven non-carriers. Logistic regression demonstrated that FA of the columns of the fornix was a better predictor of mutation status than was cross-sectional area of the fornix, global mean white-matter FA and left frontal lobe white-matter FA. In a linear regression analysis, white-matter volume (P = 0.002), hippocampal volume (P = 0.023) and mutation status (P = 0.032) significantly predicted fornix FA. Decreased FA in of the columns of the fornix is particularly robust in early FAD and may provide a biomarker for early disease in sporadic Alzheimer's disease..  

Results of the voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps revealed significant differences in anisotropy in major white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum (CC), internal and external capsule, superior and inferior longitudinal fascicles, and the fornix in the TBI group.  

Gastrointestinal endoscopy, X-ray series and computed tomography of the patient's abdomen revealed a gastric submucosal tumor in the fornix, with a fistula to the gastric lumen that was inundated with a great deal of pus.  

Tractography and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses were performed in the fornix, cingulum, genu, and splenium of the corpus callosum and external capsules. RESULTS: The fornix, cingulum, and external capsules showed preoperative bilateral abnormal diffusion parameters (i.e., decreased diffusion anisotropy and increased mean and perpendicular diffusivities). The fornix and cingulum ipsilateral to the resected mesial temporal structures showed signs of wallerian degeneration at 1-year follow-up. The contralateral tracts of the fornix, cingulum, and external capsules, as well as the genu of the corpus callosum, failed to show a normalization of their diffusion parameters.  

Fertiloscopy allows the visualization of the posterior pelvis (posterior face of the uterus, ovaries, tubes and intestinal ansae with the rectum), with a technique of introducing an optical device in the pouch of Douglas, through the posterior vaginal fornix, under previous general or local anesthesia.  

The acquisition of a spatial delayed alternation task in a T-maze was studied in four groups of rats: animals in which the fimbria-fornix had been transected bilaterally, rats who had received bilateral ablations of the anteromedial prefrontal cortex, animals in which both of these structures had been lesioned, and a sham operated control group. Both of the fimbria-fornix transected groups were significantly impaired even when compared to the group given prefrontal cortical ablations in isolation. The two fimbria-fornix lesioned groups did, however, exhibit levels of functional recovery. The group in which both structures had been lesioned demonstrated a task acquisition, which was significantly inferior to that of the group given fimbria-fornix transections in isolation. This expansion of the inter-trial delay rather selectively impaired the task performance of the group given fimbria-fornix transections in isolation. Consequently, both during the acquisition period and in one of the challenges a differentiation of functional recovery was seen between the combined lesioned group and the group given fimbria-fornix lesions only. This indicates that even in case of a spatial delayed alternation task the prefrontal cortex normally contributes significantly to mediation of posttraumatic functional recovery after isolated lesions of the fimbria-fornix.  

A prolene mesh was sutured to the ventral rectum, posterior vagina and vaginal fornix and secured to the sacral promontory.  

In both patients, DTI fiber tractography revealed interruption of the white matter fibers in the corpus collosum and the fornix, while no lesions were found on conventional MRI. The interruption of the fornix which involves the circuit of Papez potentially correlates with the memory disorder.  

Results: One hundred and nineteen patients were evaluated, and the most common finding was conjunctival fornix edema (89.7%, 95% CI 83.5-94.7), followed by tarsal papillae (70.6%, 95% CI 62.4-78.8); the most common non-allergy-related finding was tear film deficiency (52.9%, 95% CI 43.9-61.9). Conclusions: Conjunctival fornix edema was consistently more frequent than most of the signs used to diagnose allergic conjunctivitis in medical journals.  

The relationship of the entorhinal cortex (EC) and fimbria-fornix (FF) in unreinforced spatial (latent) learning was studied using the conditioned-cue-preference task on an eight-arm radial maze. These results indicate that the acquisition of information during unreinforced exploration of a novel environment requires an intact circuit involving the dorsal EC and fimbria fornix.  

The vaginal fornix can be extremely distended during sexual intercourse, making it vulnerable to laceration in this area.  

We report here a case of posterior vaginal fornix endometriosis that was overlooked for several years.  

The inferior conjunctival fornix was cultured before and after antiseptic technique was performed in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Irrigating the conjunctival fornix with 5% povidone iodine results in greater reduction of bacterial colonization compared with drop application of the same solution.  

Postoperatively, corneal epitheliopathy with reduced vision (6/60), orbital inflammation, inferior oblique underaction, and superomedial fornix symblepharon at the caruncular incision sight each occurred in one patient along with extensive subconjunctival hemorrhage and a suture-related conjunctival granuloma in others.  

Shortening of the posterior lamella and fornix contracture would explain eyelid retraction and failure of the upper eyelid to smoothly follow the globe on downgaze..  

One patient had perforation of the vaginal fornix, and 3 patients developed vaginal erosion.  

CASE: A 22 year old female was diagnosed with clinical stage I vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma in the left fornix abutting the cervix.  

Tear washes were obtained by instillation of saline onto the ocular surface, followed by collection from the inferior fornix.  

In addition, reduced memory scores correlated in the expected direction with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hippocampus and diffusion tension imaging (DTI) of the fornix for subsets of both patients and controls that had available these structural imaging measures. Reduced executive functioning also correlated with lower fornix integrity for the patient subset.  

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