Cortico-spinal Tract

White-matter density in the putative cortico-spinal tract (pCST) decreased with age.  

We illustrate the approach with a segmentation of the corpus callosum and one of the cortico-spinal tract, with each example seeded at a single voxel..  

It may result from muscle weakness and deficits in dexterity, which is two aspects of motor control that are dependent on cortico-spinal tract (CST) integrity and are crucial to ambulation.  

These activation differences depend on the integrity of the cortico-spinal tract, which was measured via lesion subtraction analysis between patient groups, and was supported by affected motor evoked potentials..  

After a prospective approach over the whole brain, we demonstrated early leftward asymmetries in the arcuate fasciculus and in the cortico-spinal tract.  

CONCLUSIONS: The ipsilateral cortico-spinal tract is acutely facilitated after stroke in the trunk or proximal muscles, but not in the hand muscles.  

Significant correlations were found between disease progression rate and (i) FA in the white matter adjacent to the PMC in PLS, and (ii) FA along the cortico-spinal tract and in the body of the corpus callosum in ALS.  

The FDi, FA and ADC values were calculated in areas of white matter in close proximity to the tumor (perWM) and encompassing fibers of cortico-spinal tract and in the contralateral normal-appearing white matter (nWM). The clinical compromise of the cortico-spinal tract was graded using Brunnstrom's criteria.  

Region of interest analysis included anterior and posterior corona radiata, cortico-spinal tracts, cingulum fibre bundles, external capsule, forceps minor and major, genu, body and splenium of the corpus callosum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus and sagittal stratum. Decreased fractional anisotropy was found in all 13 regions of interest for the moderate to severe TBI group, but only in the cortico-spinal tract, sagittal stratum and superior longitudinal fasciculus for the mild TBI group.  

Predictive factors included the response to pharmacological tests, the relative sparing from the disease process of the cortico-spinal tract and the sensory system, and the analgesic response achieved during the test period of MCS.  

While TMS was applied to probe the integrity of the cortico-spinal tract (CST) at rest, MEG was used to test for recruitment of CST pathways during a motor challenge [ cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) in a precision grip task].  

precentral gyrus and cortico-spinal tract).  

Statistically significant between-group difference or trend toward changing of some TMS parameters were found that indicates a slow-down of the impulse conducting along the cortico-spinal tract, which is characteristic of demyelinization process.  

Follow up imaging showed persistent abnormal ADC and FA values in the pons although the left cortico-spinal tract returned to normal, consistent with the clinical outcome.  

Single-pulse TMS showed that the integrity of the cortico-spinal tract system was critical for motor recovery within the first four weeks, irrespective of a concomitant affection of the somatosensory system.  

We observed variations in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity over the considered developmental period in most bundles (corpus callosum, cerebellar peduncles, cortico-spinal tract, spino-thalamic tract, capsules, radiations, longitudinal and uncinate fascicles, cingulum).  

The role of the motor cortex and the cortico-spinal tract in these reflexes and their modulation is unknown. Patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) have a lesion in the cortico-spinal tract and may show deficits in P2 reflexes and/or their modulation. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the cortico-spinal tract is involved in the regulation of the amplitude of the P2 responses and their phase-dependent modulation..  

Beside the cortico-spinal tract, the cortico-thalamic fibres were also visualized by anterograde Mn2+ transport.  

In the telencephalon, EphA4 was expressed in the developing cortex from embryonic day 11 (E11) and, later, on major cortical tracts including the corpus callosum and cortico-spinal tract.  

Magnetic resonance has shown T2 hyperintensity along the cortico-spinal tract in the brain of cirrhotic patients. Because astrocytic edema present in hepatic encephalopathy may be responsible for neuronal dysfunction, we studied whether T2 hyperintensity along the cortico-spinal tract may relate to functional abnormalities. Twenty patients with cirrhosis underwent neuropsychologic tests, neurophysiologic study of the cortico-spinal tract with transcranial magnetic stimulation, and (1)H-magnetic resonance. Cirrhotic patients exhibited increased T2 signal and several functional abnormalities along the cortico-spinal tract (increased central motor conduction time, increased motor cortical threshold, and decreased motor-evoked potential amplitude). In conclusion, T2 hyperintensity along the cortico-spinal tract in cirrhosis relates to functional abnormalities that are reversible after liver transplantation.  

In the telencephalon, EphA4 was expressed in the developing cortex from embryonic day 11 (E11) and, later, on major cortical tracts including the corpus callosum and cortico-spinal tract.  

A striatal toe has been defined as an apparent extensor plantar response, without fanning of the toes, in the absence of any other signs suggesting dysfunction of the cortico-spinal tract.  

The severity of structural damage to hand motor projections of the cortico-spinal tract was assessed on semi-coronal MRI reconstructions along anatomical landmarks of cortico-spinal tract somatotopy.  

We prospectively studied 5 patients while they were recovering from left-sided subcortical stroke affecting the cortico-spinal tract, and examined them twice with H(2)(15)O-PET over several months while performing an identical task with the affected hand.  

This symptom might be a consequence either of a functional deafferentation of the cortex due to cortico-subcortical interconnection damage or of a demyelination in critical sites of the CNS, such as the cortico-spinal tract..  

These results suggest that preparation to respond at a particular time inhibited excitability of the cortico-spinal tract, while advance preparation to perform specific responses affected more central structures only..  

In humans, cortico-motor excitation of the diaphragm may act directly on the phrenic motor nucleus via the cortico-spinal tract 'bypassing' brain stem respiratory centres (RC); alternatively, or in addition, this control may be indirect via the RC and bulbo-spinal paths.  

Three levels of neural organization are considered: spinal level of central pattern generator (CPG): its existence and function are described with emphasis on its neurochemical constituents; moreover, sensory feedback from proprioceptive and cutaneous inputs--acting in specific phase with the locomotor rythm--is discussed; supraspinal modulations, either tonic or phasic: several brainstem loci (relaying through the median reticular formation) are key-structures in the tonic drive of the spinal locomotor network whereas vestibular nuclei and red nucleus are respectively involved in phasic modulation of extensor and flexor activities; moreover, the cerebellum receiving efference copy from the spinal network--plays a major role in the control of these subcortical systems; "superior" adaptations for skilled locomotion: a possible visuo-motor coordination by the motor cortex and cortico-spinal tract is finally proposed, based on recording and microstimulation experiments in the cat..  

We compared the results obtained using different forms of stimulation capable of activating the cortico-spinal tract at different sites.  

In two subjects, involvement of the cortico-spinal tract was demonstrated by magnetic evoked potentials.  

Similar to Davison's Pallido-pyramidal syndrome, they presented with the clinical signs and symptoms of severe parkinsonism as well as evidence of cortico-spinal tract disease.  

Systematic electrophysiological investigations of the peripheral and central nervous systems, particularly of cortico-spinal tract function, however, are not available. Evidence of cortico-spinal tract involvement was found in 4 patients, which was clinically expected in only 2. Therefore, dysfunction of the cortico-spinal tract in mitochondrial CPEO may occur more frequently than so far assumed.  

By analogy with the cortico-spinal tract, we suggest that the existence of an ipsilateral tecto-spinal pathway can be regarded as evidence for a substantial development of the cat tecto-spinal system as compared with other mammals..  

In 13 patients a pathological pattern of TMS could be detected, and in 7 of these a corresponding lesion of the cortico-spinal tract was found in CT or MRI scans. In 7 children TMS was normal, in spite of a clear-cut lesion of the cortico-spinal tract in CT or MRI scans in 4 of them.  

In 16, the lesions were within the territory of the middle cerebral artery, 9 of which also involved the cortico-spinal tract (CST).  

Here we show that in myelin-free spinal cords cortico-spinal tract fibers transected at 2 weeks of age show reelongation of many millimeters within 2-3 weeks after the lesion.  

In 2-6-week-old rats we made complete transections of the cortico-spinal tract, a major fibre tract of the spinal cord, the axons of which originate in the motor and sensory neocortex. Previous studies have shown a complete absence of cortico-spinal tract regeneration after the first postnatal week in rats, and in adult hamsters and cats.  

In 6 patients without cortico-spinal tract involvement, a CSP consisted of a direct (D) wave, which was followed by indirect (I) waves at a higher stimulus intensity.  

The paralysis due to lesions of the cortico-spinal tract disturb movements in their different modes while dissociated paralysis result from cortical and particular biopercular lesions.  

cortico-spinal tract (day 11), Lissauer tract (day 14) and the commissures started to acquire myelin very late.  

This could be explained by the fact that electrical stimulation elicits a direct response in the cortico-spinal tract whereas magnetic cortical stimulation has indirect effects on the pyramidal cells of the motor cortex through excitatory interneurons.  

It was revealed that the cortico-spinal tract presumably formed the locomotor strip.  

Parkinsonisms are characterized by abnormalities of the cortico-ponto-cerebello-dentato-rubro-thalamo-cortico-spinal tract or the nigrostriatal tract.  

Secondary transneuronal degeneration of the cortico-spinal tract (CST) has been induced after sciatic nerve section in newborn rats.  

Crossed cerebellar atrophy generally results from a large contralateral hemispheric lesion involving the cortico-spinal tract in neonates or infants.  

Three groups of fibres were found to contribute to such e.p.s.p.s: fibres which terminated or originated between spinal segments C3-4 and C1, or Th9 and C3-4 and cortico-spinal tract fibres.  

Axons of about 2/3 of the cells under study formed the cortico-spinal tract passing through the ventral portion of the dorsal column up to the lumbar segments of the spinal cord.  

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