Cornu Ammonis

The main subfields of the hippocampus (cornu ammonis fields CA1, CA2/3; the dentate gyrus; and the vestigial hippocampal sulcus) are labeled in the images manually using a combination of distinguishable image features and geometrical features.  

For histological assessment, the ratio of the surviving neurons (ipsilateral/contralateral) was calculated in the cornu ammonis fields, CA1 and CA3, and the dentate gyrus (DG).  

In this study we evaluated the effects of the novel, potent non-competitive metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 antagonist (3aS,6aS)-6a-naphthalen-2-ylmethyl-5-methyliden-hexahydro-cyclopental[ c]furan-1-on (BAY 36-7620) on different types of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) 1-region and on hippocampus-dependent spatial learning.  

Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice have learning deficits and altered synaptic plasticity in cornu ammonis (CA1) hippocampus, but the possibility that altered synapse morphology or distribution may underlie these alterations has not been examined.  

Anatomical assessment at approximately 7 1/2 months of age was conducted by using design-based stereology to quantify the total cell number in five hippocampal subregions [ granule layer (GL), hilus of the dentate gyrus (DGH), cornu ammonis fields (CA)2/3, CA1, and subiculum (SUB)] [ Fitting, S., Booze, R.M., Hasselrot, U., Mactutus, C.F., 2007a.  

The hippocampus receives information from the cortex; relays it through the dentate gyrus (DG), cornu ammonis (CA) 3, and then CA1; and sends it back to the cortex.  

Neuronal cell counts and density measures from brain sections stained with Cresyl Violet revealed that exposure of P21 mice to 60 min of HI resulted in extensive damage to the ipsilateral cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus (40% cell loss) and striatum (30% cell loss) 7 days later.  

Treatment with 20 microM and 100 microM SB239063 strikingly reduced cell death after oxygen-glucose deprivation and significantly diminished microglia activation in the cornu ammonis (CA-region), but not in the area dentata.  

We investigated whether Abeta levels are increased in cornu ammonis 1 pyramidal neurons of Alzheimer's disease hippocampus, using laser capture microdissection to isolate the neurons and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification. We speculate that intracellular accumulation of Abeta42 increase vulnerability of cornu ammonis 1 pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease..  

Terminally ill scrapie-infected animals exhibit nearly complete loss of cornu ammonis (CA) 1 pyramidal neurons, but few studies have focused on the neuropathological lesions of the human hippocampus in autopsied brain tissue; in particular, few findings on differences in severity of pathology between the hippocampal and parahippocampal formations have been obtained.  

At 6-24 h after ischemia, when the pyramidal cells in the CA1 (subfield of cornu ammonis) region showed no morphological signs of damage, a small rise of KCC2 immunoreactivity was already observed.  

Although persistent translation arrest correlates with the selective vulnerability of post-ischemic hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (Ammon's horn) (CA1) neurons, the mechanism of persistent translation arrest is not fully understood.  

For MSL, no significant correlation was found in the dentate gyrus (DG), r=-0.36; p=0.2017, and positive correlation was found in cornu ammonis (CA3), r=0.62; p=0.0174.  

The hippocampus (dentate gyrus DG plus cornu ammonis, CA) is vulnerable to neuropathological events such as ischemia.  

Subregional analysis revealed selective volume loss in the cornu ammonis (CA) 1 region of the hippocampus in RRMS with further worsening of CA1 loss and extension into other CA regions in SPMS.  

By immunohistochemistry, the AP antibody recognizes high levels of NDCBE in neurons of CX, HC (including pyramidal neurons in cornu ammonis (CA)1-3 and dentate gyrus), substantial nigra, medulla, cerebellum (especially Purkinje and granular cells), and the basolateral membrane of fetal choroid plexus.  

We explored the interplay of excitation and inhibition in synapses between pyramidal neurons of cornu ammonis field 3 of the hippocampal formation (CA3) in cultured rat hippocampal slices, where activation of a single excitatory cell can readily recruit local interneurons.  

In addition, no differences were found in cell densities in hippocampal cornu ammonis subfields (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4), fascia dentata, polymorphic region, subiculum, prosubiculum, and presubiculum.  

The relative distributions of MR and GR also differed in hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) regions.  

Here we provide ultrastructural analyses of axospinous synapses in cornu ammonis field 1 of hippocampus (CA1) stratum radiatum of transgenic mice with mutations to two key underlying postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and the alpha-isoform of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alphaCaMKII).  

Results indicated that the study group had lower spatial learning capabilities along with decreased length and number of dendritic segments, branching of granules and cornu ammonis (CA)3 pyramidal cells.  

High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the direct cortical input (dCI) to cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) induced homosynaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) while simultaneously evoking LTHPSD at the Schaffer collateral input.  

Short-term plasticity of mossy fiber-cornu ammonis (CA) 3 synapses was unaltered, as assessed by paired-pulse and frequency facilitation of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in hippocampal slices, suggesting that despite high transgene galanin expression, overall release probability of glutamate in these synapses was unaffected.  

In agreement with prior findings, we observed that stress reduced the magnitude of Schaffer collateral/commissural-cornu ammonis field 1 long-term potentiation in vitro, and selectively impaired spatial memory on a hidden platform version of the Morris water maze task. We also observed that stress impaired the stability of firing rates (but not firing locations) of place cells recorded from dorsal cornu ammonis field 1 in rats foraging freely on a novel open-field platform located in a familiar surrounding room.  

Results showed that pubertal AAS exposure significantly increased spine densities on neurons in the anterior medial amygdala, posterodorsal medial amygdala, and the cornu ammonis region 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus compared with gonadally intact control males.  

AMPH administered in the AMPH-paired context increased the density of both Fos and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis (CA)1, CA3, basolateral amygdala and dorsolateral striatum.  

Using Nissl-stained tissue sections, we quantified total neurons in five subregions of the rat hippocampus [ granual layer (GL), hilus of the dentate gyrus (DGH), cornu ammonis fields (CA)2/3, CA1, and subiculum (SUB)], and total glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) in two subregions (DGH and SUB).  

Specifically, we determined the cornu ammonis region 1 (CA1) field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) response to cornu ammonis region 3 (CA3) stimulation and examined the presynaptic mechanisms underlying the changes in the fEPSP.  

These were smaller than the mixed lesions and had a specific anatomical predilection: the cornu ammonis 2 subregion and the hilus of the dentate gyrus were consistently spared.  

In 30- and 90-day-old rats, using immunohistochemistry for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD-67), we have tested whether malnutrition during different periods of hippocampal development produces deleterious effects on the population of GABA neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) and cornu ammonis (CA1-3) of the dorsal hippocampus.  

RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients with TGA showed 34 DWI lesions with corresponding T2 lesions in the CA-1 sector of the hippocampal cornu ammonis within a time window of 24-72 h after onset.  

Statistical mapping results, confirmed by permutation testing, revealed localized deficits in the right hippocampus, in regions corresponding primarily to cornu ammonis 1 subfields, in unmedicated bipolar patients, as compared to both normal controls (p=0.01), and in lithium-treated bipolar patients (p=0.03).  

Immunohistochemical examination revealed that NHP2 and 3, but not NHP1, had a marked neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal region, specifically the cornu ammonis (CA1) region.  

A glass capillary-based enzyme electrode (tip size approximately 10 microm) was implanted in the target neuronal region, i.e., dentate gyrus (DG) or cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), of acute brain slices at a depth of approximately 10 microm from the slice surface in order to allow the monitoring of chemical stimulant-induced changes in L-glutamate levels.  

The hippocampal cornu ammonis 2 (CA2) region is unique in being the only CA region receiving inputs from the hypothalamic supramammillary nucleus, of importance in modulating hippocampal theta rhythm, and is seizure resistant in temporal lobe epilepsy.  

In butylphthalide group, there was a significant expression up-regulation to BDNF, NGF, BDNF mRNA and NGF mRNA in the peripheral around infarction and cornu ammonis or hippocampus area (P<0.  

In aging rats, kainate produced a significant increase in oxidative DNA damage (8OHdG/2dG) and neuronal loss in cornu ammonis regions 3 and 1 (CA3 and CA1), but not dentate gyrus compared with both age-matched controls and adult kainate-treated rats.  

RESULTS: All three transporters showed strong expression in the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb and in olfactory nerve, the molecular layer and neuronal processes of input fibres extending vertically in motor cortex, in the dendritic arborization of the cornu ammonis and dendate gyrus (hippocampus), neuronal processes in the arcuate nucleus (hypothalamus), choroid plexus cells, and neuronal cell bodies and dendrites of cranial nerve nuclei V and VII.  

Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated widespread granular deposits of alpha-synuclein (alphaSN) in the brains of sheep and goats with natural scrapie, especially in the cornu ammonis and subiculum of the hippocampus; this contrasted with the diffuse and non-granular immunolabelling seen in healthy controls.  

The cytoprotective effect of ATRA was observed not only in cornu ammonis (CA) 1 but also in CA2 and dentate gyrus (DG), and was attenuated by selective antagonists for RAR or RXR.  

p-Ctnnb1 was detected in hippocampal fiber tracts and in cornu ammonis 1 neuronal nuclei.  

Here we report that inhibition of System A glutamine transporters with alpha-(methyl-amino) isobutyric acid rapidly reduced the amplitude of inhibitory post-synaptic currents and miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) recorded in rat hippocampal area cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) pyramidal neurons, indicating that synaptic vesicle content of GABA was reduced.  

Lipofuscin pigment, an end product of lipid peroxidation, was quantified in hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 and 3 (CA1 and CA3) pyramidal neurons using stereological methods.  

UCO in vehicle and finasteride-treated fetuses produced a similar, marked decrease in O2 saturation (5.8+/-0.6%), but after finasteride treatment UCO caused a significantly greater increase in the number of caspase-3 positive cells in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) (57.3+/-1.6%) compared with the vehicle-treated fetuses.  

E2 increased the expression of PSD95, a postsynaptic marker, specifically in stratum lucidum of cornu ammonis 3 (CA3SL) in cultured hippocampal slices.  

NFT density was obtained by counting labeled NFT in cornu ammonis (CA) 1-CA4, subiculum and entorhinal cortex.  

The delayed and selective vulnerability of post-ischemic hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) 1 pyramidal neurons correlates with a lack of recovery of normal protein synthesis.  

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure of neonatal rats to formaldehyde (FA) had either early or delayed effects on the numbers of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) of the hippocampus.  

Two hippocampal sectors show distinct responses to transient ischemia: the cornu ammonis (CA)1 sector undergoes a delayed neuronal death followed by a lack of neuronal generation, while the dentate gyrus (DG) shows slight postischemic damage followed by an increased neurogenesis.  

Under conditions in which GABAergic inhibition is blocked, norepinephrine reduces hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) epileptiform activity through alpha(2) adrenergic receptor (AR) activation on pyramidal cells.  

We have previously reported alpha(1)AR transcripts in a subpopulation of cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) interneurons.  

However, little is known about the distributions of beta-ARs in the hippocampus, especially in the cornu ammonis (CA)1 and CA3 regions of Sprague-Dawley rats.  

Concentration-dependent injury in the cornu ammonis (CA)1 pyramidal cell layer and to a lesser extent, CA3 and dentate cells, was evident 3 days after the start of CPO exposure (>or=0.1 microM) and was greatest after 7 days.  

Significant differences were observed in the dentate gyrus, the cornu ammonis (CA)-4 region, and the fissura hippocampi between the AHS and control groups.  

Metabolic activations were found in the prelimbic cortex, cornu ammonis (CA) 1 subfield of the dorsal hippocampus and the anterior thalamic nuclei, relative to yoked swim controls and na├»ve rats.  

The dendritic morphology of neurons in cornu ammonis region 1 (CA1) and cornu ammonis region 3 (CA3) was studied in Golgi-impregnated hippocampal sections.  

The D-glucose fluxes in mouse hippocampal slices stimulated by a hypoxia solution were neuronal region-dependent, i.e., dentate gyrus (DG), cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) and cornu ammonis 3 (CA3), while those stimulated by KCl was independent of the neuronal regions.  

We found that OGD10-induced nPKCepslilon membrane translocation was mediated by NMDA receptors, and both OGD10 and NMDA (1 microM, 30 min) pretreatment could protect cornu ammonis region 1 neurons against the subsequent severe OGD45. These results suggest that OGD10-induced neuroprotection against severe OGD45 in the cornu ammonis region 1 region of the hippocampal slices was mediated by the activations of NMDA receptors, nPKCepsilon, and the downstream ERKs..  

Total neuron number in one side of the cornu ammonis (CA) and gyrus dentatus (GD) of the hippocampal formation in control and drug-treated (diclofenac sodium, DS) groups of male rats was estimated using the optical fractionator technique.  

HIA was defined as the angle between the line connecting the lateral margin of the cornu ammonis with the medial superior margin of the subiculum and the line passing through the midline structures.  

Neuronal loss and gliosis in cornu ammonis 1 and the subiculum of the hippocampus are features of hippocampal sclerosis (HpScl), which occurs in many cases of FTLD-U.  

The CA1 (cornu ammonis subfield 1) region was chosen for the detailed morphological analysis of the SPR-immunoreactive cells because of its extreme vulnerability in epilepsy.  

In the mutant cornu ammonis (CA)1 region, synaptic and extrasynaptic AMPA receptors on dendrites and spines were severely reduced to 35-37% of control levels, whereas reduction was mild for extrasynaptic receptors on somata (74%) and no significant decrease was seen for intracellular receptors within spines.  

Almost all lesions (94%; 34/36) were selectively found in the CA-1 sector (Sommer sector) of the hippocampal cornu ammonis.  

Selective neuronal death, confined to the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), was observed in the 10-min CCAO group and widespread cortical and basal ganglia infarction was observed in the 20-min CCAO group.  

Generation of glial cells of all three types after HI was significantly more pronounced in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus region of the juvenile hippocampus.  

In situ hybridization assay results demonstrated that either pain or stress (acute or chronic treatments) reduced the levels of both NK-1 receptor and BDNF mRNAs in the cornu ammonis 1-3 sublayers of the hippocampus, suggesting a possible role of these neuromediators in processing of pain in higher brain centers.  

We demonstrate the usability of the server by finding statistically enriched pathways in a set of upregulated genes in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1).  

Targeted deletion of Dclk shows no appreciable developmental defect in the hippocampus, but removal of both genes shows severe hippocampal lamination defects involving the entire cornu ammonis and dentate gyrus fields that mimic the human phenotype.  

In the present study, the activity of 2588 single cornu ammonis region 1 pyramidal neurons of the dorsal hippocampus and ventral hippocampus were recorded during trace and pseudo-eye-blink conditioning of the rabbit.  

As examples, fast propagating waves of presynaptic action potentials are recorded as well as patterns of excitatory postsynaptic potentials across and along cornu ammonis..  

When combined, the hilus and cornu ammonis were damaged; principal cells in these areas coexpressed c-Fos and HSP72, with the exception of CA2; interneurons did not express HSP72 in any area.  

In the deprived animals 5-hydroxytryptamine-immunoreactive fiber densities were increased in the core region of the nucleus accumbens (up to 126%), in the central nucleus of the amygdala (up to 112%) and in the outer subregion of the dentate gyrus stratum moleculare (up to 149%), whereas decreased fiber densities were detected in the dentate subgranular layer (down to 86%) and in the stratum lacunosum of the hippocampal cornu ammonis region 1 (down to 86%).  

In cornu ammonis (Ammon's horn; CA) 1 at 90 min and 4 h reperfusion, eIF4G staining transformed from a homogeneous to an aggregated distribution.  

We showed that treatment with HGF protected hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) subregion 1 neurons from apoptotic cell death after transient forebrain ischemia.  

Studies in rats and vervet monkeys have demonstrated that removal of the testes reduces the density of synaptic contacts on dendritic spines of cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) pyramidal neurons.  

Neurons of sector cornu ammonis (CA) 1 were completely lost whereas moderate neuron loss was also observed in sectors CA3 and 4, and the dentate gyrus.  

We studied the effect of treatment with 4%, 6%, and 12% desflurane on hypoxic neuronal damage by comparing the size of the postsynaptic evoked population spike recorded from the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) pyramidal cell layer of rat hippocampal slices before and 2 hours after a hypoxic insult.  

In wild type hippocampus the densities of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunits were higher (indicated for glutamate receptor subunit 1, highly significant for glutamate receptor subunits 2/3) in mossy fiber-to-cornu ammonis 3 pyramidal cell synapses than in the Schaffer collateral/commissural-to-cornu ammonis 1 pyramidal cell synapses, the two synapse categories that carry the main excitatory throughput of the hippocampus. The increased level of glutamate receptor subunit 1 at the mossy fiber-to-cornu ammonis 3 pyramidal cell synapse may result in alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors with reduced proportions of glutamate receptor subunit 2, and hence increased Ca2+ influx, which could cause increased excitability despite of impaired synaptic function (cf. In addition, the tendency to increased predominance of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors at the main type of excitatory synapse onto cornu ammonis 1 pyramidal cells might contribute to the seizure susceptibility of the synapsin deficient mice.  

We report here both pre- and postsynaptic effects of chronic stress, manifested as a reduction in the number of NMDA receptors, dendritic spines, and expression of growth-associated protein-43 in the cornu ammonis 1 region.  

It is known that the multiple injections of ibotenic acid to the hippocampal CA1 (cornu ammonis 1) field of a rat cause cell loss and spatial learning impairment in the place task of Morris water maze.  

In these studies we show that hippocampal synaptic transmission appears normal in the dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis 1 subfields of adult mice that lack Nr2e1 (Nr2e1-/-), and that fEPSP shape, paired-pulse responses, and short-term plasticity are not substantially altered in either subfield. In contrast, the expression of long-term potentiation is selectively impaired in the dentate gyrus, and not in the cornu ammonis 1 subfield.  

Evaluations were performed not only in the dorsal hippocampus, where post-ischemic cell death develops selectively in the cornu ammonis, subfield 1 area, but also in distant areas like the ventricle wall and the striatum. In conclusion, during the first days after global ischemia, cell death of cornu ammonis, subfield 1-neurons was accompanied by a massive overall proliferation and activation of microglia/macrophages, a reduction of pre-ischemia existing doublecortin-positive precursors in the dentate gyrus and a re-expression of nestin in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes..  

between the subiculum and entorhinal cortex, subiculum and cornu ammonis, and amygdala and hippocampus, do not match sulcal landmarks such as the bottom of a sulcus.  

We determined the area-percentage covered by neuronal perikarya in relation to the total area of the pyramidal cell layer in the four subdivisions of the ammon's horn (cornu ammonis, CA1-4) bilaterally.  

DHA and NPD1 were reduced in Alzheimer disease (AD) hippocampal cornu ammonis region 1, but not in the thalamus or occipital lobes from the same brains.  

However, the selective vulnerability of cornu ammonis (CA) 1 pyramidal neurons correlates with irreversible translation inhibition.  

Sharp wave and associated fast oscillatory ripples (140-200 Hz) in the cornu ammonis 1 region are the most synchronous hippocampal patterns in the adult rat. Sharp waves in cornu ammonis 1 stratum radiatum are induced by a strong depolarization by the cornu ammonis 3 Schaffer collaterals, due to the synchronous discharge of cornu ammonis 3 pyramidal cells. cornu ammonis 1 pyramidal cell layer was determined by the presence of multiple unit activity and a reversal of the field potential in the deeper electrode sites.  

We evaluated morphological changes to the hippocampus semiquantitatively by scoring sections immunohistochemically stained for microtubule-associated protein 2 with a four-point scale for the cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA2, CA3, and hilus of the dentate gyrus (HDG).  

In cornu ammonis 3 pyramidal cells, downregulation of subunits alpha2, alpha4, alpha5, and beta1-3 was observed in the ventral hippocampus and of alpha2, alpha5, beta3 and gamma2 in its dorsal extension 24 h after SE. Similar but less pronounced changes were seen in sector cornu ammonis 1. Lasting downregulation of subunits delta and alpha5 in granule cells and transient decreases in subunit alpha2 and beta1-3 mRNA levels in cornu ammonis 3 pyramidal cells are suggestive of impaired GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition.  

We studied the density of NFT-free neurons, intracellular NFT (I-NFT), extracellular NFT (E-NFT) and total NFT (I-NFT plus E-NFT) in the six hippocampal subdivisions: cornu ammonis (CA) 1-CA4, subiculum and entorhinal cortex.  

The cornu ammonis 1 region of the hippocampus (CA1) sector of hippocampus is vulnerable to both Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type neurofibrillary degeneration and anoxia-ischemia.  

Recent studies have demonstrated that activation of the beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) using the selective beta-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO) facilitates pyramidal cell long-term potentiation in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the rat hippocampus.  

In this study, we investigated the effect of beta1AR activation on hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) network activity.  

Although neuronal death was induced selectively in the cornu ammonis, subfield 1 (CA1)-region of the hippocampus, we found an additional loss of the population spike in the dentate gyrus after stimulation of the perforant path.  

Therefore, we studied cell proliferation, glio- and neurogenesis respectively after brain injury in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures using a focal trauma by transecting Schaffer collaterals in the cornu ammonis (CA) 2 region mechanically.  

Acutely, there was ischemic neuronal necrosis, particularly apparent in the granular cells of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal cells within the hippocampus cornu ammonis (CA) sectors CA4, CA3, and CA1.  

Volume of hippocampal cornu ammonis region decreased significantly and dose-dependently after GSA injection.  

Senile plaques showed the lowest density in the cornu ammonis.  

cornu ammonis (CA)3 and dentate gyrus (DG) subregions were isolated from rat brain slices using laser microdissection, subjected to two rounds of linear amplification and hybridized to rat GeneChips containing approximately 8000 transcripts (RG_U34A; Affymetrix).  

After 6 hrs, 24 hrs, 3 days, and 7 days (n = 6-7 per group), coronal brain sections were analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated d-uracil triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and Nissl staining and a caspase activity assay in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 sector, the nucleus reticularis thalami, and the striatum. placebo) with regard to neurologic recovery and the number of viable (after 7 days in cornu ammonis 1 sector: BDNF, 110 +/- 32; placebo, 142 +/- 53) and TUNEL-positive neurons (after 7 days in cornu ammonis 1 sector: BDNF, 360 +/- 81; placebo, 253 +/- 62) during the different time points.  

Pretreatment with 17beta-estradiol attenuates ischemia-induced hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) neuronal death.  

There were significant decreases in the density of [ (3)H]ketanserin binding to the 5-HT(2A) receptor (5-HT(2A)R) in the cornu ammonis (CA) 3 (p=0.006), CA 1 (stratum radiatum p=0.02; pyramidal layer p=0.0008) and subiculum (pyramidal layer p=0.0004), as well as methiothepin-insensitive [ (3)H]sumatriptan binding to the 5-HT(1F)R in the CA 1 (p=0.016), stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare (p=0.04) and subiculum (p=0.015) from subjects with schizophrenia.  

In the adult hippocampus, neurogenesis proceeds in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG), but not in the cornu ammonis (CA).  

Ischemia-related change of PLK immunoreactivity in the hippocampus was significant in the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA1)region, not in the hippocampal CA2/3 region and dentate gyrus.  

Histological examination revealed selective neuronal death of the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) sector in 10-min CCAO animals, infarction confined to the striatum and hippocampal neuronal death in 15-min CCAO animals, and widespread hemispheric infarction in 20-min CCAO animals.  

From rodents to primates, transient global brain ischemia is a well known cause of delayed neuronal death of the vulnerable neurons including cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) pyramidal cells of the hippocampus.  

A comparison of the connections of the HCt with those of the hippocampal subdivisions reveal some similarity between the HCt and the dentate area, but the overall pattern of connectivity does not permit a correlation of the HCt with the dentate area, let alone the cornu ammonis and the subiculum. It may be tentatively correlated with the medial cortex of reptiles, while the dentate area and the cornu ammonis may have evolved de novo in mammals..  

Pre-treatment with corticosterone (0.001-1 microM) alone did not cause hippocampal damage, while NMDA exposure produced significant cellular damage in the cornu ammonis (CA)1 subregion.  

In situ hybridization in embryonic and postnatal brain showed expression of RGMa in the cornu ammonis and hilus of the hippocampus.  

The negative impact of chronic stress at the structure of apical dendrite branches of cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) pyramidal neurons is well established.  

Reelin-positive, p73-negative interneurons are prominent in the prospective strata lacunosum-moleculare and radiatum of cornu ammonis as early as 14 GW; in the dentate molecular layer and hilus they appear around midgestation.  

However, neurotoxicity was observed 24 h after initiation of withdrawal and was only seen in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region.  

An intracerebroventricular injection of Tat leads to attenuation of spatial learning accompanied by suppression of long-term potentiation (LTP), the cellular basis of spatial learning, in hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 pyramidal neurons.  

Disc1 mRNA was detected in the dentate gyrus at all stages in which this structure was identifiable, as well as in the cornu ammonis (CA) fields of the hippocampus, the subiculum and adjacent entorhinal cortex, and the developing cerebral neocortex, hypothalamus, and olfactory bulbs, all of which also express Disc1 in the adult mouse brain.  

Pathologically, cornu ammonis 2/3 hippocampal neuronal loss appears to be a defining feature of this form of inherited parkinsonism.  

In the limbic cortex, cornu ammonis, entorhinal cortex and cingulate cortex, silver-stained NFT density significantly correlated with density of NFT labeled with the 5 anti-tau antibodies, but cerebral isocortices showed heterogenous patterns of tau-positive NFT.  

Importantly, when slices were immunostained with antibody against rat C1q, a distinct reactivity for C1q in cells within the neuronal cell layer of cornu ammonis (CA) of hippocampus, primarily the CA1/CA2, was observed in the Abeta-treated slices.  

Lesion densities were similar in the different gyri of the temporal cortex and in the various cornu ammonis sectors of the hippocampus.  

We noticed the highest expression of these genes in the dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis of the hippocampus, in structures engaged in learning and memory.  

Therefore, it can be hypothesized that vestibular information may influence cornu ammonis region 1 (CA1) hippocampal neuronal activity.  

Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and a recording electrode with an attached stainless steel microinjector was stereotaxically positioned to record field potentials (fEPSP) in either the dentate gyrus or the cornu ammonis (CA) 1 field of the hippocampus.  

In the present study, serotonin (5-HT) responses of hippocampal pyramidal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) neurons were studied in rats subjected twice daily for 21 days to unpredictable stressors.  

RESULTS: In subjects with bipolar disorder there were significant decreases in the density of [ 3H]MK-801 binding in the cornu ammonis (CA) 3 (mean +/- SEM; 108.8 +/- 12.2 versus 166.2 +/- 18.0 fmol/mg ETE, p < 0.005) as well as the pyramidal (102.8 +/- 9.2 versus 136.6 +/- 11.2 fmol/mg ETE, p < 0.05) and polymorphic (21.73 +/- 6.5 versus 53.26 +/- 11.6 fmol/mg ETE, p < 0.05) layers of the subiculum.  

We defined the hippocampal infolding angle as the angle between the vertical midline and the straight line connecting the medial superior margin of the subiculum with the lateral margin of the cornu ammonis.  

The untreated hippocampus was lightly stained for DMT1, while an increase in DMT1 staining in astrocytes in the degenerating cornu ammonis (CA) fields, after kainate lesions.  

Neuronal death was assessed after 7 days by histologic evaluation of the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 sector. However, no differences were observed either in the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated d-uracil triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling-positive cells or viable neurons in the cornu ammonis 1 sector or in the neurologic deficit score when comparing surviving transgenic and nontransgenic rats.  

Rats housed in enriched or social environments showed significantly higher mRNA expression of NGFI-A and NGFI-B in cortical regions outside the lesion and in the CA1 (cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus), compared with isolated rats with or without a running wheel.  

Inhibitory interneurons are important components of the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) network, as they are strategically positioned to control network information transfer.  

Low levels were present in layers I-II and VI of the cortex, the cornu ammonis, the dentate gyrus, and the amygdala. A weak signal was also detected in subiculum, claustrum, stratum oriens, and stratum lucidum of cornu ammonis and also in some mesencephalic nuclei.  

TUNEL-stained neuronal nuclei showed significantly high density in the entorhinal cortex, cornu ammonis (CA) and the parietal cortex.  

There was progressive loss of neurons in the cornu ammonis (CA) 1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus at all time points in KA-treated rats.  

The cornu ammonis (CA) fields 2 and 3 and the dentate gyrus were active relative to baseline only during encoding, and this activity decreased as associations were learned.  

During immobility, consummatory behaviors and slow-wave sleep, sharp waves were present in cornu ammonis region CA1 of the hippocampus stratum radiatum associated with 140-200-Hz "ripples" in the pyramidal cell layer and population burst of CA1 neurons.  

The labeled neurons showed a bilaminar distribution with the cells in the layer 2A giving rise to fibers to predominantly the dentate area and the cells in the layer 3A mainly projecting to the cornu ammonis and the subiculum.  

In the TH-treated rats the KA binding site density was increased in the stratum oriens of cornu ammonis (CA)3, the terminal field of the infrapyramidal mossy fibers (IPMF).  

To extend our initial study (Alzheimer Reports [ 2000] 3:161-167), RNA samples isolated from control and AD hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) were analyzed for 12633 gene and expressed sequence tag (EST) expression levels using DNA microarrays (HG-U95Av2 Genechips; Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA).  

Hippocampal GR expression was consistent throughout the rostrocaudal extent, but significantly greater in the rostral dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis subfields in LEW males compared with F344 males.  

Unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) showed large amplitude and fast time course with mean amplitude-weighted decay time constants of 2.5, 1.2, and 1.8 ms in the dentate gyrus, and the cornu ammonis area 3 (CA3) and 1 (CA1), respectively (33-34 degrees C).  

We investigated whether HSV gene transfer of HSP72 in vivo and in vitro: (1) protected cornu ammonis 1 region of the hippocampus neurons from global cerebral ischemia; and (2) affected Bcl-2 expression. HSV vectors expressing HSP72 and beta-galactosidase (reporter) or beta-galactosidase only (control vector) were injected into cornu ammonis 1 region of the hippocampus 15 hours before induction of global cerebral ischemia (n = 10) and sham-operated rats (n = 8). We show that HSP72 overexpression protects cornu ammonis 1 region of the hippocampus neurons from global cerebral ischemia, and that this protection may be mediated in part by increased Bcl-2 expression..  

Paired-pulse inhibition of the orthodromically activated population spikes in the dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis 1 region of the hippocampus (CA1), two structures within the hippocampus, was measured after stimulation of the medial perforant path and Schaffer collaterals, respectively.  

RESULTS: Compared with non-MTLE patients, non-BZD-treated MTLE patients showed remarkable reduction of BZDR density in the pyramidal cell region of cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA3, and CA4, and a smaller but significant reduction in CA2 and the molecular and granule cell layers of dentate gyrus (mDG).  

As an upstream activator of these enzymes, the death receptor CD95 (Fas, APO1) was recently shown on neurons in the cornu ammonis (CA)2 and CA3 hippocampal subfields of early postnatal mice and rats.  

Physiological changes within the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus were monitored using a 1.5 T scanner at time points of 0.25, 1 and 24 h, and 7 and 14 days post injection.  

Moderate levels of Y1R-LI were detected in the cornu ammonis and the subicular complex, many septal, some thalamic and many brainstem regions.  

The most frequent regions of NFT common to all groups were the transentorhinal cortex, the entorhinal cortex, the subiculum and cornu ammonis (CA)1 of the hippocampus.  

ArGs are mainly found in the CA1 subfield of the cornu ammonis, entorhinal and transentorhinal cortices, the amygdala and the hypothalamic lateral tuberal nuclei.  

Previously, in monkeys undergoing 20 min whole brain ischemia we demonstrated that the activated calpain-induced lysosomal disruption with the resultant leakage of cathepsins B and L, causes neuronal death in the cornu ammonis (CA) 1 sector on day 5.  

MT(1) was localized to pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA)1-4 subfields.  

A neuronal-glial ratio of cornu ammonis and fascia dentata was obtained and correlated while validating the pathologic analysis by comparisons with specimens of age-matched autopsy control-case hippocampus (n = 14). RESULTS: The neuronal-glial ratio of the patient group was statistically significantly lower than in the control group for the cornu ammonis region (P<.001). Correlations of hippocampal volumes with cornu ammonis and neuronal-glial ratios revealed a significant interdependence (P<.01). However, correlations of the resected hippocampal creatine-N-acetylated compound ratio with the cornu ammonis or fascia dentata neuronal-glial ratios showed no significant interdependence (P>.8).  

Marmoset monkeys with excitotoxic lesions confined to cornu ammonis subfields 1-3, subiculum and pre-subiculum, but sparing the entorhinal cortex, were impaired on retention and learning of conditional object-choice discriminations.  

Dysgenetic changes were largely located in the anterior temporal lobe as follows: cortical polymicrogyria; leptomeningeal heterotopia with discontinuity of the subpial basement membrane; serpentine arrangement of pyramidal cells of the cornu ammonis (CA)1 of the hippocampus; hypoplastic dentate gyrus; hyperplasia of the amygdaloid body; and heterotopic nodules of neuroblasts or glioblasts in the periventricular white matter.  

The extracellular concentration of glutamate in the cornu ammonis (CA)1 sector of the ipsilateral hippocampus showed a significant but transient elevation of glutamate for both groups immediately following ischemic insult.  

In the preparations stained by the immunoperoxidase (IP) method, intra- and/or extracellular viral antigens were observed on the cerebellum, cornu ammonis, thalamus, pons, nucleus caudatus, spinal cord, medulla oblongata, Gasserian ganglion, eye and retropharyngeal lymph nodes.  

PKCbetaI immunostaining was not different among the selected lines in the lateroanterior hypothalamic nucleus (LA) and the cornu ammonis field 1 (CA1) of the dorsal hippocampus and confirms the specificity of the difference in PKCbetaI immunostaining in the SCN among the selected lines.  

Hippocampal neurons reacted positively with Griffonia (Bandeiraea) simplicifolia lectin I (GSL-I), Griffonia (Bandeiraea) simplicifolia lectin II (GSL-II) and Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA); neurons in the cornu ammonis (CA) 2 region reacted positively with GSL-I and GSL-II, and neurons in the CA2 and CA3 regions reacted with VVA.  

Regions of interests were dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis 4, 3, 1 and parahippocampal gyrus.  

This study reports that postischemic apoptotic cell death of the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) 1 neurons is delayed in aged gerbils.  

We have previously demonstrated that cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline or citicoline) attenuated arachidonic acid (ArAc) release and provided significant protection for the vulnerable hippocampal CA(1) neurons of the cornu ammonis after transient forebrain ischemia of gerbil.  

The subdivisions examined included CA4, CA3, CA2, CA1 (CA: cornu ammonis), prosubiculum (PRO), subiculum and presubiculum (PRE), parasubiculum (PARA) and the entorhinal cortex (ENT).  

DOPAC/DA and HVA/DA ratios were higher in the cornu ammonis, the hippocampus posterior and the raphe nuclei than in other structures, which suggests brain structure-related differences in dopamine turnover.  

In situ hybridization analysis revealed that TMEFF2 is widely expressed in the brain, including hippocampal cornu ammonis, dentate gyrus, and substantia nigra pars compacta.  

Damaged neurons with shrunken cell bodies and nuclear changes were found on light microscopic examination, mainly in the pyramidal cell layer of the subiculum and cornu ammonis 1.  

In contrast to its well established distribution in the rat brain, GR mRNA was only weakly detected in the dentate gyrus (DG) and cornu ammonis (CA) of the macaque hippocampus, whereas it was abundant in the pituitary (PIT), cerebellum (CBL), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and, to a lesser extent, the neocortex.  

A number of recent studies using lower species animals have suggested that the cornu ammonis (CA) 1 neuronal death after brief global cerebral ischemia occurs by apoptosis, an active and genetically controlled cell suicide process.  

The deficits in operant behavior and the alterations in dendritic arborizations of cornu ammonis 1 and cornu ammonis 3 (CA1 and CA3) hippocampal areas were investigated in subicular lesioned rats.  

In the hippocampal formation, immunoreactivity was predominant in selective cell layers of both the dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis, the subicular complex and entorhinal cortex.  

Immunocytochemical staining revealed hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation in pyramidal neurons in cornu ammonis and in neocortical neurons.  

In order to understand the role of different guidance factors, we analyzed the effects of Sema3C and Netrin-1 on explants from the entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis regions CA1 and CA3 and medial septum in a collagen coculture assay.  

Studies in slices suggest that alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated synaptic currents are not present in CA1 (cornu ammonis) pyramidal neurons at birth (P0).  

After bilateral N-methyl-D-aspartate (0.12 M) lesions through the cornu ammonis-1 (CA1) field (7 microl in five sites), marmosets showed profound impairment in recall of CDs but not SDs, and were assigned to lesion only, lesion plus CA1 grafts and lesion plus Maudsley hippocampal cell line, clone 36 (MHP36) grafts groups matched for lesion-induced impairment.  

The relationship between mossy fiber projections and cytoarchitecture was studied in the cornu ammonis (CA) of three mongrel dogs and two Japanese white rabbits.  

A significant correlation was found between MF sprouting and cell loss in all the subfields except the cornu ammonis field 2 (CA2).  

Of these ligands, ephrin-A3 mRNA is localized both in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus and in the pyramidal cell layer of the cornu ammonis, whereas ephrin-A5 mRNA is only expressed in the pyramidal cell layer of the cornu ammonis.  

This down-regulation was most prominent in medial cornu ammonis 3 (CA3M).  

The activation of alpha1-adrenoceptors reduces the firing probability and glutamate release in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus.  

At this time, no neuronal loss was observed in other cornu ammonis sectors or the granular layer of the dentate gyrus.  

Hippocampal pyramidal neuron size was determined in all cornu ammonis subregions - CA1-CA4 - in five chronic schizophrenic men and compared with eight controls matched with respect to age and sex.  

Kainate injections resulted in death of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus, and a proliferation of glial cells in the affected cornu ammonis fields.  

Dopamine and 5-HT turnover was affected in the hippocampus (cornu ammonis), and in the raphe nuclei.  

Limbic P300 areas correlated significantly with neuronal densities of dentate gyrus granule cells but not hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA1-4 (cornu ammonis) subfields.  

This paper is to study the participation of cathepsin in ischemic neuronal death of the monkey hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) 1 sector and also to clarify whether its selective inhibitor epoxysuccinyl peptides such as CA-074 and E-64c can inhibit the neuronal death or not.  

Maximal binding and affinities of NMDA receptors were determined by quantitative autoradiography in the cingulate cortex, the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus, and in the cerebellar vermis.  

Regional densities of senile plaques (SP), neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and astrocytes in the cornu ammonis (CA), subiculum and entorhinal cortex were measured and differences in these densities among Alzheimer's disease (AD), NAND and NC were statistically compared.  

Hypothermia was associated with better recovery of electroencephalographic activity (-8.9% +/- 1.8 decibels) and substantially reduced neuronal loss in the parasagittal cortex (46 +/- 13%), the lateral cortex (9 +/- 4%), and other regions except the cornu ammonis sectors 1 and 2 of the hippocampus.  

Neuronal injury determined by propidium iodide (PI) uptake included the hippocampal cell layers of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the cornu ammonis (CA).  

Increased C5aR expression was also observed in cortical neurons in the occipital cortex and in pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis and subiculum of the hippocampus, at both the protein and mRNA levels.  

Although cornu ammonis (CA) 1 neurons of the hippocampus are known to be vulnerable to transient ischaemia, the mechanism of ischaemic neuronal death is still unknown, and there are very few strategies to prevent neuronal death at present.  

Strong immunolabeling with mAb Tau-1 of the mossy fibers and perikarya of neurons in sectors CA3 and CA4 of the cornu ammonis, less intensive staining in the cytoplasm in neocortical and subcortical neurons, and selective staining of some pyramidal cells in sectors CA1 and CA2 show differences in the amount of phosphorylated tau, not only in different types of neurons, but also in different parts of the cell.  

All five schizophrenics had significantly more disoriented pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis subregions CA1-CA3 than their matched controls.  

Groups of rats that manifested continuous wet dog shakes and/or generalized convulsions for at least 4-5 h after SNP were found to have generalized perikaryal Timm's staining of all neurons in the pyramidal cell layer of the subicular and cornu ammonis regions, similar to the staining found after seizures induced by kainic acid.  

The cornu ammonis (CA) region first appears at P20 as a line of denser cells and by P30, CA3 and the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) can be defined.  

Previously, by using in vivo microdialysis, we demonstrated a huge release of 45Ca2+ from prelabeled tissues to dialysate that was evoked by application of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) to the rat dentate gyrus (DG) and sector 4 of the cornu ammonis.  

Hippocampal atrophy in HS was associated with neuronal cell depletion and concomitant gliosis in the cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA2, CA3, and hilus.  

These data suggest that the cornu ammonis is affected more severely than the ENT in the FAD cases.  

Rats received excitotoxic lesions of different subsystems within the hippocampal system--either the hippocampus proper (cornu ammonis and dentate gyrus; hippocampal lesions) or the entorhinal cortex-subicular region (entorhinal lesions).  

The changes in Kv1.2 and Kv4.2 messenger RNA abundance following electroconvulsive shock were only observed in the dentate gyrus and not in cornu ammonis 1 and cornu ammonis 3 of hippocampus or frontal-parietal cortex.  

In contrast, after innervation by explants from the cornu ammonis (CA) region, we found an additional NMDA receptor subtype with properties consistent with the subunit composition NR1/NR2A.  

In the AD-2 group, neuronal losses were found in all sectors of the cornu ammonis and in the subiculum and ranged from 53% in CA3 to 86% in CA1.  

At 15 to 16 weeks, the dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis have started to infold. The CA1, CA2, and CA3 fields of the cornu ammonis are arranged linearly. The dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis have folded into the temporal lobe.  

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