LGE neurons transplanted into the adult striatum formed projections not only to the substantia nigra, a normal target, but also to the claustrum and through all layers of fronto-orbital cortex, regions that do not normally receive striatal input.  

Type D tumors originate from the temporal mediobasal region and invade into the adjacent structures of the temporal stem, insular cortex, claustrum, putamen, or pallidum.  

We found anger-specific activation in the posterior cingulate, fusiform gyrus, and cerebellum, whereas we found happiness-specific activation in the MTG, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, claustrum, inferior parietal lobule, cuneus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), IFG, and anterior cingulate.  

Nevertheless there are little data about the neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase immunoreactive (nNOS-ir) neurons and fibers in the dorsal claustrum (DC) of a cat.  

Delusions were associated with decreased GM density in the left frontal lobe, in the right frontoparietal cortex and in the left claustrum.  

A growing body of evidence indicates the common origin of the claustrum, endopiriform nucleus, and the basolateral nuclear complex of amygdala from the lateral and ventral parts of the pallium, as the claustroamygdaloid complex. This period, which is important for the structural and functional development of the claustrum, must be taken into account in future studies on this structure..  

SPM also showed increased glucose metabolism in the subcallosal gyrus and claustrum.  

Suppression of blinking was associated with prominent activation of bilateral insular-claustrum regions, right more than left; activation was also found in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), supplementary motor areas, and the face area of the primary motor cortex bilaterally.  

OBJECT: The goal in this study was to examine the microsurgical and tractographic anatomy of the claustrum and its projection fibers, and to analyze the functional and surgical implications of the findings. RESULTS: Both the claustrum and external capsule have 2 parts: dorsal and ventral. The dorsal part of the external capsule is mainly composed of the claustrocortical fibers that converge into the gray matter of the dorsal claustrum. Results of the tractography studies coincided with the fiber dissection findings and showed that the claustrocortical fibers connect the claustrum with the superior frontal, precentral, postcentral, and posterior parietal cortices, and are topographically organized. The ventral part of the external capsule is formed by the uncinate and inferior occipitofrontal fascicles, which traverse the ventral part of the claustrum, connecting the orbitofrontal and prefrontal cortex with the amygdaloid, temporal, and occipital cortices. The relationship between the insular surface and the underlying fiber tracts, and between the medial lower surface of the claustrum and the lateral lenticulostriate arteries is described.  

Patients with autism exhibited increase in gray matter in medial and dorsolateral frontal areas, in the lateral and medial parts of the temporal lobes, in the parietal lobes, cerebellum and claustrum.  

These include the infralimbic, prelimbic, dorsal agranular insular, and entorhinal cortices, the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus, dorsal tenia tecta, claustrum, lateral septum, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens (core and shell), olfactory tubercle, bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), medial, central, cortical, and basal nuclei of amygdala, and the suprachiasmatic, arcuate, and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus.  

However, there were no apparent anoxic neuronal changes in the remaining neurons in the CA1, and astrocyte proliferations and microglia/macrophage infiltrations were also observed in the claustrum, while these were mildly present in the basal ganglia.  

They were specifically associated to brain area activations distinct from those evidenced under the unimodal stimulations: the inferior parietal lobule, the superior temporal sulcus, the insula-claustrum region, and the cerebellum.  

RESULTS: At the stringent statistical threshold of p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons according to the family-wise error rate, the statistical analysis revealed two significant right-hemispheric hypometabolic clusters located in the premotor/anterior cingulate cortex and the putamen/claustrum/insula.  

The main sources of afferent projections to PL/IL are from the orbitomedial prefrontal, agranular insular, perirhinal and entorhinal cortices, the hippocampus, the claustrum, the medial basal forebrain, the basal nuclei of amygdala, the midline thalamus and monoaminergic nuclei of the brainstem.  

In addition, scattered CTb-Fos double-labelled cells were observed in many other VTA afferent structures, such as claustrum, lateral septum, diagonal band-magnocellular preoptic nucleus, deep mesencephalic nucleus, oral part of pontine reticular nucleus and dorsomedial tegmental area.  

Spiny inverted neurons are particularly conspicuous as a source of the backward cortico-cortical projection to primary visual cortex and from this to the claustrum.  

In addition to the brain stem and cerebellar anomalies common to all types of this heterogeneous condition, there were unique developmental defects in the telencephalon: absence of the claustrum, diffuse cortical changes particularly in the insula and an extremely small brain.  

Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed discriminative intensity in the medial temporal lobe, claustrum, and insula cortex bilaterally.  

The results indicate that higher-order temporal and occipital areas respond to coincident sounds and pictures regardless of their semantic relationship; whereas, the right claustrum/insula region is differentially activated in association with multisensory integration of conceptually related common objects.  

The claustrum is a subcortical structure reciprocally and topographically connected with all sensory and motor domains of the cerebral cortex. Previous anatomical and electrophysiological data suggested that most cells in the claustrum are large neurons that both receive cortical input and project back to cortex, forming excitatory connections with their cortical targets. These data have been interpreted to imply a relay function for the claustrum, with information from different functional cortical domains remaining segregated. The possibility that the claustrum might mediate a more "global" function has been recently been developed by Crick and Koch [ Crick, F. What is the function of the claustrum? Philos. We have reexamined the anatomical substrate for information processing in the claustrum of the cat by analyzing the patterns of immunoreactivity to calcium-binding proteins, GAD, serotonin, nNOS and the glutamate transporter EAAC1. Each class was found throughout the entire claustrum, in all functionally defined subdivisions. Many neurons in the claustrum were surrounded by parvalbumin, calretinin, GAD or nNOS immunoreactive terminals, suggesting that many neurons of the claustrum make extensive intraclaustral connections. The entire claustrum also receives a serotonergic input. The identification of multiple neurochemical cell classes, their distribution and the extent of their dendritic arborizations relative to functional compartments suggest a substrate for information processing in the claustrum that may allow integration of information across functional subdivisions..  

The labeled astrocytes occur preferentially in prosencephalic regions (amygdala, thalamus, septum, striatum, claustrum, and cerebral cortex).  

Moreover, in the high-calorie condition body mass index (BMI) predicted activation in the dorsal striatum, anterior insula, claustrum, posterior cingulate, postcentral and lateral orbitofrontal cortex.  

PDE2 mRNA was high in the claustrum, whereas PDE9 mRNA was moderate.  

The author proposes the amplification of the clinical use of the concept of "life in the claustrum", originally described by Meltzer, moving beyond persecutory claustrophobic situations. He illustrates the phenomenon with the analytic work carried out with a patient whose narcissistic and intrusive character was structured on the basis of primitive intrusive identifications and phantasies related to the claustrum inside the mother.  

By contrast, the number of ER-beta mRNA-positive cells in the hippocampus, caudate putamen, claustrum, accumbens nucleus, substantia nigra and cerebellum was not significantly different between young and middle-aged rats but was decreased in old rats.  

Sexual activity (evidenced in males that ejaculated two or four times) increased c-Fos levels in the anteromedial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, claustrum, entorhinal cortex, medial preoptic area, nucleus accumbens core, suprachiasmatic nucleus and supraoptic nucleus; however, sexual satiety did not modify c-Fos expression in these regions.  

We found that patients with directional hypokinesia had a lesion involving the ventral lateral putamen, the claustrum, and the white matter underneath the frontal lobe.  

Compared to sham depletion, ATD attenuated activation in the right medial/inferior frontal gyrus, the posterior cingulate cortex, the occipital and parietal cortex bilaterally, the right hippocampus, claustrum and insula.  

After subtraction of the corresponding control task the three divided attention tasks, irrespective of sensory modality, revealed significant activation in a predominantly right hemisphere network involving the prefrontal cortex, the inferior parietal cortex, and the claustrum.  

We investigated Lewy pathologies in the claustrum and the related cerebral cortices and subcortical nuclei of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) brains using alpha-synuclein-immunohistochemistry to clarify the relationship between Lewy pathology in the claustrum and visual misidentification of DLB patients. The claustrum is known to have strong reciprocal connections with the visual areas. Consequently, the claustrum demonstrated many Lewy bodies (LB) and LB-related neurites. The insular and inferior temporal cortices, amygdala, BA 18, 19, transentohrinal and cingulate cortices showed stronger or similar Lewy pathology as compared with the claustrum, while BA 17, precentral, postcentral and transverse temporal cortices showed weaker Lewy pathology. These findings suggest that Lewy pathology in the claustrum is more closely associated with that in visual areas than in auditory, somatosensory or motor areas, and that dysfunction of the visuo-claustral pathway participates in visual misidentification in addition to the visuo-amygdaloid pathway.  

Reciprocal connections with the claustrum provide a route for the transfer of sensory information between the cAC and neocortical and allocortical regions also involved in learning.  

RESULTS: (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT yielded 3 significant correlation clusters involving inferior and middle frontal gyri, para-hippocampal gyrus and putamen in the right hemisphere; the middle and superior temporal gyri, insula and claustrum in the left hemisphere.  

Moreover, sucrose attenuated restraint-induced c-fos mRNA expression in the basolateral amygdala, infralimbic cortex, and claustrum.  

A large decrease in the number of PV-immunopositive neuron profiles occurred in the pEn, adjoining parts of the DEN and deep layer III of the PC, portions of the DEN bordering the claustrum and agranular insular cortex, and layer III of the caudal PC.  

RESULTS: The needling evoked mean activated cerebral functional regions were: left Broadmann area (BA) 10, 11, 22, 38, 39, 40, 44-46, right BA10, bilateral BA18, 19, and left cerebellar cortex, claustrum and insula (t > 3.36, P < 0.01, k >30 voxels); its mean inhibited brain functional regions were: bilateral BA24, left BA7, 8, 19, 40, right BA 1, 3, 6, 20, 44, and left substantia nigra.  

In addition, another particular subpopulation of NOS positive neurons with no or little CCK immunoreactivity appeared to project to areas covering the dorsal endopiriform nucleus, claustrum and insular cortex.  

The presence of the calcium-binding protein (CaBP) parvalbumin (PV) in the neuronal elements of the cat's dorsal claustrum was studied by immunohistochemistry at the light- and electron-microscopic level. PV-immunoreactive neurons and fibers were detected in all parts of the claustrum. This paper represents the first study demonstrating the existence of PV, a CaBP, in the cat claustrum, and its distribution at the light and electron microscope level. Beyond the relevance of this research from the standpoint of adding to the paucity of literature on PV immunoreactivity in the claustrum of various other mammals (e.g. monkey, rabbit, rat, mouse), it is of particular significance that the cat claustrum is more similar to the rabbit claustrum than to any other mammalian species studied thus far, noted by the existence of four distinct morphologic subtypes. We also demonstrate a lack of intrinsic, and possibly functional, heterogeneity as evidenced by the uniform distribution of PV throughout the cat claustrum, across the four cell subtypes (i.e. Indeed, the association with, and influence of, the cat claustrum on diverse multisensory mechanisms may have more to do with its afferent than efferent relationships, which speaks strongly for its importance in the sensory hierarchy. Exactly what role PV plays in the claustrum is subject to discussion, but it can be postulated that, since CaBP is associated with GABAergic interneurons, synaptogenesis and neuronal maturation, it may also serve as a neuroprotectant, particularly with regard to pathologies associated with the aging process, such as in Alzheimer's disease..  

Brain MRI demonstrated the lesion involving the bilateral claustrum and right hippocampus. Three months later, the lesion in the claustrum disappeared, but the hippocampus still showed slight hyperintensity on FLAIR image of MRI.  

Of the cell bodies in the cortical areas about 82% were located in multisensory cortex, viz., the dorsoposterior and ventroposterior, posterior parietal cortex, the claustrum, and the endopiriform nucleus, 10% were located in the primary somatosensory cortex (hindlimb and trunk region), and 8% in secondary visual cortex.  

Magnetic resonance imaging showed enhancement of bitemporal cortical areas in one patient, and high signal intensity on T2 weighted image in the bilateral claustrum in another patient.  

Post-mortem examination revealed a loss of neurons in the frontal and temporal regions, but there was also a marked loss of neurons and astrogliosis in the caudate, claustrum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and loss of axons in the anterior cerebral peduncles.  

Non-responders to MPH had higher rCBF in the left anterior cingulate cortex, the left claustrum, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right putamen relative to responders. Further stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that 88.2% could be correctly classified as either non-responders to MPH or responders when considering the extracted rCBF values in the left anterior cingulate cortex, the left claustrum, and the right superior parietal lobule.  

The 82-kDa ChAT co-localizes with 69-kDa ChAT in well-characterized cholinergic areas, but is also found in the claustrum which does not contain 69-kDa ChAT.  

We studied the ontogeny of the claustrum comparatively in representatives of all otophysan subgroups. The claustrum of cypriniforms has a cartilaginous precursor, the claustral cartilage, which subsequently ossifies perichondrally at its anterior face and develops an extensive lamina of membrane bone. The membrane bone component of the claustrum and its close association with the atrium sinus imparis, a perilymphatic space of the Weberian apparatus, are both synapomorphies of cypriniforms. The characiform claustrum is not preformed in cartilage and originates as a membrane bone ossification, a putative synapomorphy of that taxon. Among siluriforms, the claustrum is present only in more basal groups and originates as an elongate cartilage that ossifies in a characteristic ventrodorsal direction, possibly a synapomorphy of catfishes. Gymnotiforms lack the claustral cartilage and claustrum. We review all previous hypothesis of claustrum homology in light of the above findings and conclude that the most plausible hypothesis is the one originally proposed by Bloch ([ 1900] Jen Z Naturw 34:1-64) that claustra are homologs of the supradorsals of the first vertebra..  

claustrum is a telencephalic structure integrating information of various modalities. The goal of this study was to analyze qualitative and quantitative the 5-HT-containing fibers in the rat claustrum and to assess the relationships between these fibers and the populations of claustral neurons expressing CaBPs. The serotonergic fibers in the claustrum are heterogeneous, both with respect to their morphology and spatial distribution. Thin varicose fibers are more numerous and are homogeneously distributed within the claustrum. They were present mainly in the ventral part of the claustrum.  

Irrespective of the level of task difficulty, common deactivations (determined through the use of conjunction analyses) were observed in the lateral and medial prefrontal, anterior and posterior cingulate, and temporal brain regions and in the claustrum during both encoding and retrieval in younger and older adults (Experiment 1). In AD patients and healthy older adults, common deactivations were found in posterior cingulate, temporal, and lateral parietal regions and in the insula and claustrum during encoding and retrieval of paired associates (Experiment 2).  

Prenatal alcohol exposure primarily influenced the kappa receptor mRNA with reduced levels in the amygdala, claustrum, putamen and insula cortex.  

Advances in our understanding of comparative neuroanatomy and the genesis of mammalian SWs suggest that the absence of SWs in reptiles is due to limited connectivity within the pallium, the dorsal portion of the telencephalon that includes the mammalian neocortex, reptilian dorsal cortex and avian Wulst (hyperpallium), as well as the dorsal ventricular ridge in birds and reptiles and the mammalian claustrum and pallial amygdala.  

Brain CT and MRI studies revealed abnormal signal intensities in bilateral external capsule and claustrum, and in the cortical white matter.  

We studied the immunoreactive expression pattern for the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT2 in the embryonic, postnatal and adult mouse dorsal claustrum, at the light and electron microscopic levels. VGLUT2 immunoreactivity in the dorsal claustrum starts to be observed at E16.5, with a dramatic increase towards P0. From the first postnatal week, VGLUT2 immunoreactivity declines in several telencephalic areas, including the pallium, but abundant VGLUT2-immunoreactive fine axons and puncta remain in the claustrum. Beginning at E18.5, VGLUT2 immunoreactivity within the claustrum shows a characteristic arrangement: a central part of the region is practically devoid of VGLUT2 immunoreactivity, and it is surrounded by plenty of immunoreactive axon terminals forming a shell around it. This core/shell arrangement of the VGLUT2 immunoreactivity resembles the complementary expression of parvalbumin and calretinin described in the mouse claustrum [ Real, M.A., Dávila, J.C., Guirado, S., 2003. Expression of calcium-binding proteins in the mouse claustrum. We observed immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies as well in the dorsal claustrum, but only at P0. Electron microscopic analysis reveals that VGLUT2 immunoreactivity in the developing and adult dorsal claustrum consists predominantly of presynaptic boutons making asymmetric synaptic contacts.  

All PMC regions also receive projections from the claustrum and the basal forebrain and project to the caudate, the basis pontis, and the zona incerta.  

Retrogradely labeled neurons were abundant in the allocortex, claustrum, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and in many hypothalamic regions including the preoptic area, dorsomedial nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, and posterior hypothalamus.  

A significant elevation in the number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2-immunoreactive neurons was observed in area 1 of anterior cingulate cortex, the secondary motor cortex, lateral orbital cortex, claustrum, and the medial amygdala nucleus after the short-term inhibitory avoidance test.  

Significant intensity increases were observed along the right midcingulate, inferior anterior cingulate gyrus, right caudate head, right posterior insula, and bilateral claustrum.  

RESULTS: The results of our study showed greater activation in the left uncus and right claustrum (both, statistical threshold of P = 0.01, uncorrected; extent = 10 voxels) in men (n = 5) during drug cue trials compared with stress trials.  

These areas included the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, claustrum, medial habenula, dorsal endopiriform nucleus, basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus and ventral tegmental area.  

The neurons with strong positive immuno-reaction signals were detected in cerebral cortex, cerebellar Purkinje cells, cerebellar nuclei, pyramidal neurons of hippocampus, caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, claustrum, nuclei in diencephalons, substantia nigra, cranial nerve nuclei, reticular formation in brain stem, pontine nuclei, red nucleus, superior and inferior olivary nucleus, gracile nucleus, cuneate nucleus, also the ventral horn, lateral horn, dorsal horn and the central gray matter in spinal cord.  

The claustrum is a phylogenetically conserved structure, with extensive reciprocal connections with cortical regions, and has thus been considered important for sensory, motor, emotional, and mnemonic coordination or integration. Here, we show by in situ hybridization that the adult monkey claustrum is strongly positive for NETRIN-G2, a gene encoding a glycosyl phosphatidyl-inositol-linked membrane protein, which constitutes a subfamily with NETRIN-G1 within the netrin/UNC6 family. There is a conspicuous dorsal/ventral differentiation, where the label is stronger in the ventral claustrum. Since NETRIN-G2 is known to be preferentially expressed in cortex, in contrast with the thalamically expressed NETRIN-G1, these results raise the possibility of some functional similarity in regulation of excitatory neural transmission in the claustrum and cortex..  

The claustrum is a thin, irregular, sheet-like neuronal structure hidden beneath the inner surface of the neocortex in the general region of the insula. We here briefly summarize what is known about the claustrum, speculate on its possible relationship to the processes that give rise to integrated conscious percepts, propose mechanisms that enable information to travel widely within the claustrum and discuss experiments to address these questions..  

On the basis of previous data regarding the colocalization between nNOS and GABA in the mouse claustrum, we suggest that nNOS expressing neurons in the basolateral amygdalar complex are both GABAergic and non-GABAergic..  

The dorsolateral (core) portion of the claustrum and dorsal endopiriform nucleus were moderately positive, as were the amygdaloid lateral and basolateral nuclei..  

In addition, this study described the dorsal claustrum as a novel telencephalic target for the suprageniculate nucleus in mammals. Especially significant were the suprageniculate fibers reaching the striatum and then following to reach pallial derivatives such as the lateral amygdala (ventral pallium) and the dorsal claustrum (lateral pallium).  

The second, FL2 transcript is only expressed in few brain structures such as the claustrum and hypothalamus.  

High densities of beta-galactosidase-positive neurons were detected in anterior olfactory and claustrum/endopiriform nuclei, deep layers of cortex (particularly somatosensory), and the subiculum.  

Pyramid-like neurons in the claustrum and anterior olfactory nucleus also expressed the receptor.  

However, in some regions, such as claustrum, basolateral amygdala, thalamus, CA1 pyramidal cells, and Purkinje cells only galanin mRNA could be detected.  

Insomnia severity was inversely correlated with rCBF in the right rostral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortices, insula and claustrum.  

In guinea pig brain, the [ (3)H]LY334370 binding sites were found at highest density in claustrum, but also in a layer of the cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and medial mammillary nucleus.  

Analyses were performed in brain regions that express Pdyn mRNA and/or KOP-R and that might participate in seizure circuitry: the piriform cortex, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, claustrum, dorsal endopiriform nucleus, and cingulate cortex.  

claustrum is a thin sheet of gray matter located between external and extreme capsules of lentiform nucleus (basal ganglia). Functions of claustrum are still not clear. With PET it was seen that claustrum of healthy males displayed one of the highest activity with visual sexual stimuli. Bilateral activation of claustrum was seen to be involved in motivational processed, which direct behavior to a sexual goal..  

Brain CT and MRI studies showed edema in the claustrum and external capsule, and in the white matter of the base of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.  

Labeled neurons were also found in other somatosensory regions corresponding to the trunk, fore- and hindlimb, as well as more distant regions such as the visual, rhinal, dorsal peduncular and insular cortices, the claustrum, and lateral and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei.  

On brain MRI of case 1, no relevant lesions were detectable at the onset day, but, 6 days after onset, T2-high intensity lesions were noted in the subcortical white matter of the insular cortex, claustrum, external capsule, putamen and globus pallidus on both sides.  

RESULTS: Regions responding differentially both in untreated patients compared with controls and in untreated patients compared with themselves under treatment were the right orbitofrontal cortex, insula and claustrum, where the activation was higher in controls than in untreated patients and where activation increased under treatment, and the left inferior frontal gyrus, that demonstrated a deactivation only in controls and in patients under treatment.  

The thalamus contains the majority of Vglut2 cells projecting to the neocortex (approximately 90% for the medial prefrontal cortex and 96% for the primary somatosensory cortex) followed by the hypothalamus and basal forebrain, the claustrum, and the brainstem.  

In patients with nonherpetic and non-paraneoplastic acute limbic encephalitis, DWI and FLAIR images showed hyperintense changes in the hippocampi, amygdales, cingulate gyri, and occasionally claustrum, but not in the anterior and lateral temporal cortices, which were often involved in herpes simplex encephalitis.  

The claustrum (Cl) is a subcortical structure located in the basolateral telencephalon of the mammalian brain.  

Treatment with 50 mg CORT decreased 125I-epibatidine binding in the globus pallidus and 125I-alpha-bungarotoxin binding in the claustrum.  

(8) Tangential migratory streams of neurons, from stage 22 to the early fetal period, proceed from the subventricular zone of the olfactory bulb towards the future claustrum; they remain within the insular region but are separated from the cortical plate.  

Other regions with uncorrected p<0.001 in this comparison were cortical Brodmann areas 22, 40, 13, 11, and 28, hippocampus, and claustrum.  

The present paper describes parvalbumin, calbindin-D28k and calretinin immunoreactivity in the claustrum and endopiriform nucleus of adult rabbits. There were no spatial differences in the distribution of cells containing either parvalbumin or calbindin-D28k in the claustrum and endopiriform nucleus. Well documented presence of the various projective zones in the rabbit claustrum did not reflect the specific distribution of neurons containing calcium binding proteins, except those containing calretinin. We have found that the rabbit claustrum and endopiriform nucleus have different pattern of parvalbumin and calretinin immunoreactivity. The former was more intense in the claustrum and the distribution of cell types was significantly different from that in the endopiriform nucleus. Calretinin-positive cells were observed in the claustrum, while in the endopiriform nucleus they were scarce. The distribution of neither calbindin-D28k-ir neurons nor fibers allowed differentiation of claustrum and endopiriform nucleus. Significant differences between the claustrum and endopiriform nucleus observed in the rabbit might be related with ontogenetic as well as other (functional) factors..  

Within the forebrain, retrogradely labeled cells were found in the claustrum, basal nucleus of Meynert, substantia innominata, extended amygdala, lateral and posterior hypothalamic area, field H of Forel, and a number of thalamic nuclei with the strongest labeling in the nuclei ventralis lateralis, ventralis posteromedialis, including its parvocellular part, medialis dorsalis and centrum medianum, and weaker labeling in the nuclei ventralis anterior, ventralis posterolateralis, intermediodorsalis, paracentralis, parafascicularis and pulvinaris anterior.  

Calbindin-positive cells start to be seen very early during embryogenesis and increase dramatically until birth, thus becoming the most abundant cell type during embryonic development, especially in the ventral pallial part of the claustrum. The distribution of calbindin neurons throughout the claustrum during embryonic development partly parallels that of GABA neurons, suggesting that at least part of the calbindin neurons of the claustral complex are GABAergic and originate in the subpallium. Based on calretinin expression in axons, the core/shell compartments of the dorsal claustrum start to be clearly seen at embryonic day 18.5 and may be related to the development of the thalamoclaustral input. Comparison with the expression of Cadherin 8, a marker of the developing dorsolateral claustrum, indicates that the core includes a central part of the dorsolateral claustrum, whereas the shell includes a peripheral area of the dorsolateral claustrum, plus the adjacent ventromedial claustrum.  

In the cortex, alpha5 mRNA was detected in the subplate, claustrum, and endopiriform nucleus at embryonic day 18 (E18), areas with sustained expression into adulthood.  

Neuropathological examination revealed severe spongiform degeneration and neuronal loss in the neocortex, putamen and claustrum, small plaque-like PrP-immunoreactive deposits in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, and faint intracellular cytoplasmic PrP immunoreactivity.  

We found that the claustrum, superior colliculus and ventral midbrain regions were heavily labeled in the cases with injections in caudoventral MD. Finally, the claustrum and superior colliculus contained the largest percentage of labeled subcortical cells in cases with injections in ventrolateral MD.  

The central core of a hemisphere consists of extreme, external, and internal capsules; claustrum; lentiform and caudate nuclei; and thalamus.  

Hypoxia elicited significant (P < 0.05) differences in magnitude and timing of responses between groups in cerebellar cortex and deep nuclei, posterior thalamic structures, limbic areas (including the insula, amygdala, ventral anterior thalamus, and right hippocampus), dorsal and ventral midbrain, caudate, claustrum, and putamen.  

However, in some regions, such as claustrum, basolateral amygdala, thalamus, CA1 pyramidal cells, and Purkinje cells only galanin mRNA could be detected. In the forebrain galanin was seen in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, throughout the cortex, in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, claustrum, granular and pyramidal cell layers of the hippocampus, subiculum and presubiculum.  

The main sources of input to nucleus reuniens were from the orbitomedial, insular, ectorhinal, perirhinal, and retrosplenial cortices; CA1/subiculum of hippocampus; claustrum, tania tecta, lateral septum, substantia innominata, and medial and lateral preoptic nuclei of the basal forebrain; medial nucleus of amygdala; paraventricular and lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus; zona incerta; anterior, ventromedial, lateral, posterior, supramammillary, and dorsal premammillary nuclei of the hypothalamus; and ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray, medial and posterior pretectal nuclei, superior colliculus, precommissural/commissural nuclei, nucleus of the posterior commissure, parabrachial nucleus, laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, nucleus incertus, and dorsal and median raphe nuclei of the brainstem.  

Labeled cell bodies were also observed in most amygdaloid nuclei, anterior olfactory nuclei, claustrum, tenia tecta, endopiriform region, lateral ventricle, lateral septum, zona incerta, superior colliculus, and periaqueductal gray.  

Many authors have reported that the claustrum, which comprises the insular claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus, is missing from the monotreme forebrain. We found that although the insular claustrum is a small structure in the echidna brain, it is nevertheless clearly present as loosely clustered neurons embedded in the white matter ventrolateral to the putamen and deep to the piriform and entorhinal cortices. The situation is much less clear in the platypus, but our data suggest that there may be an insular claustrum deep to frontal cortex, separated from layer VI by only a thin layer of white matter. Our findings indicate that presence of the claustrum cannot be considered a feature confined to therian mammals and lend weight to arguments that this structure was present in the ancestral mammalian brain..  

Our findings demonstrate for the first time ERalpha immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the monkey cerebral cortex (layers I-II) and in the claustrum.  

The role of the claustrum in Pavlovian heart rate (HR) conditioning was studied in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) by (a) mapping claustral projections to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), (b) recording claustral single-unit discharge to sensory stimulation and conditioning stimuli during HR conditioning, and (c) assessing the effects of claustral damage on HR conditioning. Moreover, claustral lesions diminished the magnitude of the HR-conditioned response without affecting the cardiac-orienting response to the conditioned stimulus or the cardiac-unconditioning response to the unconditioned stimulus, suggesting a role for the claustrum in associative learning..  

Further, specific nuclei of the claustral complex and pallial amygdala show strong expression of Neurogenin 2 and/or Semaphorin 5A, including the ventromedial claustrum and endopiriform nuclei, the lateral and basomedial amygdalar nuclei, the anterior and posteromedial cortical amygdalar areas, plus the amygdalo-hippocampal area. In contrast, during embryonic development the dorsolateral claustrum, the basolateral amygdalar nucleus, and the posterolateral cortical amygdalar area do not express or show weak expression of Neurogenin 2 or Semaphorin 5A, but express selectively and strongly Cadherin 8 plus Emx1, and may be derivatives of the lateral pallium.  

ET-1 mRNA, ET-1, ECE-1 and ET(B) receptors were observed in cortical pyramidal cells, neurones (brainstem, basal nuclei, thalamus, insula and claustrum, limbic region), cells in the anterior pituitary gland; nerve cell processes in the pars nervosa; pinealocytes and choroidal epithelial cells.  

In particular, the outdated terminology implies that most of the avian telencephalon is a hypertrophied basal ganglia, when it is now clear that most of the avian telencephalon is neurochemically, hodologically, and functionally comparable to the mammalian neocortex, claustrum, and pallial amygdala (all of which derive from the pallial sector of the developing telencephalon).  

As a result, more Fos-LI neurons were observed in anterior cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex, insular cortex, parietal cortex area 2, frontal cortex area 1-3, claustrum, lateral septal area, amygdala, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, central medial nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus and periaqueductal gray.  

RESULTS: Compared with controls, patients showed reduced activation in visual cortices, but increased activation in left inferior frontal cortex, left insula-claustrum, bilateral striatum and thalami, left limbic structures, and left posterior cingulate cortex.  

No significant differences were detected in the claustrum, parietal cortex, piriform cortex, caudate putamen, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, shell and core.  

Sites of de-activation were found in the posterior cerebellum, right fusiform gyrus and precuneus, and left lingual and inferior temporal gyri; increased activation was found in the bilateral insula, claustrum and right putamen.  

The anatomy of the claustrum (CLA) has been well characterized, but its functional role remains uncertain.  

The SA-group showed increased activity in: globus pallidus, insular cortex, cuneus, claustrum, post-central gyrus and pre-central gyrus; decreased activity in fusiform gyrus and superior temporal gyri. Key words: schizophrenia, negative symptoms, severity, PET, globus pallidus, claustrum..  

CO activity was also elevated in several forebrain regions, including those directly connected to the limbic system, such as the nucleus accumbens, the claustrum, and dorsomedial and reticular thalamic nuclei, as well as subthalamic and ventrolateral thalamic nuclei.  

Residual scores of catastrophizing controlling for depressive symptomatology were significantly associated with increased activity in the ipsilateral claustrum (r = 0.51, P < 0.05), cerebellum (r = 0.43, P < 0.05), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r = 0.47, P < 0.05), and parietal cortex (r = 0.41, P < 0.05), and in the contralateral dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC; r = 0.43, P < 0.05), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r = 0.41, P < 0.05), medial frontal cortex (r = 0.40, P < 0.05) and lentiform nuclei (r = 0.40, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that pain catastrophizing, independent of the influence of depression, is significantly associated with increased activity in brain areas related to anticipation of pain (medial frontal cortex, cerebellum), attention to pain (dorsal ACC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), emotional aspects of pain (claustrum, closely connected to amygdala) and motor control.  

In situ hybridization using specific [ 35S]-labelled oligonucleotides revealed that levels of PIN mRNA were significantly increased in the cortex and claustrum ( approximately 30-180%; p

The insula, located near the claustrum (x = -38, y = 8, z = 4), was activated during the discrimination tasks compared with the feature uncertainty condition.  

Furthermore, prefrontal cortex lesions did not change stress-induction levels of c-fos in the CA1 hippocampus, dentate gyrus, anteromedial division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septum, and claustrum.  

Main projection sites of PL are: the agranular insular cortex, claustrum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, the paraventricular, mediodorsal, and reuniens nuclei of thalamus, the capsular part of the central nucleus and the basolateral nucleus of amygdala, and the dorsal and median raphe nuclei of the brainstem.  

Telencephalic areas, such as the putamen, amygdala, claustrum, and cortex, adjacent to the chains harbor numerous PSA-NCAM-positive cells.  

Intensity-dependent increases in rCBF were seen in a number of distant cortical and subcortical areas with PFC rTMS, suggesting activation of left anterior cingulate, claustrum, and cerebellum.  

Increased activation was also present in the lateral putamen and adjoining parts of the claustrum.  

An immunocytochemical double-staining method was applied in order to study the co-localisation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with three calcium-binding proteins, calbindin D28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the claustrum of the rat during the first 4 months of life (postnatal days: PO-P120). Double-labelled NOS/CB neurons are observed in the claustrum starting from P4, whereas double-labelled NOS/PV neurons are observed from P14 onwards. Double-labelled NOS/CB and NOS/PV neurons, although they do not constitute a numerous population, play an important role in the process of maturation of the claustrum.  

We studied at the light and electron microscopic levels the nitric oxide-producing neurons in the mouse claustrum. We also analyzed colocalization of nNOS with the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as well as the ontogenesis of the nNOS-immunoreactive neurons, providing evidence for different populations of nitrergic neurons in the mouse claustrum. The general staining pattern was similar for the histochemical and the immunohistochemical methods, resulting in neuron and neuropil staining throughout the whole claustrum. We described two populations of nitric oxide-producing neurons in the mouse claustrum on the basis of a different level of nNOS expression. Densely nNOS-stained neurons were mostly GABA immunoreactive, displayed ultrastructural features typically seen in aspiny neurons, and may originate in the subpallium; they were first seen in the claustrum at embryonic stage 17.5 and probably represent local inhibitory interneurons. Densely stained cells were found from rostral to caudal levels throughout the dorsal claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus. Lightly nNOS-stained neurons, on the other hand, were more numerous than densely stained ones, especially in the dorsal claustrum.  

Subcortical projections to Rgb originate mainly in the claustrum, the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and the anterior thalamic nuclei.  

GM density analysis shown decreases in patients in anterior cingulate gyrus, left inferior frontal, right claustrum, left pulvinar, and dorsomedial bilateral thalamic nuclei, and caudate nuclei as well as left hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus.  

control, respectively) in brain regions, including frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, claustrum, dorsal endopiriform nucleus, caudate putamen, parietal cortex, posterior basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamus, hippocampus, posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus, periaqueductal gray, substantia nigra, superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus, ventral tegmental area, and locus coeruleus, compared with control.  

The morphological features of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing neurons in the rat claustrum (Cl) were studied during the period of four months after birth. The maturation of NOS-ir neurons in the claustrum is a dynamic process which is not stabilised at the moment of birth.  

Subcortical projections could be traced within the forebrain to the putamen, caudate nucleus, claustrum, zona incerta, field H of Forel and a number of thalamic nuclei, with the heaviest projections to the nuclei ventralis lateralis, ventralis posteromedialis, including its parvocellular part, medialis dorsalis, centralis medialis, centrum medianum and reuniens.  

A weak signal was also detected in subiculum, claustrum, stratum oriens, and stratum lucidum of cornu Ammonis and also in some mesencephalic nuclei.  

Binding was calculated in tissue containing striatum, globus pallidus (GPe), claustrum, and cingulate and insula cortex, in cases of AD, DLB, Parkinson's disease (PD) and normal elderly controls. Binding of [ 125I]-(R,R)-I-QNB, which may reflect increased muscarinic M4 receptors, was higher in cortex and claustrum in DLB and AD.  

The present paper describes the distribution of three calcium-binding proteins (calbindin D28k, calretinin, and parvalbumin) in the mouse dorsal claustrum and endopiriform nucleus. The three calcium-binding proteins were distinctly expressed in structures of both the claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus. Calbindin was the calcium-binding protein showing the highest expression in the claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus. Both calbindin-immunoreactive and parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons were more abundant in the claustrum than in the endopiriform nucleus, and more in rostral than in caudal levels. On the other hand, our results on parvalbumin and calretinin immunoreactivity match a novel subdivision of the mouse claustrum mostly based on the pattern of cadherin expression [ Neuroscience 106 (2001) 505]. In this sense, we propose that a specific zone of the dorsal claustrum with cell bodies that strongly express Rcad and cadherin-8 would be the selective target for parvalbumin-expressing fibers, and that they would be mostly avoided by calretinin-expressing axons..  

Compared with the on-MPH condition, the off-MPH condition was associated with relative increases in rCBF bilaterally in the precentral gyri, left caudate nucleus, and right claustrum.  

In WT mice, methylphenidate induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) in the mesostriatal and mesolimbocortical DA pathways that included the anterior olfactory nucleus, frontal association cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, claustrum, lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and dorsal raphe.  

The claustrum was markedly enriched in LAMP and harbored different types of CR- and CB-immunopositive neurons.  

Inputs originate from five major areas of the brain ipsilateral to the graft, namely, the claustrum, the periallocortex/proisocortex, the isocortex, the visual thalamus, and some unspecific subthalamic and hypothalamic nuclei.  

Parvalbumin (PV) immunocytochemistry revealed a significant decrease in the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in the rostral piriform cortex and in the dorsal claustrum in animals surviving for two months..  

Ballooned neurons in the amygdala, entorhinal, insular and cingulate cortex, and claustrum contained alphaB-crystallyn and phosphorylated neurofilament epitopes.  

The claustrum, which comprises the claustrum proper and the endopiriform nucleus, is generally thought to be present in all mammals. Whether monotremes have a claustrum is of some importance for formulating and evaluating hypotheses relating to the evolution of the structures in the lateral sector of the pallium across amniotes. No cytoarchitectonically distinct claustrum could be identified in this material for either monotreme. We thus conclude that if monotremes have any cell population that is homolgous to the claustrum of therian mammals, it is entirely cryptic. A claustrum might have been present in ancestral mammals and lost in the monotreme clade, or it might have been gained at the origin of therian mammals. Nonetheless, its absence as a cytoarchitectonically discrete and identifiable structure in monotremes fails to support homology of the claustrum of therian mammals with any single part of the sauropsid pallium..  

A significantly higher 2-deoxyglucose uptake in the vocalizers than the non-vocalizers was found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, primary motor cortex, claustrum, centrum medianum, perifornical hypothalamus, periaqueductal grey, intercollicular region, dorsal mesencephalic reticular formation, peripeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra, nucl.  

The claustrum is interconnected with the frontal lobe, including the motor cortex, prefrontal cortex, and cingulate cortex. The goal of the present study was to assess whether the claustral projections to distinct areas within the frontal cortex arise from separate regions within the claustrum. The distribution of retrogradely labeled neurons showed no clear segregation along the rostrocaudal axis of the claustrum; they were usually located along the entire anteroposterior extent of the claustrum. For all motor cortical areas, there was a general trend of the labeled neurons to occupy the dorsal and intermediate parts of the claustrum along the dorsoventral axis. The same territories were labeled after injection in area 46, but in addition numerous labeled neurons were found in the most ventral part of the claustrum. The projections from the claustrum to the multiple subareas of the motor cortex and to area 46 arise from largely overlapping territories, with, however, some degree of local segregation..  

Furthermore, argyrophilic glial intracytoplasmic inclusions were found predominantly in the ventral pons, cerebellar white matter, precentral and frontal white matter, internal and external capsule, claustrum, and putamen.  

Subcortically, there was a heavy projection into the ventral putamen, a moderate projection into the caudate nucleus and claustrum, and a weak projection into the anterior, central and lateral amygdala.  

However, c-fos expression was observed in the lateral septum, medial striatum, claustrum and in the cingulate and piriform cortices under these conditions.  

The claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus contribute to the spread of epileptiform activity from the amygdala to other brain areas. To investigate the projections from the amygdala to the claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus, we injected the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin into various divisions of the amygdaloid complex, including the lateral, basal, accessory basal, central, anterior cortical and posterior cortical nuclei, the periamygdaloid cortex, and the amygdalohippocampal area in the rat. Analysis of immunohistochemically processed sections reveal that the heaviest projections to the claustrum originate in the magnocellular division of the basal nucleus. The projection is moderate in density and mainly terminates in the dorsal aspect of the anterior part of the claustrum. Light projections from the parvicellular and intermediate divisions of the basal nucleus terminate in the same region, whereas light projections from the accessory basal nucleus and the lateral division of the amygdalohippocampal area innervate the caudal part of the claustrum. These data provide an anatomic basis for recent functional studies demonstrating that the claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus are strategically located to synchronize and spread epileptiform activity from the amygdala to the other brain regions. These topographically organized pathways also provide a route by means of which the claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus have access to inputs from the amygdaloid networks that process emotionally significant information..  

In all three primates, DL/MT(C) had reciprocal connections with the pulvinar and claustrum; received afferents from the locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe, nucleus annularis, central superior nucleus, pontine reticular formation, lateral geniculate nucleus, paracentral nucleus, central medial nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, basal nucleus of the amygdala, and basal nucleus of Meynert/substantia innominata; and sent efferents to the pons, superior colliculus, reticular nucleus, caudate, and putamen.  

Instead, strong activations were found in the anterior and central insula and claustrum, the posterior portion of anterior cingulate, the somatosensory cortex (SI for face), cerebellum, ventral medial (VMPo) and dorsal medial (MDvc) thalamus, the lateral hypothalamus, and pons/medulla.  

Relative to white noise, the aversive sounds produced significant rCBF increases in the lateral amygdala/claustrum region.  

We propose a new hypothesis, the collopallial field hypothesis, which specifies that the anterior dorsal ventricular ridge of sauropsids and a set of structures in mammals--the lateral neocortex, basolateral amygdalar complex, and claustrum-endopiriform nucleus formation--are homologous to each other as derivatives of a common embryonic field.  

[ 3H] U-69593 binding density was significantly increased in caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens shell, claustrum, and endopiriform nucleus after cocaine, while neither GBR 12909 nor RTI-117 had any effect.  

Mammals have multiple structures in this same region-the lateral part of neocortex, amygdala, and claustrum-endopiriform formation.  

CWPs were present throughout the cerebral cortex as well as in the caudate nucleus, putamen, claustrum, thalamus, substantia innominata and colliculi.  

One dominant activation focus was found near the left claustrum, a subcortical region. However, this analysis found that synchronized audio-visual stimuli led to a higher signal change in the claustrum region. This study extends previous results, using other sensory combinations, and other tasks, indicating involvement of the claustrum in sensory integration..  

The morphometric analysis of changes occurring in the rabbit claustrum in the early postnatal period was performed by means of unbiased stereological methods. The volume of the claustrum, total number and numerical density of its neurons change very rapidly at the beginning of the postnatal life and stabilize by about the fourth week.From the 21st postnatal day distribution and morphology of neurons correspond to that in adults. Almost from the beginning of the postnatal life the rabbit claustrum is composed of three different parts: anterior, central and posterior. The posterior part is the smallest; the distribution of its neuronal types is similar to that in the anterior one.Rapid morphological changes of the claustrum and its neurons occurring during the first postnatal month seem to point out that this structure is able to fulfill its physiological role after this critical period..  

Strong activations specifically associated with penile turgidity were observed in the right subinsular region including the claustrum, left caudate and putamen, right middle occipital/ middle temporal gyri, bilateral cingulate gyrus and right sensorimotor and pre-motor regions.  

The radial glia that crossed the claustrum was anchored to the neuroepithelium of the lateral ventricular angle (LVA) at all ages studied. At E18, the radial glia that crossed most of the insular claustrum extended from the lateral wall of the LVA (presumptive lateral pallium), and the radial glia that crossed either the most ventral part of the insular claustrum or the endopiriform claustrum proceeded from the medial wall of the LVA (presumptive ventral pallium). These results suggest that although the endopiriform claustrum originates from the ventral pallium, the insular claustrum originates from both the lateral and the ventral pallial portions..  

Based on hodology, the sauropsid anterior dorsal ventricular ridge (ADVR) has been proposed as the homologue on a one-to-one basis of the mammalian lateral neocortex (LNC), the basolateral amygdalar complex (BLA), or the claustrum-endopiriform nucleus (CE).  

RESULTS: In both unipolars and bipolars, the psychomotor-anhedonia symptom cluster correlated with lower absolute metabolism in right insula, claustrum, anteroventral caudate/putamen, and temporal cortex, and with higher normalized metabolism in anterior cingulate.  

PPMS patients showed greater activation bilaterally in the superior temporal gyrus, ipsilaterally in the middle frontal gyrus, and, contralaterally in the insula/claustrum.  

These include trying to search for a fixed sense of identity that can often propel people to seek refuge inside an object or state of mind, as described in Meltzer's 'claustrum' and Steiner's 'psychic retreat'.  

(4) MAOA- and MAOB-expressing neurons are also detected in structures that do not contain aminergic neurons, such as the thalamus, hippocampus, and claustrum.  

We report a case of fatal status epilepticus of unknown origin resulting in acute neuropathological changes in the hippocampus and claustrum.The case history, brain magnetic resonance images, and results of neuropathological study of the whole brain were obtained.The subject was a 35 year old male with no significant previous medical history who presented with generalized epileptic seizures progressing to status epilepticus. The first scan was normal and the second showed high signal lesions on T2 weighted images in the medial aspects of both temporal lobes and in the right claustrum. Similar changes were seen in the claustrum on both sides. In this case the radiological and pathological changes found bilaterally in the claustrum and hippocampus appear to be the direct result of the status epilepticus..  

The author discusses the claustrum as an aspect of pathological containment within inner space and its relation to Bion's (1962a, b) container-contained concept. Having outlined the early psychoanalytic conceptual foundations of claustrophobia and the claustrum, the author charts the term from its introduction by Erikson in 1937 through its divergent developmental trajectories within the conceptual vocabulary of the classical, Independent and Kleinian schools up to Meltzer's (1992) contemporary reworking. Developmental and psychopathological claustrum manifestations are discussed, particularly fear, separation, problems mourning and claustrophobia. A reciprocal and hierarchical avatar relation between the claustrum and the container is proposed..  

Increasingly, specific roles are being defined for the superior temporal sulcus, the inferior parietal sulcus, regions of frontal cortex, the insula cortex and claustrum.  

In severe cases of Parkinson's disease, the alphaB-crystallin-positive neurons are dispersed throughout the cerebral cortex, amygdala, and ventral claustrum.  

The claustrum is reciprocally and topographically connected with all functional areas of the cerebral cortex. We asked if there were likewise differences in serotonergic innervation in different regions of the claustrum. We analyzed 50-microm coronal sections through the claustrum of the macaque monkey processed using standard immunohistochemical techniques and an antibody to serotonin. We found labeled fibers throughout the dorsal-ventral and anterior-posterior extent of the claustrum. There was a major difference between dorsal and ventral claustrum in the pattern of stained fibers. In the ventral, visual, claustrum, stained segments of axons were short and randomly arranged relative to each other, and there were many stained puncta. In the more dorsal, nonvisual claustrum, many fibers ran in a dorsal-ventral direction, along the long axis of the claustrum, and could be followed for long distances..  

The rostral perirhinal border with insular cortex is at the extreme caudal limit of the claustrum, consistent with classical definitions of insular cortex dating back to Rose ([ 1928] J.  

Retrograde axonal transport method of the fluorescent tracer FluoroGold (FG) was combined with immunocytochemistry to investigate the occurrence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in both intrinsic and cortically projecting neurons of the rat claustrum. Only NOS was detected in both the scattered projecting neurons and internal neurons of the claustrum. Approximately 20% of NOS-immunoreactive neurons in the claustrum were also retrogradely labeled with FG after tracer injections into the frontal cortex. The immunoreactive neurons were randomly distributed in the claustrum and their neuronal size and shape did not differ in the various parts of the studied structure. In conclusion, SOM, VIP and NPY do not appear to play a significant role in the claustro-cortical projection but are most probably involved in modulation and information transfer in the claustrum. The appearance of NOS in both cortically projecting and intrinsic neurons of the claustrum may be indicative of a fundamentally different role in the functioning of the claustro-cortical loop..  

Cyto- and chemoarchitectural findings have recently suggested that in the hedgehog tenrec, the claustrum is not located below but between the layers of the rhinal/insular cortex (Künzle and Radtke-Schuller 2000b). They showed that the tenrec's dorsal claustrum was reciprocally and bilaterally connected with the neocortex. The ventral claustrum was connected with mainly the ipsilateral paleocortex, additionally with the ventromedial frontal cortex and possibly the subiculum. A sparsely labeled cell group separated the claustrum from the labeled cells located in the depth of the RCx and the adjacent paleo- and neocortices.  

We studied the connections of eleven auditory cortical areas with the claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus in the cat, by means of cortical injections of either wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, or biotinylated dextran amines. Unlike previously accepted reports, all auditory areas have reciprocal connections with the ipsi- and contralateral claustrum, though they differ in strength and/or topography. The high degree of convergence of cortical axons in the intermediate region of the claustrum, arising from tonotopic and nontonotopic areas, suggests that claustral neurons are unlikely to be well tuned to the frequency of the acoustic stimulus. The location of cortically projecting neurons in the claustrum matches the position of the target cortical area in the cerebral hemisphere, both rostrocaudally and dorsoventrally. These findings suggest that the intermediate region of the claustrum integrates inputs from all auditory cortical areas, and then sends the result of such processing back to every auditory cortical field.  

The claustrum has been implicated in the kindling of generalized seizures from limbic sites. We examined the susceptibility of the anterior claustrum itself to kindling and correlated this with an anatomical investigation of its afferent and efferent connections. Electrical stimulation of the anterior claustrum resulted in a pattern of rapid kindling with two distinct phases. We suggest that the rapid rate of kindling from the anterior claustrum is an indication that the claustrum is functionally close to the mechanisms of seizure generalization. In support of our hypothesis, we found significant afferent, efferent, and often reciprocal connections between the anterior claustrum and areas that have been implicated in the generation of generalized seizures, including frontal and motor cortex, limbic cortex, amygdala, and endopiriform nucleus. The anatomical connections of the anterior claustrum are consistent with its very high susceptibility to kindling and support the view that the claustrum is part of a forebrain network of structures participating in the generalization of seizures..  

The principal subcortical connections of area 7m were with the dorsal portion of the ventrolateral thalamic (VLc) nucleus, lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, lateral pulvinar, caudal mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and medial pulvinar, central lateral, central superior lateral, and central inferior intralaminar thalamic nuclei, dorsolateral caudate nucleus and putamen, middle region of the claustrum, nucleus of the diagonal band, zona incerta, pregeniculate nucleus, anterior and posterior pretectal nuclei, intermediate layer of the superior colliculus, nucleus of Darkschewitsch and dorsomedial parvicellular red nucleus (macaque cases only), dorsal, dorsolateral and lateral basilar pontine nuclei, nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, locus ceruleus, and superior central nucleus.  

No significant interline differences were found in the prefrontal, cingulate, frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital or entorhinal cortices, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, lateral septum, ventral tegmental area, hypothalamus, caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, claustrum, central gray, or superior colliculus.  

The following experiments in rats tested the selectivity of the perirhinal cortex's epileptogenic properties by comparing its kindling profile with those of the adjacent insular cortex, posterior (dorsolateral) claustrum and amygdala. The first experiment examined the kindling and EEG profiles, and found that both the claustrum and insular cortex demonstrated rapid epileptogenic properties similar to the perirhinal cortex, including very rapid kindling rates and short latencies to convulsion. Moreover, the posterior claustrum exhibited the fastest kindling and most vigorous patterns of clonus, suggesting that it may be even more intimately associated with the motor substrates responsible for limbic seizure generalization than is the perirhinal cortex..  

cFOS expression increased significantly in the claustrum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, medial amygdala, and cortical amygdala in association with maternal aggression.  

The destinations of the cell migration were reported as the ventrolateral neocortex, the pyriform cortex, endopyriform nucleus and the claustrum.  

The studies were carried out on the claustrum of 8 adult rabbits.  

The contralaterally activated regions according to the stimulation side were: postcentral gyrus, transvers temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, posterior part of the insula, claustrum, putamen, inferior parietal lobule, precentral gyrus, premotor cortex, cingulate gyrus.  

In monkey brain, the highest expression for this isoform is found in the claustrum, and at lower levels in cortical areas and cerebellum.  

In competition studies on consecutive sections through the prefrontal cortex and claustrum, angiotensin IV, Nle-angiotensin IV and LVV-hemorphin 7 competed for the binding of 125I[ Nle]-angiotensin IV with nanomolar affinities. Very high densities of the binding sites were observed in the claustrum, choroid plexus, hippocampus and pontine nucleus.  

The statistical contrast between the two conditions delineated a distributed network of primarily limbic/paralimbic brain regions, including multiple foci in dorsal anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, insula/claustrum, amygdala/periamygdala, lingual and middle temporal gyrus, hypothalamus, pulvinar, and midbrain.  

High concentrations of Y1 immunoreactivity were found in the claustrum, piriform cortex (superficial layer), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, paratrigeminal nucleus, and lamina II of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and entire spinal cord.  

This was achieved by comparing (1) the numerical densities of projecting neurones for each claustral projection zone and (2) the distribution of the labeled neurones throughout the rostro-caudal extent of the claustrum. The motor and primary somatosensory projections dominated in the anterior and central parts of the claustrum, whereas the secondary somatosensory, auditory and visual projections--in the posterior part. Summarizing, the cortical projections in the claustrum, although varying topographically, do not reveal a quantitative differentiation.  

Because previous studies in insectivores remained controversial with regard to the identification of the claustrum, special attention was paid to the laminar organization of the rhinal cortex and its deep cell groups. The tenrec's claustrum was identified and delineated cytoarchitecturally and by its negative acetylcholinesterase stain. Latexin, a molecular marker for characterizing infragranular and claustral cells, also helped to differentiate the claustrum from the cell groups subjacent to it. Thus, the data indicate that in poorly differentiated mammals the claustrum occupies an intermediate deep position within the width of the rhinal cortex, i.e., it is separated from the subcortical white matter by additional, still unidentified, cell groups..  

The claustrum, a region whose function had been unclear, displayed one of the highest activations.  

Overall, the ERbeta mRNA hybridization signal was relatively low, but the most abundant ERbeta mRNA areas were the hippocampal formation (primarily the subiculum), claustrum, and cerebral cortex; expression was also present in the subthalamic nucleus and thalamus (ventral lateral nucleus).  

The pattern defects caused by the loss of Pax6 function result in multiple morphological abnormalities in the Small eye brain: dysgenesis of the piriform, insular, and lateral cortices, the claustrum-endopiriform nucleus, and a failure in the differentiation of a subpopulation of the cortical precursors.  

More moderate labelling was observed in the prefrontal, fronto-parietal, temporal, piriform cortex, dentate gyrus, anterior olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle, shell of nucleus accumbens, claustrum, lateral septum, laterodorsal thalamic, medial habenular, subthalamic, reuniens thalamic nuclei, subiculum, periaqueductal grey matter and pons.  

PURPOSE: Lesions of the claustrum in cats and primates have been shown to disrupt the development and expression of amygdaloid-kindled seizures in cats and primates. Because the structure and connectivity of the claustrum can vary between species, we wanted to examine the effects of claustral lesions on kindling in rats. METHODS: One group of rats received bilateral radiofrequency lesions of both anterior and posterior regions of the claustrum before amygdaloid kindling. Another group of rats received bilateral anterior and posterior radiofrequency lesions of the claustrum after amygdaloid kindling. RESULTS: Small lesions that destroyed 13% of the claustrum were capable of delaying, but not blocking, amygdaloid kindling. CONCLUSIONS: As in other species, the claustrum in the rat appears to play a role in kindling from the amygdala. Because of the restricted size of our claustral lesions, however, we were unable to conclusively assess the full extent of the claustrum's participation in limbic kindling..  

The volume of the dorsal part of the claustrum, total number of projecting neurons, numerical density and percentage distribution of projecting neurons were estimated by means of the unbiased stereological methods. The parts of the claustrum occupied by the motor and somatosensory projection zones as well as the morphology of the cortically projecting neurons do not reveal characteristic changes during the studied period. The significant decrease of the total number and numerical density of cortically projecting neurons as well as the increase of the claustral volume may reflect the process of adjustment of the claustrum to its modulatory function upon corresponding cortical areas.  

High levels were also observed in the thalamus, nucleus accumbens and inner cortex, with moderate levels in the claustrum.  

Incubation of slices from the claustrum or basolateral amygdala, two regions previously shown to contain high concentrations of SST(2A) receptors, in Ca(2+)-free Ringer's for 40 min induced a decrease in the intensity of SST(2A) receptor immunoreactivity and concentration of SST(2A) mRNA as compared with control values obtained in Ca(2+)-supplemented Ringer's.  

temporal lobe) were present in stem amniotes, and these antecedent regions gave rise to dorsal cortex and dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR), respectively, in living reptiles; (2) the stem amniote antecedent of mammalian superior neocortex gave rise to dorsal cortex in the reptilian lineage, while the stem amniote antecedent of mammal claustrum, endopiriform region and/or basolateral/basomedial amygdala gave rise to DVR in reptiles, with mammalian temporal neocortex being a newly evolved structure with no reptilian homologue.  

RESULTS: Brain regions in which activity was significantly correlated with tic occurrence in the group included medial and lateral premotor cortices, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral-rostral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal cortex, putamen, and caudate, as well as primary motor cortex, the Broca's area, superior temporal gyrus, insula, and claustrum.  

The results demonstrate that: (1) the threshold to elicit an afterdischarge from the BL was lower than that of either the medial (CeM) or lateral (CeL) subdivisions of the Ce, which did not differ from each other; (2) the patterns of mRNA expression for c-fos, NGFI-A and BDNF were highly similar to each other when the stimulation site was the BL or the CeL, and included mainly limbic cortical and subcortical areas ipsilateral to the electrode; (3) c-fos was the only probe to be expressed in the contralateral hemisphere following the first motor seizure, and the pattern of its expression reflected a subset of structures recruited in the ipsilateral hemisphere including the claustrum, insular and perirhinal cortices; (4) unexpectedly, stimulation of the CeM elicited seizures and afterdischarges of shorter duration than those evoked by stimulation of the BL or CeL, and failed to increase mRNA expression for any of the probes in the hippocampus or in the contralateral hemisphere.  

GIRK4 mRNA was detected in only a few regions of the mouse brain, including the deep cortical pyramidal neurons, the endopiriform nucleus and claustrum of the insular cortex, the globus pallidus, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, parafascicular and paraventricular thalamic nuclei, and a few brainstem nuclei (e.g., the inferior olive and vestibular nuclei).  

Paired rats also showed increased FRA expression within the orbital prefrontal cortex, the claustrum, the caudal amygdala (basolateral and central regions), the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, the subiculum of the hippocampus, and the lateral habenula relative to the Control group.  

Injections into these areas resulted in labeling of neurons along the entire length of the claustrum. Neurons retrogradely labeled after injection into the motor cortex prevailed in the anterior part of the claustrum, whereas those projecting to the somatosensory cortex predominated in the central part. Similarly, the mean value of the numerical density of the retrogradely labeled neurons was significantly higher for the motor projection zone in the claustrum, than for the somatosensory projection zone (p < 0.001). These findings indicate that: (1) the claustral projections to the various cortical regions seem to be differentiated (2) the distribution of claustral neurons projecting to the motor and somatosensory neocortical areas shows an anteroposterior gradient, (3) the claustrum of the rat appears to be more closely related to the motor than to the somatosensory system, (4) the rat claustrum seems to function more as a satellite than a relay structure in relationship to the cerebral cortex..  

The connections between two parts of the claustrum in the rat and rabbit were studied using the highly fluorescent lipophilic carbocyanine dye (Dil). After the application of Dil crystal into the endopiriform nucleus, labeled fibers in the insular claustrum were observed in its part directly neighboring the insular cortex and capsula externa. The presence of connections between the endopiriform nucleus and insular claustrum suggests its role concerned with the processes taking part in the allocortical regions as well as in the limbic system..  

The data showed that perinatal hypothyroidism can enhance Goalpha mRNA levels in the temporal cortex, sensorimotor cortex, piriform cortex, amygdala, hippocampal CA1-4 subfields, dentate gyrus, arcuate nucleus (AR) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) of hypothalamus, but not in the striate cortex, cingulate cortex, claustrum, caudate/putamen and thalamus in the brain of rat at 7-21 days post-partum.  

In rat the numerical density of neurones projecting to the retrosplenial granular cortex (RSG) differed significantly from those projecting to the retrosplenial agranular (RSA) and cingulate (Cg) cortices while in rabbit the numerical densities of retrogradely labelled neurones in the claustrum following injections into various areas of the cerebral cortex did not differ significantly.  

The insular arteries primarily supply the insular cortex, extreme capsule, and, occasionally, the claustrum and external capsule, but not the putamen, globus pallidus, or internal capsule, which are vascularized by the lateral lenticulostriate arteries (LLAs).  

On the other hand, in the thalamus, some cortical areas, claustrum, lateral septum and caudoputamen, kainate-induced neuronal silver staining was also prominent, but occurred later than in pilocarpine-treated animals.  

However, in patients, stimulation of the recovered eye also induced extensive activation in other areas including the insula-claustrum, lateral temporal and posterior parietal cortices, and thalamus; stimulation of the clinically unaffected eye activated visual cortex and right insula-claustrum only.  

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