Cingulum Bundle

The present study aims at developing a specific method based on precise anatomical landmarks for assessing the integrity all along the course of the cingulum bundle, so as to determine if it presents the classical aging and AD dissociation. This multiple ROIs placement allows for revealing distinctive alterations of the cingulum bundle during aging and AD, which could constitute the anatomical basis for the distinctive functional disconnection recently described in the literature using functional connectivity at rest..  

Reduced FA was observed in the fronto-occipital and inferior temporal fasciculi (particularly posteriorly), the splenium of the corpus callosum, subcallosal white matter and the cingulum bundle.  

RESULTS: Three WM tract regions had significantly reduced FA: 1) arcuate fasciculus in left superior temporal gyrus, 2) cingulum bundle by the posterior tail of the left hippocampus, and 3) the left body of the fornix.  

This study aimed to investigate the atrophy of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medical temporal lobe (MTL) structures (i.e., the entorhinal cortex (ERC) and hippocampus) and the regional disruption of the cingulum bundle in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.  

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Multiple regions of lower FA appeared within white matter in the OSA group, and included fibers of the anterior corpus callosum, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and cingulum bundle, right column of the fornix, portions of the frontal, ventral prefrontal, parietal and insular cortices, bilateral internal capsule, left cerebral peduncle, middle cerebellar peduncle and corticospinal tract, and deep cerebellar nuclei.  

One prevalent hypothesis to account for this discrepancy is that posterior cingulate hypometabolism results from disconnection from the hippocampus through disruption of the cingulum bundle. We found that hippocampal atrophy is specifically related to cingulum bundle disruption, which is in turn highly correlated to hypometabolism of the posterior cingulate cortex but also of the middle cingulate gyrus, thalamus, mammillary bodies, parahippocampal gyrus, and hippocampus (all part of Papez's circuit), as well as the right temporoparietal associative cortex. Disruption of the cingulum bundle also appears to relate to hypometabolism in a large connected network over and above the posterior cingulate cortex, encompassing the whole memory circuit of Papez (consistent with the key location of this white matter tract within this loop) and also, but indirectly, the right posterior association cortex..  

Hence, the relationship between FA in the cingulum bundle and ERN amplitude was tested.  

We used a stereologic nearest-neighbor estimator of spatial distribution to investigate oligodendrocytes in the anterior cingulum bundle using postmortem tissue from 13 chronic schizophrenics and 13 age-matched controls. In the present study, we found no significant differences in the oligodendrocyte distribution or density in the cingulum bundle between the two groups, in contrast to earlier data from the prefrontal subcortical white matter. These results suggest that a subtler oligodendrocyte or myelin anomaly may underlie the structural deficits observed by brain imaging in the cingulum bundle in schizophrenia..  

RESULTS: Alcoholic subjects had diminished frontal lobe FA in the right superior longitudinal fascicles II and III, orbitofrontal cortex white matter, and cingulum bundle, but not in corresponding left hemisphere regions.  

Patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects underwent both neuropsychological evaluation and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, during which the cingulum bundle (CB) and the uncinate fasciculus (UF) were defined with fiber tractography and their integrity was quantified.  

RESULTS: DTI measures revealed several predominant regions of damage including the anterior corona radiata (41% of the patients), uncinate fasciculus (29%), genu of the corpus callosum (21%), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (21%), and cingulum bundle (18%).  

The results on real DT images demonstrate that the proposed method extracts the cingulum bundle significantly more accurately as compared to tractography..  

We demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm for segmenting the cingulum bundle..  

Although a long-established therapeutic intervention, the optimal location and volume of lesions are not known, but it is generally believed that efficacious lesions interrupt the fibers of the cingulum bundle.  

To this end, the cingulum bundle (CB) and superior longitudinal fascicle II (SLF II) were investigated in vivo in 12 adults with childhood ADHD and 17 demographically comparable unaffected controls using DT-MRI.  

The volumetric measurements of the stem portion of the OFF indicate that the OFF is smaller than the SLF II and the cingulum bundle.  

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has demonstrated reduced microstructural integrity of the anterior cingulum bundle as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) in schizophrenia, but the functional significance of these abnormalities is unclear.  

We assessed relative anisotropy in stereotaxically located regions of interest in the internal capsule, corpus callosum, anterior thalamic radiations, frontal anterior fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, temporal lobe white matter, cingulum bundle, frontal inferior longitudinal fasciculus, frontal superior longitudinal fasciculus, and optic radiations. Areas with anisotropy decreasing with age included the posterior limb of the internal capsule, anterior thalamic radiations, fronto-occipital fasciculus, anterior portion of the frontal anterior fasciculus, inferior portion of the frontal superior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum bundle and superior portion of the temporal axis. Sex differences were found in the majority of areas but were most marked in the cingulum bundle and internal capsule.  

We identified 10 long association fibre bundles with DSI that match the observations in the isotope material: emanating from the parietal lobe, the superior longitudinal fasciculus subcomponents I, II and III; from the occipital-parietal region, the fronto-occipital fasciculus; from the temporal lobe, the middle longitudinal fasciculus and from rostral to caudal, the uncinate fasciculus, extreme capsule and arcuate fasciculus; from the occipital-temporal region, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus; and from the cingulate gyrus, the cingulum bundle.  

Current study intended to explore whether the alteration was more prominent in any specific regions of the cingulum bundle. bilateral rostral, subgenual, dorsal, and upper cingulum bundle, were selected. Relative to comparison subjects, PTSD subjects had significantly smaller fractional anisotropy values in the left side of rostral, subgenual and dorsal cingulum bundle (26.7, 25.0, 22.2% decrease, respectively), but not in the right side ROIs. We report an asymmetrical alteration of the cingulum bundle in PTSD..  

A subset of the patient group (n=18) also had available magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of the cingulum bundle (CB) fractional anisotropy and volume.  

Our objective was to test for differences between subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls with respect to white matter architecture within the cingulum bundle (CB) and anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC).  

Firstly, DTI analyses revealed reductions of fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right medial temporal lobe adjacent to the right parahippocampal gyrus, likely to contain fibres of the inferior cingulum bundle, and in the right frontal lobe.  

We used probabilistic tractography to define the cingulum bundle, pyramidal tracts, optic radiations and genu of the corpus callosum in each individual data set using three different methods of seed definition.  

We used diffusion tensor imaging (DT-MRI) to evaluate the hypothesis that during the process of normal aging, white matter changes preferentially affect the integrity of long corticocortical association fiber tracts, specifically the superior longitudinal fasciculus II and the cingulum bundle. Significant age-related reductions in mean FA values were found for the superior longitudinal fasciculus II and the cingulum bundle, as well as the anterior corpus callosum.  

We propose that the first and second waves were triggered by injury to a specific fiber tract, the corpus callosum/cingulum bundle that conveys reciprocal connections between the anterior thalamic nuclei and retrosplenial/pre- and parasubicular neurons.  

We found that fractional anisotropy in white matter of the patients was lower than that in controls at the cerebral peduncle, frontal regions, inferior temporal gyrus, medial parietal lobes, hippocampal gyrus, insula, right anterior cingulum bundle and right corona radiata.  

The cingulum bundle is one candidate tract that may carry anteroposterior connections important for executive processes..  

Analysis of DTI data in the anterior cingulum bundle demonstrates a strong correlation between fiber spread as measured from histological sections and fiber spread as measured from DTI.  

In order to explore the microstructure of bilateral cingulum bundles associated with side and handedness, fractional anisotropy was extracted from diffusion tensor imaging. Distinguished from the conventional region of interest-based method, a fiber-based analysis method called scale-invariant parameterization method was employed to ascertain the anisotropy along the cingulum bundle in 31 normal right-handers and 14 normal left-handers. The statistical results showed a remarkable left-greater-than-right asymmetry pattern of anisotropy in most segments of cingulum bundles except the most posterior segment, for both right-handers and left-handers. Interestingly, higher anisotropy of the right-hander than the left-hander was found in the bilateral cingulum bundles.  

BACKGROUND: Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we previously reported abnormalities in two critical white matter tracts in schizophrenia, the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the cingulum bundle (CB), both related to fronto-temporal connectivity.  

Deficits in the cingulum bundle and mid-hippocampus and ventral prefrontal cortex appeared, as well as the right cerebellar cortex and deep nuclei.  

Diffusion anisotropy was decreased in schizophrenia in the following brain regions: the fornix, the corpus callosum, bilaterally in the cingulum bundle, bilaterally in the superior occipito-frontal fasciculus, bilaterally in the internal capsule, in the right inferior occipito-frontal fasciculus and the left arcuate fasciculus. MTR maps demonstrated changes in the corpus callosum, fornix, right internal capsule, and the superior occipito-frontal fasciculus bilaterally; however, no changes were noted in the anterior cingulum bundle, the left internal capsule, the arcuate fasciculus, or inferior occipito-frontal fasciculus. In addition, the right posterior cingulum bundle showed MTR but not FA changes in schizophrenia.  

The present findings allow the postulate that serotonergic medial forebrain and cingulum bundle pathways play a role in the activity of cortical structures involved in Stroop test processing..  

The present method can automatically extract the quantitative anisotropy properties along the cingulum bundles from tractography. More interestingly, a significant left-greater-than-right asymmetry pattern was obtained in most segments of cingulum bundle (-50-25 degrees), except in the most posterior portion of cingulum (25-50 degrees)..  

In controls, we found left-higher-than-right anisotropic asymmetry in the anterior part of the corpus callosum, cingulum bundle, the optic radiation, and the superior cerebellar peduncle, and right-higher-than-left anisotropic asymmetry in the anterior limb of the internal capsule and the anterior limb's prefrontal regions, in the uncinate fasciculus, and in the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In patients, the asymmetry was lower, although still present, in the cingulum bundle and the anterior corpus callosum, and not found in the anterior limb of the internal capsule, the uncinate fasciculus, and the superior cerebellar peduncle compared to healthy subjects.  

The retrosplenial (RS) cortex (area 29) and the adjacent cingulum bundle (CG) are components of neural circuits that include the hippocampus.  

Evidence suggests that a disruption in limbic system network integrity and, in particular, the cingulate gyrus (CG), may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia; however, the cingulum bundle (CB), the white matter tract furnishing both input and output to CG, and the most prominent white matter fiber tract in the limbic system, has not been evaluated in schizophrenia using the new technology of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).We used line scan DTI to evaluate diffusion in the CB in 16 male schizophrenia patients and 18 male control subjects, group-matched for age, parental socioeconomic status, and handedness.  

The in vivo fourth-order maps showed significantly higher densities in several brain regions, including the corpus callosum, cingulum bundle, superior longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and middle cerebellar peduncle, which indicated the existence of fiber crossings in these regions..  

Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry revealed that C3 administration reduced AF64A-induced cholinergic damage in the septum and cingulum bundle.  

In the present paper we examined the effect of AF64A on the cholinergic elements of the cingulum bundle. Seven days after AF64A administration choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive fibers were extensively damaged on the dorsal part of cingulum bundle.  

This conclusion has been questioned in recent work, suggesting that it is damage to the underlying cingulum bundle (CG) (areas CG and IG), and not RS, that disrupts spatial place learning (Aggleton et al., 2000).  

Age-dependent cellular, anatomical, and physiological changes of the 5-HTT were evaluated in female Fischer 344 rats (2 and 17 months) following denervation of the serotonergic afferents (fimbria-fornix and cingulum bundle) to the dorsal hippocampus using the neurotoxicant 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT).  

The 5-hydroxytryptamine innervation of hippocampus originates from the median raphe via the cingulum bundle and the fimbria-fornix. Lesioning of the cingulum bundle has previously been shown to cause sprouting of intact 5-hydroxytryptamine afferents originating from the unharmed fimbria-fornix. Rats were unilaterally injected with the 5-hydroxytryptamine neurotoxin, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, into the right cingulum bundle and 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactivity in the dorsal hippocampus was investigated 1, 3, 6 and 12weeks after the injection.  

The purpose of this work was to test if electric stimulation of the cingulum bundle in animals subjected to a hindpaw inflammatory process precipitates the onset and enhances autotomy behaviour. Wistar rats were implanted with bipolar parallel electrodes in the boundary of the cingulum bundle. We conclude that it is possible to facilitate the onset and to increase the intensity of the autotomy triggered by the inflammatory process with cingulum bundle electrical stimulation.  

The present study investigated the origin, course, and terminations of the association fiber system linking the frontal cortex with the hippocampal system by means of the cingulum bundle. It was demonstrated that the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex (areas 46, 9/46, and 9) and its medial extension (medial areas 9 and 9/32) is the origin of a specific fiber pathway, running posteriorly as part of the cingulum bundle, and terminating mainly in the retrosplenial area 30 and the posterior presubiculum.  

The ability of rats to learn the location of a hidden platform in a swim maze was compared in animals with excitotoxic lesions of the anterior or posterior (retrosplenial) cingulate cortex or radiofrequency lesions of the cingulum bundle or fimbria-fornix. Transection of the fornix and lesions of the cingulum bundle produced similar patterns of impairment on initial acquisition, but the cingulum bundle lesions had less effect on reversal of the task. The results from the water maze, and from a subsequent T-maze alternation task, indicate that cingulum bundle lesions can produce a spatial deficit that is similar, but milder, to that observed after fornix transection. The results of the excitotoxic lesions suggest that previous studies examining conventional cingulate lesions may have been influenced by damage to adjacent fibre tracts, such as the cingulum bundle..  

In studying whether axonal 5-HTTs are involved in the uptake of 5-HT, we found with autoradiography that [ 3H]citalopram bound to all major 5-HT fibers, not only in the terminal regions, but also in 5-HT axonal bundles such as the cingulum bundle and medial forebrain bundle.  

wt 25,000) following administration of the neurotoxin, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, into the fimbria-fornix and cingulum bundle to denervate serotonergic afferent input to the dorsal hippocampus. Following three weeks pretreatment with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (20 microg total dose) or vehicle (0.1% ascorbic saline; 2 microl total volume) infused in the fimbria-fornix/cingulum bundle, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated marked increases of glial fibrillary acidic protein, but not synaptosomal-associated protein, in the 18-month 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine group compared to the 18-month vehicle and 3-month 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine groups.  

As a consequence, a decrease in dopamine synthesis during gestation and the early postnatal period could occur, producing a functional dopaminergic denervation of the D1 receptors, located on the prefrontal cortex, specifically in the cingulum bundle projections.  

Comparisons were made between the behavioural effects of lesions in three inter-related limbic structures: the mammillary bodies, the fornix and the cingulum bundle/cingulate cortex. The profile of results indicated that disruption of those fibres in the cingulum bundle connecting the anterior thalamic nuclei with the hippocampal/retrohippocampal region was responsible for the observed impairments to T-maze alternation and radial-arm maze performance. There was also evidence that disconnection of frontal connections in the cingulum bundle might affect perseverative behaviour, but not allocentric processing. The results add support to the notion of a functional circuit that involves projections from the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies and anterior thalamic nuclei, and from there back to hippocampal/retrohippocampal regions via the cingulum bundle.  

For comparison purposes this second study included groups of rats with lesions in closely allied regions: the fornix (Fx), the cingulum bundle (CB) and the medial prefrontal cortex (Pfc).  

Vehicle (ascorbic saline) or 5,7-DHT was administered bilaterally in the fimbria-fornix/cingulum bundle and dorsal pyramidal cell responses to microiontophoretic application of 5-HT, the 5-HT1A agonist (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin, the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100,135 and N-methyl-D-aspartate were recorded at 3 weeks post-lesion.  

Surgical lesions of the cingulum bundle in humans produce marked decreases in severe pain associated with cancer, reflex sympathetic dystrophy and other forms of chronic pain. Similarly, a temporary block of the anterior cingulum bundle in the rat by microinjection of lidocaine produces significant decreases in formalin-pain and reduces autotomy following peripheral neurectomy. The present study explored the effect of electrical stimulation of the cingulum bundle/surrounding cortical tissue (CB/CT) on tonic pain in the rat. Since the cingulum bundle has major connections with all other structures of the limbic system, it is possible that electrical stimulation disrupts patterned activity in the system, which is known to play an especially important role in the affective-motivational dimension of pain..  

Rats received one of three different surgeries in which radiofrequency lesions were made in the cingulum bundle. None of the groups of animals with cingulum bundle lesions was impaired on either the acquisition or performance of an automated delayed nonmatching-to-position task in an operant chamber. In fact, following combination of the three cingulum bundle groups it was found that the lesions resulted in a small, but significant improvement in performance of this task when compared with the SHAM animals. This double dissociation between the two tests of spatial working memory, coupled with the comparable scores of the three lesion groups, is seen as showing that the cingulum bundle is part of a neuroanatomical circuit subserving aspects of allocentric spatial memory.  

In the present study, we examined whether a single injection of a local anesthetic (bupivacaine) into the cingulum bundle at the time of nerve section could reduce autotomy.  

Serotonin (5-HT) projections from the ascending raphe nuclei reach the dorsal hippocampus via the cingulum bundle (CB) and fimbria-fornix (FF).  

They then received cytotoxic lesions in either the medial prefrontal cortex (n = 13) or the cingulate and retrosplenial cortices (n = 8), or radiofrequency lesions in either the fornix (n = 6) or the cingulum bundle (n = 8). Marked deficits were observed in the fornix and cingulum bundle groups, but the medial prefrontal and cingulate groups were unimpaired. The double dissociation between the effects of the prefrontal and cingulum bundle lesions highlights the very different nature of the two spatial tasks (DNMP and T-maze alternation), even though both involved a nonmatching rule. One possibility is that anterior thalamic projections to the medial prefrontal cortex are concerned with processing egocentric information, while anterior thalamic projections to temporal regions via the cingulum bundle are concerned with allocentric information. The results also indicate that the effects of conventional lesions in the cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex may be compromised by additional damage to the cingulum bundle..  

Using a porcine-specific axonal marker in xenografted animals, we found graft axons in white matter tracts (corpus callosum, internal capsule, cingulum bundle, and medial forebrain bundle) and within the caudate-putamen and both the ipsilateral and contralateral cerebral cortex.  

Injections of the carbocyanine dye DiI into the cingulum bundle revealed that these cells are projection neurons.  

It is also suggested that in some previous studies the effects of inadvertent damage to the cingulum bundle may have contributed to the apparent effects of cingulate lesions..  

The precise origin(s) of the axons showing progressive myelination is unknown; however, the axons in the subiculum may include some perforant path fibers, while those found in the presubiculum may include cingulum bundle projections.  

Unilateral aspiration lesions of the rostral supracallosal stria/cingulum bundle and fimbria-fornix were performed on adult female rats.  

In relation with the decrease in brain weight, the cingulum bundle, a myelinated structure associated with the corpus callosum, displayed a significant reduction in size.  

Rats were injected with 1 microliter of 2% lidocaine or saline into the anterior cingulum bundle at 0 (immediately), 10 or 30 min prior to formalin injection, or 10, 20 or 30 min after formalin injection, and tested for analgesia in the late phase of the formalin test, 30-70 min after formalin injection.  

In general, a few AChE-positive fibres were seen in the subcortical white matter and the cingulum bundle, entering into the cerebral cortex by about 5 postnatal days.  

In parallel with this decrease, numerous 5-HT-IR fibers in the cingulum bundle, fornix-fimbria and the hippocampal parenchyma exhibit structural changes, similar to those produced by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, a specific neurotoxin of the 5-HT system.  

Associated fibers: superior occipito-frontal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, ucinate fasciculus, cingulum bundle, optic radiation fornix and mammillothalamic tract..  

This study examines the role of the cingulum bundle in mediating autotomy behavior. Rats were given bilateral injections of 1 microliter of 0.5% bupivicaine (a local anesthetic) or saline into the cingulum bundle immediately prior to, and on Days 1, 7, 14, and 21 after, sectioning the sciatic and saphenous nerves.  

Serotonergic deafferentation was accomplished by infusing the cytotoxin in to the fornix-fimbria/cingulum bundle.  

The role of cingulum in the perception of tonic and phasic pain was examined by injecting lidocaine, a local anesthetic, into the anterior cingulum bundle of the rat. Seven to 10 days after surgery, the rats were infused with 1 microliter of 2% lidocaine in saline or saline alone into the anterior cingulum bundle immediately prior to testing for analgesia in the formalin or foot-flick test. Injection of lidocaine into the anterior cingulum bundle produced a significant reduction in formalin pain scores, but had no effect on foot-flick latencies.  

The prefrontal, cingulate, and parahippocampal (entorhinal) cortex, as well as the perforant pathway, cingulum bundle, and hippocampus, were closely examined because these regions have recently been found to show various neuropathological differences in schizophrenia. The comparable region in the adjacent presubicular area that also showed increased myelin staining probably contains distal portions of the cingulum bundle. Support for this latter possibility was obtained from a single case in which a stereotaxically placed lesion causing interruption of the cingulum bundle showed less myelin in the presubicular area of the effectively lesioned side..  

beta-endorphin, corticosterone, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats after exposure to running or swimming stressors or after surgical ablation of the cingulum bundle.  

These results suggest an involvement of the posterior cingulate cortex, and in particular the cingulum bundle, both in acquisition and long-term memory processes..  

Following injections of [ 3H]amino acids into these nuclei, 5 major fiber pathways were identified: axons of the nbM and ndbB project medially, principally within the cingulum bundle, to dorsomedial portions of the hemispheres; nbM and ndbB fibers exit laterally beneath the pallidum and striatum, enter the external and extreme capsules, and pass within the corona radiata to terminate in lateral and caudal regions of neocortex; axons coursing ventrally from the nbM project to portions of the temporal lobe, including the amygdala; some fibers pass through the fibrae pass orbitofrontales to the orbitofrontal cortex; and, finally axons of the nbM/ndbB project via the fimbria/rornix and a ventral pathway to the hippocampus.  

The dorsal hippocampus of the rat normally receives its 5-HT innervation from two homologous groups of cells in the median raphe nucleus via the cingulum bundle-induseum griseum (CB-IG) and the fornix-fimbria (FF) (J.  

The depth of the cingulum bundle, a myelinated substructure of the corpus callosum was found to represent a sensitive indicator of exposure to X-irradiation in utero at dose levels as low as 20 cGy.  

Their axons project by way of the cingulum bundle (CB) and the fornix-fimbria (FF)58.  

We have previously shown using anatomical methods that partial denervation of the rat hippocampus by removal of serotonergic (5-HT) fibers in the cingulum bundle induces sprouting of intact 5-HT fibers reaching the hippocampus in the fornix-fimbria. Unilateral stereotaxic injections of 5 micrograms 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine were made into the cingulum bundle of adult rats in order to produce partial and selective deafferentation of the hippocampus. These results indicate that 5-HT fibers remaining in the hippocampus following partial denervation are able to compensate biochemically for those removed by cingulum bundle lesions.  

A larger medial pathway forms in the cingulum bundle and terminates in the most caudal part of the presubiculum, as well as in adjacent transitional cortices.  

The course and composition of the cingulum bundle was examined by using the autoradiographic tracer technique in the rhesus monkey. The cingulum bundle is observed to consist of three major fiber components originating from thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and cortical association areas. Following isotope injections in the anterior and lateral dorsal thalamic nuclei, labelled fibers form an arch in the white matter behind the cingulate sulcus and occupy the ventral sector of the cingulum bundle. The fibers from the anterior thalamic nucleus coursing in the cingulum bundle extended rostrally to the frontal cortex and caudally to area 23 and the retrosplenial cortex. Efferent fibers from the cingulate gyrus occupy a dorsolateral sector of the cingulum bundle. cingulum bundle fibers from the prefrontal cortex extend up to the retrosplenial cortex while those from the posterior parietal cortex extend caudally to the parahippocampal gyrus and presubiculum, and rostrally up to the prefrontal cortex..  

A separate bundle, coursing part of the way in the company of the cingulum bundle, conveys posterior parietal fibers to the presubiculum..  

Selected and localized lesions of serotonergic (5-HT) neurons were made by microinjection of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), after pretreatment with desipramine, into the cingulum bundle and fornix-fimbria; these are the major serotonergic hippocampal inputs from the median raphe nucleus.  

Serotonergic fibers from the median raphe nucleus (MRN) of the rat reach the dorsal hippocampus (HIPP) through the cingulum bundle (CB) and the fornix-fimbria (FF).  

Fibers sweep dorsally into the lateral septal nucleus, cingulum bundle and medial cortex.  

In the present experiments, neurotoxic lesions were made with injections of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the cingulum bundle, fornix or both.  

Addition of an excess of unlabeled 5-HT to the slices, or the use of hippocampi from 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine intracerebral microinjected rats (5 microgram/400 nl into the fornix-fimbria and the cingulum bundle, 6 day survival) caused a dramatic decrease in these aggregates.  

Other fibers joined the cingulum bundle and terminated throughout the cingulate cortex.  

Temporal integration of behavior in man, as measured in terms of accuracy of sequential motor performance, does not appear to be critically dependent upon the integrity of the cingulum bundle at the level of interruption investigated in the present study..  

[ View All ]