Cingulate Gyrus

The results showed that the left frontal gyri, the cingulate gyrus, and the cuneus were activated during hypothesis generation.  

Findings in regions predicted a priori to show volumetric changes (orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, basal ganglia and thalamus) were reported as significant if surpassing a statistical threshold of p<0.001 (uncorrected for multiple comparisons).  

RESULTS: The POCs indicated alterations in a widely distributed network of regions involved in attention processes, such as the prefrontal and temporal (including the parahippocampal gyrus) cortices, in addition to the anterior cingulate gyrus.  

However, during the reward condition, patients with noncomorbid conduct disorder showed disorder-specific underactivation in the right orbitofrontal cortex, while patients with noncomorbid ADHD showed disorder-specific dysfunction in the posterior cingulate gyrus.  

Bilateral activations were shown in the cerebellum, superior temporal gyrus, insula, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, and post-cingulate gyrus. Regions active during high pitch production when compared to comfortable pitch were evident in the bilateral cerebellum, left inferior frontal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, and left posterior cingulate. During low pitch generation, activations were present in the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, putamen, and cingulate gyrus in the left hemisphere.  

Our data suggest that, in addition to chronic pain, FM patients suffer from neurocognitive deficits that correlate with local brain morphology in the frontal lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus, which may be interpreted to indicate structural correlates of pain-cognition interaction..  

In the present study, the reliabilities of TE-averaged PRESS, standard PRESS with TE = 40 ms, and standard PRESS with TE = 30 ms in detecting metabolite levels in the cingulate gyrus of the human brain at 3T were compared in six subjects.  

The extent of tumor resection, the percentage of SMA resection, violation of the cingulate gyrus, and operative complications were tabulated.  

In addition, the anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate gyrus of the limbic lobe were also activated in the expert and novice groups, respectively.  

For M4 generators, cingulate gyrus activations were observed for all stimulus-presentation conditions.  

Patients also activated the thalamus, putamen, middle frontal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus.  

During the face condition, compared with patients without VH, hallucinating PD patients showed significant reductions in the activation of several right prefrontal areas, such as the inferior (BA 10,47), superior (BA 6/8), middle frontal (BA 8), and anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 31/32).  

We show that experts and non-experts recruit bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and subcallosal cingulate gyrus differentially during aesthetic judgment, even in the absence of behavioural aesthetic rating differences between experts and non-experts. By contrast, activity in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) exhibits a differential response profile compared to OFC and subcallosal cingulate gyrus, suggesting a dissociable role between these regions in the reward processing of expertise.  

Induced alpha-band power of components that were in or near the cingulate gyrus was increased in the participants with ASD, and the components that were in or near the parietal cortex did not differ between the two groups.  

The total BDI score, as well as symptoms of psychomotor anhedonia and negative cognition, correlated positively with [ (18)F]MPPF BP in the raphe nuclei and in the insula contralateral to seizure onset, whereas somatic symptoms correlated positively with [ (18)F]MPPF binding potential in the hippocampal/parahippocampal region ipsilateral to seizure onset, the left mid-cingulate gyrus and the inferior dorsolateral frontal cortex, bilaterally. We confirm an association of depressive symptoms in TLE patients with changes of the central serotoninergic pathways, in particular within the raphe nuclei, insula, cingulate gyrus and epileptogenic hippocampus.  

The differences are more pronounced in the frontal regions and in the cingulate gyrus.  

The peak image intensity of the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC) of NERD-H group was 562 +/- 104, significantly lower than that of the control group (587 +/- 126, P < 0.  

During odour stimulation, migraineurs also showed significantly higher activation than controls in the left temporal pole and significantly lower activation in the frontal (left inferior as well as left and right middle frontal gyri) and temporo-parietal (left and right angular, and right posterior superior temporal gyri) regions, posterior cingulate gyrus and right locus coeruleus.  

Whole brain, two regions of interest (fusiform gyrus and cingulate gyrus), and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Compared with unfamiliar faces, only personally familiar faces activated the cingulate gyrus and the extent of activation varied with face category.  

Significant activity was observed in the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and the right amygdala in the negative-word/self-reference condition, and in the left amygdala in the positive-word/self-reference condition. Compared with the semantic-processing condition, the self-reference conditions showed significantly more activity in the medial prefrontal and temporal gyri, posterior cingulate gyrus, and precuneus. These results suggest that the medial prefrontal gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and precuneus are associated with a self-referential processing, and the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus is involved in self-referential processing of negative emotional stimuli.  

RESULTS: Reduced FA among 16 heroin dependent subjects was located in the bilateral frontal sub-gyral regions, right precentral and left cingulate gyrus.  

RESULTS: The location of neuronal activity distinguished gray and white matter and was useful in delineating the upper and lower cortical banks of the cingulate gyrus, the cingulate bundle, and the corpus callosum.  

We found significant grey matter density (GMD) reductions in FES compared to HC bilaterally in the temporal and prefrontal areas, including the anterior cingulate gyrus, as well as in both thalami.  

Additionally, increased activation was found in the left IFG and the left cingulate gyrus for subordinate meaning compared to dominant meaning conditions, suggesting that additional resources are recruited in order to resolve increased competition demands in accessing the subordinate meaning of an ambiguous word..  

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: In vivo neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of decreases in the gray matter volume of the cingulate gyrus in subjects with schizophrenia as compared to healthy controls. To investigate whether these changes might be related to heritable influences, we used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and labeled cortical mantle distance mapping to measure gray matter volume, as well as thickness and the area of the gray/white interface, in the anterior and posterior segments of the cingulate gyrus in 28 subjects with schizophrenia and their non-psychotic siblings, and in 38 healthy control subjects and their siblings.  

Similar brain regions in subjects including frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and cerebellum were engaged in simple and complex addition/subtraction. The cortex including the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and cingulate gyrus were activated during mental calculation, while the subcortical structures such as the caudate nucleus, the globus pallidum and the left marginal division of the striatum also played a critical role in the neural networks of the calculation at the same time.  

The patients showed less activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus and cerebellum than control subjects.  

Deactivations were mainly in the anterior frontal lobe, posterior parietal lobe, and posterior cingulate gyrus.  

A 3-year-old girl presented with a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor in the right cingulate gyrus manifesting as epilepsy refractory to anticonvulsant medication. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic tumor in the right cingulate gyrus.  

Although men and women showed no discernable activation differences, hemispheric or otherwise, when collapsed across object categories, sex-by-category analyses showed selective activation for females in dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus and left posterior middle temporal gyrus for tools, and selective activation for males in left posterior middle temporal gyrus for plants.  

BACKGROUND: A preliminary report in six patients suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG) may provide benefit in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Subcallosal cingulate gyrus DBS likely acts by modulating brain networks whose dysfunction leads to depression.  

Abnormalities in the thalamus (6 patients), cingulate gyrus (6 patients), frontal lobes (4 patients), and occipital lobes (3 patients) were best detected with DWI.  

In a previous study, with adults, we demonstrated that the amygdala and anterior cingulate gyrus are differentially responsive to happy and sad faces presented subliminally. Direct comparison between masked happy and sad faces revealed valence specific differences in the anterior cingulate gyrus.  

This decrease in dopamine function is associated with reduced regional activity in orbitofrontal cortex (involved in salience attribution; its disruption results in compulsive behaviors), cingulate gyrus (involved in inhibitory control; its disruption results in impulsivity) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (involved in executive function; its disruption results in impaired regulation of intentional actions).  

Specifically, there is increasing evidence for involvement of the cingulate gyrus (CG) in executive dysfunction and the expression of positive symptoms in schizophrenia.  

OBJECTIVES: We now characterize the integrity of insulin and IGF signaling mechanisms and assess molecular indices of neurodegeneration in the cerebellar vermis and anterior cingulate gyrus of human alcoholics.  

Limbic structures, which include amygdala, hippocampal formation, septal area, prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus serve important modulating functions.  

CONTEXT: Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have demonstrated psychopathological symptom-related smaller gray matter volumes in various cingulate gyrus subregions in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are initial and progressive gray matter volume deficits in cingulate gyrus subregions in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ) and patients with first-episode affective psychosis (FEAFF, mainly manic) and their specificity to FESZ or FEAFF. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: cingulate gyrus gray matter volumes in 3 anterior subregions (subgenual, affective, and cognitive) and 1 posterior subregion, and whether there was a paracingulate sulcus. RESULTS: At first hospitalization, patients with FESZ showed significantly smaller left subgenual (P = .03), left (P = .03) and right (P = .005) affective, right cognitive (P = .04), and right posterior (P = .003) cingulate gyrus gray matter subregions compared with HCs.  

We find that dementia in PD is significantly associated with alphaSyn in the anterior cingulate gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, amygdaloid complex and CA2 sector of the hippocampus. Abeta in the anterior cingulate gyrus, entorhinal cortex, amygdaloid complex and nucleus basalis of Meynert is also associated with dementia as is tau in the CA2 sector of the hippocampus. Statistical analysis revealed that alphaSyn burden in the anterior cingulate gyrus could differentiate demented from non-demented PD cases with high sensitivity and specificity.  

In obese subjects striatal D2 receptor availability was lower than controls and was positively correlated with metabolism in dorsolateral prefrontal, medial orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate gyrus and somatosensory cortices.  

Solving integrals activated a left-lateralized cortical network including the horizontal intraparietal sulcus, posterior superior parietal lobe, posterior cingulate gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.  

The aim of this study was to investigate interictal changes in the temporal lobe white matter (TLWM) and cingulate gyrus white matter (CGWM) of children with TLE using DTI.  

Previous studies have suggested that hypoperfusion in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus are involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Scores in four regions were determined by Z-values; these regions consisted of each side of the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. There were no significant differences in the scores of the right prefrontal cortex and the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus between these two groups (Mann-Whitney U-test).  

The encoding of positive information later known recruited the cingulate gyrus and bilateral frontal and parietal areas--regions associated with episodic and semantic retrieval and self-referential processing--more than did the encoding of negative or neutral items that were later known.  

RESULTS: Relative to placebo, THC attenuated activation in the right inferior frontal and the anterior cingulate gyrus.  

Patients with VarAD had significantly higher [ (11)C] PIB uptake than the control group in the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, occipital cortex and thalamus. The increases in the anterior (28%) and posterior (27%) cingulate gyrus, occipital cortex (21%) and thalamus (14%) were smaller.  

Quantitative 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the posterior cingulate gyrus was performed and repeated at 11.56+/-4.3 months.  

The anterior cingulate gyrus was the only structure common to both fluency tasks in direct comparison to the less restricted FVA task.  

Bilateral affected structures were hippocampal cortex, amygdala, caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus, lower temporal gyrus and somatomotor cortex.  

In contrast, activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus, a region associated with attentional effort and working memory load, was enhanced in children.  

There were also leptin-reversible decreases in activity in response to food cues in the hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus.  

Two single-voxel sequences (TR 1,500, TE 35/144 ms) were carried out in the posterior cingulate gyrus of each individual, and the ratios N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, myo-inositol (mI)/Cr, NAA/mI and NAA/Cho were compared statistically.  

When emotionally incongruent trials were compared to congruent trials, relative deactivations of the subgenual cingulate gyrus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex observed in the healthy controls were not found in the patient group and activities of these regions inversely correlated with emotional interference to performance efficiency and response accuracy respectively in the patient group.  

In early Alzheimer's disease (AD), the hippocampal region is the area most severely affected by cellular and structural alterations, yet glucose hypometabolism predominates in the posterior association cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus. We found that hippocampal atrophy is specifically related to cingulum bundle disruption, which is in turn highly correlated to hypometabolism of the posterior cingulate cortex but also of the middle cingulate gyrus, thalamus, mammillary bodies, parahippocampal gyrus, and hippocampus (all part of Papez's circuit), as well as the right temporoparietal associative cortex.  

However, patients with RGD had larger left cingulate gyrus volume compared with healthy control subjects. There was a significant negative correlation between left cingulate gyrus volume and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed recall raw score in patients with RGD.  

Hypobulia/apathy (n = 43) was related to involvement of frontal pole (p = 0.002), corpus callosum/cingulate gyrus (p = 0.003), and superior frontal gyrus (p < 0.001), and occurred more frequently in patients with bilateral lesions followed by left lesions.  

RESULTS: The results indicated that DRD4 VNTR >7 repeat individuals (DRD4.L) had significantly greater response to alcohol cues in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and striatum compared with individuals with <7 repeats (DRD4.S) prior to a priming dose of alcohol (p < 0.05), but not after a priming dose.  

MR FLAIR images showed a high intensity area measuring 5 x 2 x 3 cm in the left frontal lobe, extending to the outer surface of the body of the corpus callosum and the adjacent right cingulate gyrus.  

Materials and methods: After an exploratory search of the MEDLINE, we first identified all English-written articles that provide separate data for BD patients and report original experimental data on cingulate gyrus.  

RESULTS: First desire to void state was associated with increased blood flow in the right and left cerebellum, right parahippocampal gyrus (Brodmann area [ BA] 30), left superior frontal gyrus (BA9), and left cingulate gyrus (BA32). Rest state was associated with decreased blood flow in the right superior temporal gyrus (BA22), right uncus (BA28), right cingulate gyrus (BA32), left middle temporal gyrus (BA21), and left medial frontal gyrus (BA25). Combined activation of the right and left cerebellum, parahippocampal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus could be associated with FDV..  

The cingulocallosal arteries were present in all hemispheres and supplied the corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, and also contributed to the pericallosal pial plexus. This vessel supplied the corpus callosum and the cingulate gyrus.  

We used designed-based stereology to measure the volumes of neuronal cell bodies, nuclei, and nucleoli in 4 cerebral regions: anterior cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, primary visual cortex, and CA1 of hippocampus. We found significant hypertrophy of the neuronal cell bodies, nuclei, and nucleoli of CA1 of hippocampus and anterior cingulate gyrus neurons in ASYMAD subjects compared with control and mild cognitive impairment cases. In the posterior cingulate gyrus and primary visual cortex, the hypertrophy was limited to the nuclei and nucleoli.  

Supratentorial MRI images showed hypotrophy of the corpus callosum and almost absent cingulate gyrus.  

The SC-WR contrast for each group showed activation in left inferior frontal and extrastriate regions, but the RD group showed significantly more activation than Controls in areas associated with linguistic processing (left middle/superior temporal gyri), and attention and response selection (bilateral insula, right cingulate gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right parietal lobe).  

Significant increases were seen in the cingulate gyrus and temporal poles, bilaterally.  

RESULTS: The first factor (depressive mood) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right insula, posterior cingulate gyrus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the left fusiform gyrus.  

The density of slow wave dipoles in cingulate gyrus correlated with the severity of upper-extremity disability as judged by the functional ALS measure.  

mother-referential contrast, small differences in activation strength were observed in the left superior frontal sulcus, right cingulate gyrus and the left fusiform gyrus.  

For both the RW and the SD sessions, task difficulty was associated with activation in parietal cortex and with deactivation in visual and insular cortices and cingulate gyrus but this pattern of activation/deactivation was significantly lower for SD than for RW.  

The benchmark discovery of the cingulate gyrus as a brain structure receiving stimuli from muscles and viscera (proprioception and interoception) is traced to a 1907/1908 article by neuropathologist Christfried Jakob.  

The possible mechanisms include an improvement in striatal metabolism and neuronal activity in the orbitofrontal cortex mediated by STN DBS, as well as increased glucose metabolism in the striatum, midbrain, cingulate gyrus, and motor and higher-order somatosensory association cortices..  

On the other hand, the medium lesion size, which was approximately the same size as the posterior cingulate gyrus, was expanded 2.9 times to true signal size.  

RESULTS: During the provocation of fatigue, CFS patients reported feelings of both fatigue and anxiety and, compared to controls, they showed increased activation in the occipito-parietal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus, and decreased activation in dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices.  

Group analysis found that various brain areas of patients with congenital scoliosis showed glucose hypometabolisms in the left prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 24) and pulvinar of the left thalamus.  

RESULTS: A group analysis of contrast 1) showed activation of the right prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, the insula bilaterally, the left precuneus, the parietal operculum bilaterally, the cerebellum bilaterally (q(FDR)< or =0.001), the right anterior cingulate gyrus (q(FDR)< or =0.005) and the right anterior mid pons (q(FDR)< or =0.05).  

Schizophrenic patients showed reduced grey matter (GM) density in the bilateral temporal cortex, the left inferior parietal lobule, the cingulate gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus.  

Brain responses to visual inputs (64-channels electroencephalogram) mirrored behavioural results, showing pain-induced effects in the orbitofrontal cortex, the subgenual portion of the cingulate gyrus, the anterior prefrontal and the temporal cortices, exclusively during presentation of pleasant images.  

A direct contrast between the motor imagery and observation conditions revealed stronger activation for imagery in the posterior insula and the anterior cingulate gyrus.  

During inhibition failures compared to go responses, both patient groups shared underactivation in the posterior cingulate gyrus in relation to comparison subjects.  

During motor response inhibition, preterm-born participants compared to controls showed increased BOLD signal in medial and right lateral posterior brain regions, including middle temporal/occipital gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus.  

Brain MRI revealed abnormal T2 and FLAIR high intensities in the cingulate gyrus and hippocampus bilaterally.  

Area 25 has anterior (25a) and posterior (25p) parts; 25p has the thinnest layer III in the cingulate gyrus.  

Motor components comprised more widespread activation in these regions and additional activations in the frontal and supplementary eye fields (FEF, SEF), the cingulate gyrus and precuneus.  

Principally, the brain response of heterosexual paedophiles to heteropaedophilic stimuli was comparable to that of heterosexual males to heterosexual stimuli, including different limbic structures (amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus), the substantia nigra, caudate nucleus, as well as the anterior cingulate cortex, different thalamic nuclei, and associative cortices.  

Contrasting verbal fluency with FVA, a failure in recruiting the anterior cingulate gyrus emerged in the patient group.  

RESULTS: Relative to affective comparison subjects, suicide attempters showed greater activity in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 47) and decreased activity in the right superior frontal gyrus (area 6) in response to prototypical angry versus neutral faces, greater activity in the right anterior cingulate gyrus (area 32 extending to area 10) to mild happy versus neutral faces, and greater activity in the right cerebellum to mild angry versus neutral faces.  

Voxel-based analysis showed an increase of rCBF in white matter and a relative decrease of rCBF during xenon anaesthesia in distinct grey matter regions, particularly the orbito- and mesiofrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, hippocampus and bilateral cerebellum (P<0.05 corrected).  

The imaging data for both scripts showed brain activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus, an area involved in inhibiting automatic processing.  

Microarray analyses indicated that genes associated with canonical cell cycle pathways were significantly affected in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), the region exhibiting the most profound myelin-specific gene expression changes, in persons with SZ (N=16) as compared with controls (N=19).  

In this study, 12 patients with PDD, 12 patients with PD and no dementia, and 12 age-matched healthy older adults underwent MRS of the posterior cingulate gyrus.  

RESULTS: At baseline, compared with controls, patients with bipolar disorder showed overactivity in temporal regions and underactivity in the dorsal medial and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and the dorsal cingulate gyrus.  

We detected significant reduction of GM in the inferior frontal gyrus, the medial frontal gyrus, the insula, the cingulate gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus of OCD patients.  

Functional imaging studies have delineated a "minimal network for overt speech production", encompassing mesiofrontal structures (supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate gyrus), bilateral pre- and postcentral convolutions, extending rostrally into posterior parts of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of the language-dominant hemisphere, left anterior insula as well as bilateral components of the basal ganglia, the cerebellum, and the thalamus.  

RESULTS: The analytic program of the SPECT images showed bilateral decreased perfusion of the subcallosal gyrus (SCG), midbrain and posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG) in both AN-R and AN-BP patients, as compared with the controls.  

The only age differences in emotional memory emerged during the successful encoding of positive items: Older adults showed more activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and along the cingulate gyrus than young adults.  

CONCLUSION : Our study demonstrates that the interictal rCBF in drug naive IGE patients is reduced in the cingulate gyrus, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum.  

CONCLUSIONS: FA of the bilateral anterior limb of the internal capsule was reduced in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients, indicating that the integrity of the white matter of the bilateral thalamus-frontal connection or the bilateral thalamus-anterior cingulate gyrus connection was destroyed..  

In addition, sensitization was associated with a relative decrease in activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus.  

Compared with the post-placebo condition, the post-modafinil condition showed higher rCBF in bilateral frontopolar, orbitofrontal, superior frontal, middle frontal gyri, short insular gyri, left cingulate gyrus, left middle/inferior temporal gyri, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left pons.  

Moreover, although these regions exhibit activation that is correlated across subjects with the rate of acquisition, the degree of savings at transfer was correlated with activity in the right cingulate gyrus, left superior parietal lobule, right inferior parietal lobule, left middle occipital gyrus, and bilaterally in the cerebellum (HV/VI).  

Voxel-based morphology results demonstrated significant gray matter volume reductions in patients with stroke with one or more cognitive domain impairment compared with patients with stroke without cognitive impairment that was seen mostly in the thalamus with smaller reductions found in the cingulate gyrus and frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes.  

Hypoperfusion was observed in the hippocampus, parietal lobe and posterior cingulate gyrus, as well as the frontotemporal cortices.  

Connectivity analysis showed that activity in right amygdala correlated with activity in cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate, middle temporal cortex, and was negatively correlated with activity in lateral superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal/orbital gyrus, and parietal cortex.  

We also explored the relation between the AI and volumetric measurements for the third ventricle, medial temporal structures (amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus), superior temporal sub-regions, and frontal lobe regions (prefrontal area and anterior cingulate gyrus).  

The median cingulate gyrus, thalamus, angular gyrus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellar cortex were activated in subjects who had moderate or strong sexual arousal response.  

Patients, but not controls, showed greater brain activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the bilateral ventral striatum (P < 0.05) with less hand dexterity.  

Compared to the euphoria condition, rush was associated with blood flow increase in the left posterior cerebellar lobe, left anterior cingulate gyrus and right precuneus.  

RESULTS: Compared with healthy volunteers, individuals who subsequently developed psychosis had smaller grey matter volume in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and paracentral lobule bilaterally and in the left superior parietal lobule, and greater grey matter volume in a left parietal/posterior temporal region.  

Regional cortical grey matter reductions (including bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus, left insula and left fusiform gyrus) were evident in affective psychosis but not in schizophrenia, although patients with schizophrenia displayed decreased hippocampal grey matter and increased striatal grey matter at a more liberal statistical threshold.  

RESULTS: Healthy women were significantly (P < 0.05) activated in the regions of middle occipital gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, insula, hypothalamus, septal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus, and amygdala by erotic visual stimulation. In comparison with the healthy women, the depressive women gave lower activity, especially in the brain regions of hypothalamus (55.5:3.0), septal area (49.6:8.6), anterior cingulate gyrus (23.5:11.0), and parahippocampal gyrus (18.2:5.8).  

RESULTS: In voxel-based analysis using SPM2, volunteers with the A2A2 genotype showed decreased metabolism in the right middle frontal gyrus, the left middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the right and left inferior temporal gyrus, and the right cingulate gyrus, and increased metabolism in the pons.  

Reduced gray matter volume (GMV) was found in the left hippocampal gyrus, the cingulate gyrus (BA 24/32) and the thalamus.  

The midfrontal cortex, and particularly the anterior cingulate gyrus, appears active in many studies of functional imaging.  

Rating scores as well as the numerical density of PrP(c)-positive and -negative neurons and glial cells were determined in the cingulate gyrus.  

Negative correlations were observed in the left dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral temporal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral/medial prefrontal regions, basal ganglia and parieto-occipital regions.  

RESULTS: When rewarded, individuals with autism compared with control individuals showed significantly greater brain activation in the left anterior cingulate gyrus.  

In addition, decreased rCBF was observed in the right and left anterior cingulate gyrus with extension to the subcallosal region, left posterior cingulate gyrus and medial precuneus, left lateral inferior and superior frontal, and inferior parietal, left orbitofrontal, and left superior temporal cortices.  

Activation for emotional compared with neutral stimuli was highly positively correlated with level of PTSD symptoms in ventral frontolimbic regions, notably the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and ventral anterior cingulate gyrus. Conversely, activation for the executive task was negatively correlated with PTSD symptoms in the dorsal executive network, notably the middle frontal gyrus, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule.  

RESULTS: In a simple model of normal urine storage, bladder and urethral afferents received in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) are mapped in the insula, forming the basis of sensation; the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) provides monitoring and control; the prefrontal cortex makes voiding decisions.  

More specifically, intelligence scores were positively associated with the degree of folding in the temporo-occipital lobe, particularly in the outermost section of the posterior cingulate gyrus (retrosplenial areas).  

Regions of interest included right insula (RI) and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), both consistently involved in bladder control.  

At day 60, immunohistochemistry revealed a 13.5% +/- 5.3% reduction in synaptophysin in the infralimbic cortex and cingulate gyrus in isolation-housed subjects.  

RESULTS: Among patients and healthy volunteers, phe carriers (N=11) had significantly less gray matter in the superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus compared to leu/leu homozygotes (N=33).  

Neuroimaging showed the most extensive grey matter loss in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and frontal operculum/insular cortex of the right hemisphere and, to a lesser extent, in the anterior cingulate gyrus, head of the caudate nucleus and the posterolateral orbitofrontal cortex and insular cortex bilaterally.  

Patients underwent at the same time-point neuropsychological testing and 1[ H]MRS, using PRESS sequences (TE=136 and 25 ms) positioned in the frontal and posterior cingulate gyrus cortexes and in the adjacent frontal and parietal white matter.  

The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated in hypothalamus; amygdala; hippocampal gyrus; thalamus; insula; cingulate gyrus; orbitofrontal, dorsomedial and dorsolateral frontal, middle temporal and occipital cortex; cerebellum; midbrain and corpus striatum.  

For illustration, we apply both intrinsic and extrinsic methods to a clinical study: cortical thickness variation of the left cingulate gyrus in schizophrenia. Both methods show that the left cingulate gyrus tends to become thinner in schizophrenia relative to the healthy control population.  

Semiquantitative analysis was performed in bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, thalamus, putamen, hippocampus, amygdala, caudate nuclei, cerebellar region, anterior/posterior of cingulate gyrus and pons.  

INTRODUCTION: We have often encountered high signal intensity (SI) of the cingulate gyrus and insula during diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) on neurologically healthy adults. The cortical SI in the cingulate gyrus, insula, and temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes was graded relative to the SI of the frontal lobe. RESULTS: Increased SI was frequently seen in the cingulate gyrus and insula regardless of patient age. The CNR was significantly higher in the cingulate gyrus and insula than in the other cortices (p< .01) , and significant differences existed among the cortical regions (p< .001). CONCLUSION: Regional signal variation of the brain cortices was observed on DW-MR images of healthy subjects, and the cingulate gyrus and insula frequently manifested high SI.  

Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed a strong enhancing mass in the left frontal lobe extending to the cingulate gyrus.  

The largest number of pixels with increased MD was localized bilaterally, within the posterior cingulate gyrus.  

From the pre-dementia stage of MCI, atrophy of the hippocampal region detected with structural MRI contrasts with functional alteration of the posterior cingulate gyrus measured with (18)FDG-PET and SPECT.  

We also found significant effects in the hippocampus, insula and cingulate gyrus.  

RESULTS: In the comparison between eAD and controls, a cluster of difference in the posterior cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres was only highlighted when using the customized [ (99m)Tc]ECD template, but was missed when using the default [ (99m)Tc]HMPAO template.  

The study revealed bilateral activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA), extending into the cingulate gyrus, and in the insulae, extending into the right basal ganglia (neostriatum), as well as activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) related to the performance of the rhythm task.  

Lithium increased relative regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) in the bilateral dorsomedial frontal cortices including the anterior cingulate gyrus and decreased rCMRglc in the right cerebellum and left lingual gyrus/cuneus. The results suggest that the effects of chronic lithium are associated with increased activity in the bilateral dorsomedial frontal cortices including the anterior cingulate gyrus and decreased activity in the right cerebellum and left lingual gyrus/cuneus..  

Moreover, the reductions in D2 DA receptors in the striatum are associated with reduced activity of the orbitofrontal cortex (region involved with salience attribution and motivation and with compulsive behaviors) and of the cingulate gyrus (region involved with inhibitory control and impulsivity), which implicates deregulation of frontal regions by DA in the loss of control and compulsive drug intake that characterizes addiction.  

The mean regional cerebral blood flow values of the bipolar euthymic patients were significantly lower than those of the controls in the bilateral medial-basal temporal, occipital; medial frontal; parietal regions and in the cingulate gyrus; the hypoperfusion in the cingulate had the highest significant P value (.001, Bonferroni correction). The most important findings of the current study are the presence of regional cerebral perfusion alterations, particularly in the cingulate gyrus in the euthymic bipolar patients.  

Real words produced stronger brain activations than pseudo-words in the left posterior middle temporal and angular gyri, the rostral and caudal cingulate gyrus, the precuneus and the right inferior temporal gyrus.  

RESULTS: Children with MTLE with unilateral hippocampal atrophy (n=9) exhibited a significant reduction in gray matter in the hippocampus ipsilateral to the seizure origin and significant atrophy in the ipsilateral cingulate gyrus and contralateral middle frontal lobe.  

Of further interest was the lack of alterations in the nucleus accumbens for nearly all receptors/transporters investigated, as well as the lack of alterations in D3 receptor binding in nearly all of the regions investigated (nucleus accumbens, prelimbic region, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus).  

The males showed greater brain activation than the females in the left anterior cingulate gyrus ([ 420.75 +/- 19.37] mm3 vs.  

RESULTS: Volume reduction was observed in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortices and the left cingulate gyrus on the cortical side, whereas in subregions connected to the right orbitofrontal cortex and bilateral parietal cortices on the thalamic side.  

Compared to the control condition, voluntary and involuntary recall were both associated with significant regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) increases in posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG; BA 23), left precuneus (BA 7), and right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35/36).  

OBJECTIVE: NoGo-stimuli during a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) activate prefrontal brain structures such as the anterior cingulate gyrus and lead to an anteriorisation of the positive electrical field of the NoGo-P300 relative to the Go-P300, so-called NoGo-anteriorisation (NGA).  

We performed 3 T 1H MRS of the posterior cingulate gyrus in 12 non-demented patients with PD and 12 age-matched, neurologically normal control participants.  

Additionally, regions of the posterior cingulate gyrus demonstrated unique involvement in facilitation when short- and long-term memory converged.  

RESULTS: Reduced gray matter was observed in the schizophrenia group in the orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and superior temporal gyri (STG), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), medial frontal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus.  

Along the spectrum from control subjects to patients with AD, there was decreasing activation in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus and parahippocampal and fusiform gyri, and increasing activation in the posteromedial cortices (PMCs), primarily in the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus.  

During runs of IBSEDs, EEG-fMRI demonstrated deactivations in the lateral and medial frontoparietal cortices, posterior cingulate gyrus, and cerebellum together with focal relative activations in the right frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices.  

Midline hemorrhage such as medial frontal hemorrhage or cingulate gyrus hemorrhage, and the presence of an interhemispheric SDH associated with SAH and IVH subsequent to blunt craniofacial trauma should be further evaluated, as they pre-sent a high risk of traumatic ACA aneurysms to patients..  

RESULTS: There were significant rCBF reductions in AD patients relative to controls involving regions predicted a priori to be affected in AD, namely the left temporal and parietal neocortices, and the right posterior cingulate gyrus (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons).  

Furthermore, two recent studies showed that testosterone activated ventral stream related to the processing of form and color and midbrain, superior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus along with the improvement of cognitive and sexual function, which can have a positive effect on depressive state..  

Positron emission tomography scanning of cerebral glucose metabolism revealed hypometabolism in the bilateral medial temporal regions, anterior cingulate gyrus, frontal cortex, right temporal cortex, and cerebellum.  

These potentials are thought to originate from several brain structures devoted to nociceptive input processing, including the cingulate gyrus and insula.  

Patients with ALS showed reduced activation during motor imagery in the left inferior parietal lobule, and in the anterior cingulate gyrus and medial pre-frontal cortex.  

After rTMS treatment, there were brain activity decreases in left fusiform gyrus, cerebellum and right DLPFC and brain activity increases in left DLPFC and anterior cingulate gyrus compared to baseline.  

Conversely, during stimulus encoding the patients demonstrated lower activation relative to controls in the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus.  

The baseline average DVR was 1.48 for both the THL and MBR with lower values for other regions [ cerebellum (CB), 1.09; cingulate gyrus (CNG) 1.07].  

One option for treatment of medically refractory debilitating epilepsy is stimulation of the anterior thalamic nucleus, which projects via the cingulate gyrus to limbic structures and neocortex.  

We investigated cognitive correlates of 3-tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the posterior cingulate gyrus in 26 MCI patients.  

RESULTS: On statistical maps, responders manifested significantly lower rCBF in the basal frontal lobes and cingulate gyrus (anterior-dominant).  

Evidence suggests that a disruption in limbic system network integrity and, in particular, the cingulate gyrus may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The cingulum bundles (CBs; posterior and anterior) are the most prominent white matter tracts in the limbic system, furnishing both input and output to the cingulate gyrus .  

Our results provide evidence that the parahippocampal gyri distinguish between relevant and irrelevant landmarks whereas the inferior parietal gyrus, the anterior cingulate gyrus as well as the right caudate nucleus are involved in the coding of route direction.  

RESULTS: Distinct regional characteristics in BOLD responses to expected and unexpected cocaine infusions were observed in the medial orbitofrontal gyrus (Brodmann area [ BA] 11), frontal pole (BA 10), and anterior cingulate gyrus regions.  

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed bilaterally symmetrical signal abnormalities of the insular cortex and cingulate gyrus.  

CONCLUSIONS: Apathy in AD is associated with reduced metabolic activity in the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus and medial orbitofrontal cortex and may be associated with reduced activity in the medial thalamus.  

For both tasks, LGT monotherapy compared to baseline was associated with increased activation mostly within the prefrontal cortex and cingulate gyrus, in regions normally engaged in verbal working memory and emotional processing.  

When contrasted with unintentional forgetting, intentional forgetting was associated with increased activity in hippocampus (Broadmann area [ BA] 35) and superior frontal gyrus (BA10/11); when contrasted with intentional remembering, intentional forgetting was associated with activity in medial frontal gyrus (BA10), middle temporal gyrus (BA21), parahippocampal gyrus (BA34 and 35), and cingulate gyrus (BA31).  

We used this unified approach to assess variation in the thickness of the cingulate gyrus in subjects with schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects.  

Smoking cues as compared to control cues elicited transient brain responses in right superior frontal gyrus (BA 8/9/10/32), left anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 32), and right cuneus (BA 19).  

In comparison with a information on a data base on physically unimpaired persons, the dorsolateral prefrontal area (both sides, right dominant), medial prefrontal area (both sides), dorsal aspect of the anterior cingulate gyrus nociceptive cortex (both sides) and the lateral part of the orbitofrontal cortex (right side) were found to have blood flow reduction in the group of patients with chronic pain.  

Patients also showed significantly lower relative glucose metabolism in the frontal and temporal lobes, caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus relative to normal volunteers, which is consistent with earlier studies.  

Only full-scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) (mean +/- SD, 78.5 +/- 11.9) correlated positively with rCM in the right cingulate gyrus and the bilateral medial frontal gyrus.  

In autopsy brains, we used stereological methods to compare the cell body and nuclear volumes of anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) and CA1 hippocampal neurons in asymptomatic AD subjects (n=9), subjects with AD dementia (AD, n=8), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=9), and age-matched controls (controls, n=9).  

White matter volumes in schizophrenia patients were bilaterally increased, primarily in the frontal, parietal, and isolated temporal regions, with volume reductions confined to anterior cingulate gyrus.  

At T50, the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, midbrain, pons, and cerebellum were dissected respectively for determination of propofol concentrations. Propofol concentrations in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, midbrain, pons, cerebellum at T50 were 3.085-/+1.123, 3.116-/+1.125, 3.073-/+1.159, 3.117-/+1.090, 3.075-/+1.178, 3.073-/+1.146, 3.075-/+1.151, 3.102-/+1.174, and 3.072-/+1.192 microg/g respectively, suggesting homogeneous propofol distribution in these cerebral tissues (P>0.05).  

The maximal ratio in receptor-rich cingulate gyrus to receptor-devoid cerebellum reached 6.4 at 87.5 min after injection of (R)-[ (11)C]RWAY.  

In the L14 group, the areas which showed signal activation were: midline nuclear group of thalamus, left supra marginal gyrus, left supra temporal gyrus, right precuneous lobe, bilateral temporal pole, left precentral gyrus and left cerebellum; those which showed signal deactivation were: bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala body area, rostral side/ audal side of cingulate gyrus, prefrontal lobe and occipital lobe as well as left infratemporal gyrus. In the control group, areas which showed signal activation were: bilateral frontal lobe, postcentral gyrus, Reil's island lobe, primary somato-sensory cortex, cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, occipital cuneiform gyrus and/or precuneus gyrus and right brainstem; and the area that showed deactivation was left median frontal lobe.  

Deactivation below 2 SD was demonstrated by mean values in the cingulate gyrus, Brodmann areas 23 and 24, and subgenual area 25.  

RESULTS: There was high signal intensity in the insula, the cingulate gyrus, and the superior frontal gyrus in 95%.  

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies indicate the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) may play a role in the attention deficits associated with pediatric bipolar disorder (BD).  

Circular regions of interest of 10-mm diameter were placed in the PET images over the cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus, head of caudate nucleus, anterior and posterior putamen, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and posterior cingulate gyrus for each subject.  

In response to doxapram, patients tended to decrease prefrontal activity more than controls, and increased cingulate gyrus and amygdala activity more than controls.  

The sustained threat context increased CBF in the right hippocampus, mid-cingulate gyrus, subgenual PFC, midbrain periaqueductal gray, thalamus, bilateral ventral striatum, and parieto-occipital cortex.  

The regression analysis revealed a significant negative association between CDR-SB score and glucose metabolism in the right posterior cingulate gyrus (P < .001, uncorrected for multiple comparisons), which was independent from demographical variables.  

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients has been reported to involve alterations in the medial temporal lobe and the posterior cingulate gyrus. RESULTS: The MRS study revealed that MMSE, CDT, and SRT scores were positively related to N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/creatine(Cr) and negatively related to myoinositol (mI)/Cr in the posterior cingulate gyrus, but not in the anterior cingulate gyrus. On the other hand, the scores obtained in two categories of BEHAVE-AD (delusional thought/ activity disturbances) were negatively related with NAA/Cr and positively related with mI/Cr in the anterior cingulate gyrus, but not in the posterior cingulate gyrus.  

This study shows developmental specialization of the integrated function of right inferior prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum for inhibitory control and of anterior cingulate gyrus for error-related processes..  

The anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) is a critical structure for social cognitive processing; the pathology of this structure might be a major source of social dysfunction in schizophrenia.  

AACD patients who subsequently converted to AD (AACD-converters) showed more extended metabolic changes which also involved the frontal and temporal cortices, right cingulate gyrus, right thalamus, and bilateral precuneus..  

Group comparison showed that regions of higher activation in patients with PD were located bilaterally in the inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) and anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24/32), and the left dorsal and right ventral striatum.  

The present study tested whether this effect is common to other depression models by examining the effects of repeated forced swimming, chronic subordination stress or acute intraventricular galanin injection - three additional models - on baseline or stimulated c-fos expression in several brain regions known to be involved in motor or motivational processes (secondary motor, M2, anterior piriform cortex, APIR, posterior cingulate gyrus, CG, nucleus accumbens, NAC).  

By contrast, frontal lobes, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus are relatively preserved or even enlarged, consistent with unusual affect regulation and language production in WS..  

Recent sophistication in tracing methods has clarified the minimal contribution of the anterior cingulate gyrus to this circuit and that the projection from the amygdala to thalamus is unidirectional It will then be more appropriate to define this circuit as follows: orbital and cingulate gyri<=> temporal tip<=> amygdala=> mediodorsal thalamus<=> orbital and cingulate gyri.  

Small but significant differences between the cUS and MRI measurements (P<0.05) were found for the ventricular index, the posterior horn depth of the lateral ventricle, the extracerebral space and interhemispheric fissure, and the cortex of the cingulate gyrus.  

Hypometabolism in the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus, which are involved in episodic memory processing, could be responsible for the episodic memory deficit found in the patients.  

[ View All ]