Cerebral Peduncle

Benedikt syndrome is a rare but debilitating constellation of symptoms that manifests from infarction of the red nucleus, cerebral peduncle, oculomotor fascicles, and lower oculomotor nucleus.  

Off-line processing of DTI data was performed to visualize the corticospinal tract, placing a seed area in the cerebral peduncle of the midbrain, where the corticospinal tract is densely concentrated.  

To delineate the brainstem pyramidal tract, tractography was performed using two ROIs, ie, a seed ROI at the cerebral peduncle (ROI-1) and a target ROI at the lower pons (ROI-2).  

Urgent magnetic resonance angiography excluded internal carotid artery aneurysm but showed a large lesion extending superiorly from the clivus towards the right cerebral peduncle, which was confirmed by a CT scan of the brain.  

The cerebral peduncle, the middle cerebellum, and cingulum had the highest variation in FA, while fornix, optic radiation, and optic tract had the highest variation in ADC.  

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Multiple regions of lower FA appeared within white matter in the OSA group, and included fibers of the anterior corpus callosum, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and cingulum bundle, right column of the fornix, portions of the frontal, ventral prefrontal, parietal and insular cortices, bilateral internal capsule, left cerebral peduncle, middle cerebellar peduncle and corticospinal tract, and deep cerebellar nuclei.  

Nicotine-induced effects on dopamine in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus (VH), prefrontal and medial temporal cortex, and superior cerebral peduncle were lower in the young than in adult, the same in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and lateral septal nucleus (LS), and somewhat higher in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAccS).  

OBJECTIVE: We have used diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) for the evaluation of the somatotopic organization of corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and cerebral peduncle (CP).  

The data showed that the tenrec's medial thalamus received prominent projections from ventral pallidal cells as well as from a few neurons within and ventral to the cerebral peduncle.  

The measured fractional anisotropy (FA), a scalar measure of diffusion anisotropy, along the region encompassing corticospinal tracts (CST) indicates significant differences between control and injured groups in the 3 to 4 mm area posterior to bregma that correspond to internal capsule and cerebral peduncle. Both the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle demonstrated an increase in GFAP-immunoreactivity compared to control animals.  

The results showed that IVDC improved the contrast in several brain areas including thalamus, middle cerebral peduncle, and pons.  

Twelve regions were smaller in AIS, including right-sided descending white matter tracts (anterior and posterior limbs of the right internal capsule and the cerebral peduncle) and deep nucleus (caudate), bilateral perirhinal cortices, left hippocampus and amygdala, bilateral precuneus gyri, and left middle and inferior occipital gyri.  

Magnetic resonance imaging revealed enhancing nodular lesions at the cerebral peduncle and medulla.  

RESULTS: FA values at the ipsilateral medulla and the proximal portion of the pyramidal tract, including centrum semiovale, internal capsule and cerebral peduncle, significantly decreased progressively from week 1 to week 12 (p < 0.01).  

Fractional anisotropy in the cerebral peduncle correlated with approximately 1 year Glasgow outcome scale score (r = 0.60, P<0.001) and in this sample predicted dichotomized outcome with 76% accuracy when taken alone, and with 100% accuracy in combination with clinical evaluation by functional independence measure at the time of the first scan. In the cerebral peduncle and in corpus callosum, lambda(parallel) and lambda(perpendicular) both increased during the scan interval and, particularly in patients with unfavourable outcome, fractional anisotropy remained depressed.  

Mapping of the corticospinal tract, at the level of the cerebral peduncle as well as mapping of the VII, IX-X and XII cranial nerve motor nuclei on the floor of the fourth ventricle, is of great value to identify "safe entry-zones" into the brainstem.  

The following measures were calculated for each patient: 1) the maximal proportion of the CST in the cerebral hemisphere on axial section that was overlapped by infarction, 2) total infarction volume, and 3) the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the ipsilateral cerebral peduncle to the area of the contralateral cerebral peduncle (peduncular asymmetry ratio).  

ADC and FA were measured by means of regions of interest, positioned in the corticospinal tract at the level of the cerebral peduncle and at the level of the pons, in the transverse pontine fibers, in the superior and middle cerebellar peduncle, and in the hemispheric cerebellar white matter. It was significantly lower in SCA2 than in SCA1 in the transverse pontine fibers and in the corticospinal tract at the level of the cerebral peduncle.  

In the present study, seven ALS patients were evaluated by ALSFRS and immediately submitted to DTI, getting FA values in the following regions: cerebral peduncle (PC), internal capsule (CI) and the white matter under the primary motor cortex (M1), secondary motor cortex (M2) and somesthetic cortex (SI).  

RESULTS: In patients, FA values significantly lower than those in healthy controls were located in the left fronto-occipital fasciculus, left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, white matter adjacent to right precuneus, splenium of corpus callosum, right posterior limb of internal capsule, white matter adjacent to right substantia nigra, and left cerebral peduncle.  

PSPMNs located around the fornix express orexin, whereas those located around the cerebral peduncle are more likely to express MCH.  

Diffusion-weighted image and T2 weighted image revealed a small high signal lesion localized in the medial one-third of the left cerebral peduncle. Pure dysarthria can be caused by disruption of the supranuclear fiber of glossopharyngeal and vagal nerve nucleus in the corticobulbar tract, which can be localized in the medial portion of the cerebral peduncle..  

The target region of interest was placed in the cerebral peduncle.  

Atrophy in the cerebral peduncle was observed in seven patients. Asymmetric atrophy in the cerebral peduncle without signal abnormalities was also characteristic of CBDS.  

To assist in this endeavor, we investigated motor fiber organization in the crus cerebri of the cerebral peduncle (ccCP) in the rhesus monkey.  

In this case of a left cerebral peduncle infarction, initially the patient was not found with evident right-side hemiparesis but with right-side paresthesia and mild worsening of her underlying left-side weakness, including weakness of left facial expression and left ptosis.  

RESULTS: FA and lambda( parallel) increased, and ADC and lambda( perpendicular) decreased progressively from the corona radiata to the cerebral peduncle in all subjects. The most abnormal finding in patients with ALS was reduced FA in the cerebral peduncle contralateral to the side of the body with the most severe upper motor neuron signs. Internal capsule FA correlated positively with symptom duration, and cerebral peduncle ADC positively with the Ashworth spasticity score.  

Other smaller veins were also differentiated according to whether they drained mainly the cerebral peduncle, the lemniscal trigone, or the tectum.  

MRI showed patchy lesions in the callosum, right optic radiation, both side thalamus (left > right), left cerebral peduncle, and spinal cord of cervical to the thoracal portion.  

MRI showed T2-hyperintense lesions in the periventricular white matter, left cerebral peduncle, bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles, and right cerebellar hemisphere.  

To validate the results derived from the entire CST, we further analyzed a segment of the CST between the lowest slice of the cerebral peduncle and the uppermost slice of the lateral ventricle, in which the fibers are coherently arranged and the anatomical correspondence of the CST across subjects is established.  

Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a popcorn-like rounded lesion in the right ventral midbrain adjacent to the medial cerebral peduncle.  

In ROI analysis, FA was significantly larger at 3 T than at 1.5 T in the centrum semiovale (P < 0.001), middle cerebellar peduncle (P < 0.001), cerebral peduncle (P = 0.006), posterior limb of the internal capsule (P = 0.007), genu (P < 0.001) and splenium (P < 0.001). MD was significantly smaller at 3 T than at 1.5 T in the globus pallidus (P = 0.007), thalamus (P < 0.001), centrum semiovale (P < 0.001), middle cerebellar peduncle (P < 0.001), cerebral peduncle (P = 0.01), posterior limb of the internal capsule (P < 0.001), genu (P = 0.01) and splenium (P < 0.001).  

The NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios were measured in the cerebral peduncle, genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule, corona radiata and precentral gyrus.  

There was also a variable loss of oligodendroglial cells in the cerebral peduncle.  

Diffusion tensor imaging showed no alterations in the fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient values for the corona radiata, posterior rim of the internal capsule, and the cerebral peduncle, indicating no wallerian degeneration associated with dilated perivascular spaces..  

In a study on the effects of experimental lesions of the cerebral peduncle in cats and monkeys, CvE hypothesized a corticotegmental pathway that maintains motor functions after pyramidal tract lesions.  

Hemispheric asymmetry of FA, as assessed by VBA, showed that for the young-age group, significant right-greater-than-left asymmetry exists in the genu, splenium and body of the corpus callosum and that left-greater-than-right asymmetry exists in the anterior limb of the external capsule and in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, thalamus, cerebral peduncle and temporal-parietal regions.  

cerebral peduncle atrophy was noted in seven cases.  

A cerebral computed tomography (cCT) revealed a re-bleeding cavernoma in the left cerebral peduncle with consecutive obstructive hydrocephalus.  

Phase III (delayed degeneration, 3-7 days) involved the degeneration of neurons and fiber tracts remote from the core lesion including the thalamus, internal capsule, external capsule, and cerebral peduncle.  

We used MR images to show neurodegeneration in the cerebral peduncle of the midbrain and found that image data fusion using colors can be a valuable tool to visually assess and quantify the loss of neural cells in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease..  

Brain MRI revealed multiple infarcts in bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles, bilateral cerebellar hemispheres and the right cerebral peduncle.  

In the developing diencephalon, microglial clusters were located in junctional regions of the white matter anlagen, most notably at the junctions of the internal capsule with the thalamic projections, the external capsule, and the cerebral peduncle.  

Apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy values were measured in regions along the corticospinal tract: internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, rostral pons, midpons, and caudal pons. None of the patients with anatomic hemispherectomy or subtotal hemispherectomy showed significant changes in either apparent diffusion coefficient or fractional anisotropy values in the corticospinal tract contralateral to the resected hemisphere, whereas increased apparent diffusion coefficient and decreased fractional anisotropy were observed in the ipsilateral rostral pons, midpons, and caudal pons of all patients with anatomic hemispherectomy, as well as in the ipsilateral cerebral peduncle of one patient with subtotal hemispherectomy.  

Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography demonstrated a mass consistent with an epidermoid tumor compressing the left upper pons, left cerebral peduncle, and mesial left temporal lobe.  

In this approach, the part of the PYT between the lowest slice of the cerebral peduncle and the uppermost slice of the lateral ventricle was reconstructed to establish the anatomical correspondence across subjects using diffusion tensor tractography.  

Fractional anisotropy, which is measured by diffusion tensor imaging and enables assessment of axonal integrity, was reduced in the right cerebral peduncle and right hemisphere white matter (p < 0.001).  

We describe the trajectories of the connections from each major component of the motor system to the cerebral peduncle using diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography in normal subjects.  

Region of interest (ROI) analysis of MD and FA was also performed in WM regions connected with the spinal white matter tracts or optic nerve (including medulla oblongata, cerebral peduncle, internal capsule, and optic radiation), in corpus callosum without direct connection with them, and in some GM regions.  

The fascicular portion of the nerve courses through the red nucleus and exists in the midbrain just medial to the cerebral peduncle.  

Repetitive electrical stimulation of the cerebral peduncle of < or = 40 Hz readily evoked rapid sequential activation of PN and CN, demonstrating a direct connection between the structures.  

Variably sized foci of malacia were present within the parenchyma of the brain stem (cerebral peduncle, optic lobe, and medulla oblongata) and the cerebral hemisphere.  

Cannabinoid type 1/transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 expression was observed in the hippocampus, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral peduncle, pontine nuclei, periaqueductal gray matter, cerebellar cortex and dentate cerebellar nucleus.  

On day 9, diffusion MRI showed marked abnormalities in the deep white matter of the occipital regions (left > right), corpus callosum, left posterior limb of the internal capsule, and left cerebral peduncle. Images at 9 months showed left occipital porencephaly and atrophy of the left cerebral peduncle, with the infant displaying right hemiplegia at 18 months of age.  

However, the tract of the left hemisphere was similar to that of the right hemisphere except that it was displaced to the antero-medial side by the hematoma at the cerebral peduncle.  

(2002), we find that the following structures/tracts are absent or greatly reduced in the Fz3(-/-) brain: the anterior commissure, cerebral peduncle (corticospinal tract), corpus callosum, fornix, internal capsule (thalamocortical and corticothalamic tracts), stria medullaris, stria terminalis, and hippocampal commissure.  

We found that fractional anisotropy in white matter of the patients was lower than that in controls at the cerebral peduncle, frontal regions, inferior temporal gyrus, medial parietal lobes, hippocampal gyrus, insula, right anterior cingulum bundle and right corona radiata.  

The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass in the right thalamus, extending to the lentiform nucleus, subthalamic area, right cerebral peduncle and deep subcortical white matter.  

Magnetic resonance imaging showed low intensity areas (left posterior limb of internal capsule, left cerebral peduncle of middle brain, a part of left substantia nigra, left amygdala, ventral posterior lateral nucleus and ventral anterior nucleus of left thalamus, left lateral geniculate body, and left occipital lobe) in T1 weighted image, due to the infarct in the left anterior choroidal artery territory.  

DTT was performed to segment bilateral pyramidal tracts, using a fiber-tracking algorithm originating in the cerebral peduncle (CP) and filtering through the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and precentral gyrus (PCG).  

Information from the cerebral cortex is conveyed to the cerebellum by topographically arranged fibres in the cerebral peduncle - an important fibre system in which all cortical outputs spatially converge on their way to the cerebellum via the pontine nuclei. New in vivo diffusion imaging and probabilistic tractography methods now offer a way in which input tracts in the cerebral peduncle can be characterized in detail. We confirm the dominant contribution of the cortical motor areas to the macaque monkey cerebral peduncle. However, we also present novel anatomical evidence for a relatively large prefrontal contribution to the human cortico-ponto-cerebellar system in the cerebral peduncle.  

Thus, we selectively measured the FA values of the right and left corticospinal tracts at the level of the cerebral peduncle, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and the centrum semiovale.  

Furthermore, some ischemic changes could be seen in the cerebral peduncle and lateral cerebral ventricle.  

Serial MRI detected abnormal T2 elongation of the corticospinal tract at the cerebral peduncle 4 years after the infarction.  

Decortication eliminated the possibility that SNr microstimulation might activate corticofugal fibers descending in the adjoining cerebral peduncle.  

In addition, high intensity in the left internal capsule and cerebral peduncle was demonstrated on T2-weighted image.  

Off-line processing of DTI data was performed to visualize the corticospinal tract, placing a seed area in the cerebral peduncle of the midbrain, where the corticospinal tract is densely concentrated.  

For cavernous malformations in the cerebral peduncle, intraoperative stimulation mapping with a miniaturized probe can determine whether this overlying tissue harbors fibers in the corticospinal tract. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old woman collapsed after a cavernous malformation in the left cerebral peduncle hemorrhaged into the pons, midbrain, and thalamus. Stimulation mapping of the cerebral peduncle with a Kartush probe (Medtronic Xomed, Inc., Jacksonville, FL) identified the corticospinal tract lateral to the lesion, and a layer of tissue over the lesion harbored no motor fibers. Expanded monitoring of the motor pathway during the resection of cerebral peduncle cavernous malformations may improve the safety of these operations..  

We measured fractional anisotropy(FA) of affected side/ unaffected side (FA ratio) in the cerebral peduncle.  

On axial images, ovoid or linear lesions with signal intensity compatible to CSF were present behind the cerebral peduncle at both the PMJ and MDJ.  

Whereas axon terminals from lateral sites in the SC were confined to a single terminal field close to the cerebral peduncle, medial sites in the SC projected to an additional dorsolateral one.  

RESULTS: Children with ADHD had decreased FA in areas that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD: right premotor, right striatal, right cerebral peduncle, left middle cerebellar peduncle, left cerebellum, and left parieto-occipital areas.  

Injury remote to the lesion was observed in the cerebral peduncle that may have accounted, in part, for observed neurological deficits.  

By setting one region of interest in the cerebral peduncle and another in the entire cord on source images, tracts on each side were visualized.  

Serial magnetic resonance imaging showed an intrinsic diffuse brain stem glioma that gradually localized to the left cerebral peduncle after initial adjuvant therapy.  

A progressive decrease of fractional anisotropy was found along the pyramidal tract in the cerebral peduncle below the primary lesion resulting from progressive changes in the principal diffusivities, as well as a slight increase in the orientationally averaged diffusivity in the chronic phase.  

cerebral peduncle was the only area that showed significant differences of diffusion properties between patients and controls (p<0.001 for FA, p=0.001 for MD). CONCLUSIONS: Alteration of diffusion properties in the cerebral peduncle in ALS may reflect pathological changes in structures rather than regional architectural variations of the corticospinal tracts or experimental artifacts..  

Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), and the ratio of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) to creatine (Cr) were measured at various locations in the CST, including the subcortical white matter (SWM), centrum semiovale (CS), periventricular white matter (PV), posterior limb of the internal capsule (PIC) and cerebral peduncle (CP).  

Labeled fibers descend in the internal capsule (SMA in anterior limb and genu; M1 in posterior limb) and traverse the midsection of the cerebral peduncle, where SMA fibers are medial, and face, arm, and leg fibers are progressively lateral.  

The subtemporal approach was used with a point of entry on the lateral surface of the midbrain just behind the cerebral peduncle.  

A resonance brain scan showed areas of hypersignal in T2 sequences in the cerebral peduncle, lentiform nuclei and internal capsule on both sides of the brain, which suggested post-infectious encephalitis.  

We measured fractional anisotropy (FA), averaged diffusivity (Dav), eigenvalues of the diffusion tensor and T2-weighted signal in the cerebral peduncle and compared these values between the affected and the unaffected side and between patients and six controls.  

Spearman's test was performed to study the relationship between neuromotor outcome and the following: ipsilateral-to-contralateral ratio of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and cerebral peduncle area, and the largest infarction size. Neuromotor outcome correlated with the ipsilateral-to-contralateral ratio of fractional anisotropy (r = -0.638, p = 0.035) but not with the mean diffusivity ratio, cerebral peduncle area ratio and largest infarction size.  

This last population spread across the ventral tegmental area from the raphe to the cerebral peduncle and appeared to be a specific feature of the canine brain.  

Tracks from 16 motor stimulation sites followed descending pathways from the precentral gyrus, through the corona radiata and internal capsule, and into the cerebral peduncle.  

Neurons projecting to the ipsi- or contralateral cortex form bundles together and with neurons projecting to the striatum, but not with those projecting to the superior colliculus, dorsal division of the lateral geniculate nucleus or through the cerebral peduncle.  

Significant differences were identified between white matter pathways, with earlier maturing commissural tracts of the corpus callosum, and deep projection tracts of the cerebral peduncle and internal capsule exhibiting lower mean diffusivity (Dav) and higher fractional anisotropy (FA) than later maturing subcortical projection and association pathways.  

In the other patient, tumor cells had massively invaded the ipsilateral- and contralateral hemisphere and brain stem from the bottom of the tumor cavity via the corpus callosum and cerebral peduncle.  

In general, Kernohan's phenomenon is caused by the gradual displacement of the cerebral peduncle against the tentorial edge caused by compression by the contralateral mass.  

OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Compression of the cerebral peduncle against the tentorial incisura contralateral to a supratentorial mass lesion, the so-called Kernohan-Woltman notch phenomenon, can be an important cause of false localizing motor signs. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated T2 prolongation in the central portion of the right cerebral peduncle extending to the right internal capsule. Compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorial incisura can lead to damage and ipsilateral hemiparesis.  

3) Mapping of the corticospinal tract at the level of the cerebral peduncle as well as mapping of the VII, IX-X and XII cranial nerve motor nuclei on the floor of the fourth ventricle is of great value with which to identify "safe entry zones" into the brainstem.  

We examined changes in transmission in cerebro-olivocerebellar pathways (COCPs) and spino-olivocerebellar pathways (SOCPs) during locomotion in awake cats (n = 4) using low-intensity electrical stimuli delivered to the contralateral cerebral peduncle or the ipsilateral superficial radial nerve to set up volleys in COCPs and SOCPs, respectively.  

In the adult brain, WOX1 is abundant in the epithelial cells of the choroids plexus and ependymal cells, while a low to moderate level of WOX1 is observed within white matter tracts, such as axonal profiles of the corpus callosum, striatum, optic tract, and cerebral peduncle.  

Connections were found between speech arrest, mouth motor, and anomia sites and the SMA proper and cerebral peduncle.  

We report one case of a primary malignant intracerebral nerve sheath tumor occurring in the right cerebral peduncle of a 35-year-old man. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneous peripherally enhancing mass of the right cerebral peduncle, surrounded by a small edema.  

After injecting unchelated MnCl2 into the forelimb area of sensorimotor cortex of 18 healthy and 10 lesioned rats corticofugal projections could be traced through the internal capsule to the cerebral peduncle and the pyramidal decussation.  

We describe the case of a 20-year-old male who developed right-arm choreic movements secondary to a giant unruptured aneurysm impinging upon the left thalamus, putamen, globus pallidus, cerebral peduncle, midbrain, and subthalamic nucleus.  

To investigate developmental morphological variation of the hippocampal formation, we evaluated the degree of hippocampal infolding in cross-sectional oblique coronal images of the cerebral peduncle and the superior cerebellar peduncle. The angle increased slightly with age, and was larger in the superior cerebellar peduncle than in the cerebral peduncle and larger in the right superior cerebellar peduncle than in the left superior cerebellar peduncle.  

Hyperintense lesions appeared in the corpus callosum, fornix, dorsal portion of midbrain, right cerebral peduncle, and bilateral internal capsules.  

However, whereas conventional magnetic resonance imaging showed only the findings of traumatic contusional hemorrhages in the left temporal and parietal lobes of the first patient and focal encephalomalacia in the left anterior thalamus of the second patient, diffusion tensor imaging successfully disclosed microstructural abnormalities in the right cerebral peduncle of the midbrain of the first patient and in the posterior limb of the left internal capsule of the second.  

In the midbrain we noted leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia (LGH) (n = 9) and intramural "micropolygyria" (n = 1) in the tectum, as well as tyrosine hydroxylase-positive ectopic neurons/fibers ventral to the cerebral peduncle (n = 3).  

Anterograde transport of GDNF was evident in axons in the pyramidal tract from the cerebral peduncle to the caudal spinal cord.  

The MRI scans revealed high signal intensities over the globus pallidus and cerebral peduncle on T1-weighted imaging, leptomeningeal enhancement, ventriculomegaly, and punctate areas of abnormal enhancement within the cerebral and cerebellar hemisphere on gadolinium-enhancing T1 imaging, and a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images.  

The paper presents a rare case of surgical treatment for hematoma of the cerebral peduncle in a 30-year-old woman found to have progressive neurological focal disorders due to mesaticephalic and thalamic lesions. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a round mass (26 x 3 x 25 mm) in the left cerebral peduncle and thalamus without surrounding edema. The interpeduncular cistern was explored via transsylvian approach and hematoma was removed by making a small incision of the left cerebral peduncle. A small slit-like cyst communicating with the interpeduncular cistern was detected in the left cerebral peduncle by MRI at follow-up..  

Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging showed hyperintensity in both medial temporal lobes, left medial midbrain, right midbrain including cerebral peduncle, left pulvinar, left external capsule, fornix, splenium of corpus callosum, and deep white matter of both frontal lobes.  

The structural damage of the corticospinal tract was estimated by measuring the cross-sectional area of cerebral peduncles with MRI and by calculating an index of symmetry between the two peduncles. Finally, the finding that the time-shift also correlated with the corticospinal tract dysgenesis, as estimated with the cerebral peduncle asymmetry, argues in favour of a critical role of the corticospinal system in the temporal coordination between different muscles involved in dextrous hand movements.  

In all rats, significant expression of APP was observed primarily in the cingulum, cerebral peduncle and pontomedullary junction.  

In the brain, NOC-LI was prominent in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebral peduncle, substantia nigra, dorsal raphe, periaqueductal grey, locus coeruleus and trapezoid nucleus.  

MRI study showed diffuse cerebral atrophy and shrinkage of the right cerebral peduncle and pontine base.  

A large number of tau-positive glial structures lacking argyrophilia were seen in the area of the frontopontine tract in the cerebral peduncle.  

Anisotropy was measured in three compact white matter structures (corpus callosum, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle) and two regions of noncompact white matter (corona radiata and peripheral white matter).  

Both groups incurred discrete lesions of the ipsilateral motor cortex surrounding the infusion site and atrophy of the corresponding cerebral peduncle.  

A neoplastic tumour was suspected but its extent into the cerebral peduncle was unclear.  

MTRs of the pyramidal tract, including white matter of the precentral gyrus, posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, and base of the pons, were significantly lower in patients with pyramidal tract sign (n = 7) than in the controls.  

CT scan revealed a single hyperdense mass with minimal peripheral enhancement at the region of the cerebral peduncle and pons, causing obstructive hydrocephalus.  

In addition, application of 5 microM 5-HT also modulated postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) evoked by electric stimulations within the cerebral peduncle.  

To determine whether posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP) induces topographical changes of the ipsilateral midbrain and degeneration of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease patients, we obtained magnetic resonance (MR) images of 18 patients who had undergone PVP and measured the width of the cerebral peduncle at the mid-point of the inner margin. In MR images taken within 1 year of PVP, a comparison between the ratio of the ipsilateral side/contralateral side of the cerebral peduncle of patients after PVP and that of the unaffected side/affected side in the preoperative images revealed no significant difference ( P>0.05). In MR images 1 to 2 years after PVP, there was a significant difference in the ratio of the cerebral peduncle ( P<0.01).  

MRI demonstrated high intensity signals extending into the right cerebral peduncle, temporal lobe, thalamus and the contralateral thalamus on FLAIR images.  

OBJECTS: cerebral peduncle tumors are rare in childhood but often consist of benign astrocytomas. Only one patient had a recurrence during the follow-up period, which ranged from 1 year to 8.5 years in duration.CONCLUSIONS: Benign astrocytomas of the cerebral peduncle are amenable to radical tumor resection by an appropriate surgical approach and with microsurgical techniques.  

All patients had atrophy of the cerebral peduncle ipsilateral to the supratentorial lesion and 4 had contralateral atrophy of the middle cerebellar peduncle.  

Both ipsilateral and contralateral volume measurements were obtained for the following structures: cerebral cortex, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, thalamus, lateral ventricle, external capsule, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle and corpus callosum. A comparison of TBI and sham groups demonstrated a significant ( P<0.05) decrease in the external capsule and cerebral peduncle volumes ( P<0.007).  

Ipsilateral enlargement of the pons and cerebral peduncle were additional findings.  

Brain MRI study showed a high signal intensity in the cerebral peduncle and globus pallidus and mild cerebellar atrophy on T1-weighted image.  

Molecular respecification of the basal telencephalon and hypothalamus in Nkx2-1-deficient mice causes a severe defect in the guidance of layer 5 cortical projections and ascending fibers of the cerebral peduncle.  

On magnetic resonance studies there was an old left temporoparietal infarct and recent ischaemia of the pons and cerebral peduncle.  

MRI revealed an ischemic stroke in the cerebral peduncle involving the third nerve fascicle.  

Four projection sites were activated using electrical stimulation: (1) vibrissal motor cortex, (2) ventrobasal thalamus (VB), (3) posteromedial thalamic nucleus (POm), and (4) cerebral peduncle.  

T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans showed hyperintensities in the right lateral pons and right middle cerebral peduncle and a possible abnormality of the left middle cerebellar peduncle.  

The findings suggest that facial paresis due to a brainstem lesion may present as contralateral supranuclear facial paresis by a lesion of the cerebral peduncle, pontine base, the aberrant bundle and the ventral medulla.  

In addition, the cerebral peduncle could be subparcellated into component tracts, namely, the frontopontine tract, the CST, and the temporo-/parieto-/occipitopontine tract.  

On the other hand, the CT axons arising from layer V gave rise to collaterals whose main axons descended into the cerebral peduncle.  

We describe a patient with progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME), white matter hyperintensities in the corpus callosum, cerebral hemispheres, and left cerebral peduncle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positive oligoclonal bands.  

In this investigation, we report that although the initial development of the corticospinal projection is normal through the cortex, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, and medulla in the brain of EphA4 deficient animals, corticospinal axons exhibit gross abnormalities when they enter the gray matter of the spinal cord.  

Midbrain involvement was seen in fourteen patients; the cerebral peduncle was involved in 11 of these.  

Strong positive staining for SPHK1a was observed in the white matter in the cerebrum and cerebellum, the red nucleus and cerebral peduncle in the midbrain, the uriniferous tubules in the kidney, the endothelial cells in vessels of various organs, and in megakaryocytes and platelets.  

We report on a patient presenting features of VP associated with an intracerebral lesion not ascribed to VP to date, namely an isolated ischaemic focal lesion located in the left cerebral peduncle between the substantia nigra and nucleus ruber as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To our knowledge, this is the first case of clinically manifest VP to be described with a single lesion in the contralateral cerebral peduncle between the substantia nigra and nucleus ruber, and suggests alternative intracerebral patterns for the distribution of disease-causing lesions in VP, and possibly new pathophysiological explanations for the nature of this disease..  

We found that secondary white matter degeneration is revealed by a large reduction in diffusion anisotropy only in regions where fibers are arranged in isolated bundles of parallel fibers, such as in the cerebral peduncle.  

Infarctions were located in the lower part of the primary motor cortex (5.9%; n = 4), middle part of the centrum semiovale (23.5%; n = 16), genu and ventral part of the dorsal segment of the internal capsule (8.8%; n = 6), cerebral peduncle (1.5%; n = 1), base of the pons (30.9%; n = 21), and ventral pontomedullary junction (1.5%; n = 1).  

We compared the properties of antidromically identified CSNs with those of antidromically identified neurons that project via the cerebral peduncle to distant targets.  

In mammals, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a glutamatergic diencephalic cell group that develops in the caudal hypothalamus and migrates to a position above the cerebral peduncle. First, the avian ALa too develops within the mammillary hypothalamic area and migrates to a position adjacent to the cerebral peduncle.  

Strong staining for Kv1.4 was observed in the cerebral peduncle, not in the subthalamic nucleus.  

Oligodendrocytic inclusion bodies (alpha-synuclein positive) were seen in the putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, pontine nucleus, cerebellar white matter, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, and the spinal cord.  

Rhythmical jaw movements (RJM) were induced by stimulation of the oral cavity or the cerebral peduncle in the anesthetized rat.  

Four years later he was readmitted because of a cerebral hemorrhage involving the left cerebral peduncle.  

Atrophy of the cerebral peduncle and the pons can be seen on radiologic examination in patients of multiple system atrophy. To clarify the pathological features of the cerebral peduncle lesion, samples from 28 autopsied cases (male 16, female 12; age 50-76 yr) were semiquantitatively examined after staining by HE, KB, Holzer, GFAP, Bodian and Gallyas methods. Atrophy of the cerebral peduncle was symmetric in most cases and resulted from the loss of small-sized nerve fibers. The glial cytoplasmic inclusion (GCI) in the cerebral peduncle increased significantly in severe atrophic cases compared with mild atrophic cases. The atrophy of the cerebral peduncle correlated significantly with the degree of degeneration in the olivo-ponto-cerebellar system and tended to correlate with a decrease in brain weight.  

Magnetic resonance imaging showed high intensity lesions on the left dorsolateral midbrain and the right cerebral peduncle.  

Rhythmical jaw movements (RJM) were induced by stimulation of the cerebral peduncle or the oral cavity in the anesthetized rat and iontophoretic application of glutamate was examined on each reticular neuron with phase-dependent rhythmical activity during RJM (RJM-phasic neuron).  

Electrical stimulation of the cerebral peduncle or oral mechanical or chemical stimulation induced rhythmical jaw movements (RJM) in the anesthetized rat.  

At P12, maximal levels were measured in the medial lemniscus and cerebral peduncle.  

These neurons were monosynaptically activated from the superior colliculus and the cerebral peduncle.  

Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed a solitary lesion in the left cerebral peduncle extending into the inferior aspect of the left basal ganglia complex.  

In all subjects, anisotropy was highest in the cerebral peduncle, lowest in the caudal pons, and intermediate in the medulla. Multifactorial ANOVA (performed using the average value of anisotropy within each region of interest) revealed that elderly subjects had significantly lower values than young subjects in the cerebral peduncle, with no differences in the pons and medulla. Anisotropy is high in the cerebral peduncle because fibers have a highly ordered arrangement, while in the pons and medulla, anisotropy is lower because the local fiber architecture is less coherent due to the presence of other fibers and nuclei. We conclude that the age-related decrease in anisotropy in the cerebral peduncle is not artifactual but rather reflects subtle structural changes of the aging white matter.  

Very high intensity stimulation elicited D2 waves (activation around the cerebral peduncle) or D3 waves (activation at the foramen magnum level).  

In 2 cases with diffuse axonal injury, of which lesions were not detected on acute stage CT scan, hypointensity area was clearly demonstrated in the cerebral peduncle and corpus callosum on T2* weighted images.  

A MRI performed about 2 weeks after operation showed a small area of abnormal signal intensity in the left cerebral peduncle.  

We measured in the corona radiata and the cerebral peduncle in 10 patients with a chronic hemiparesis and supratentorial lesions and 10 control subjects in regions of interest. In three patients, each of which had a severe hemiparesis, anisotropy in the cerebral peduncle was reduced by more than 3 SD compared to normal control subjects.  

The entire pyramidal tract was visualized on a single fiber mapping image by combining the upper half of the image slice including the primary motor cortex, the corona radiata and the internal capsule with the lower half of the image slice including the internal capsule, the cerebral peduncle and the ventral brain stem.  

In case of lower motor neuron disease without clinical upper motor neuron sign, proton density-weighted image of the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle is useful for detecting the latent pyramidal tract degeneration.  

The first patient, a 47-year-old woman, had a low-grade astrocytoma located in the right basal ganglia extending into the subthalamic area and the cerebral peduncle.  

We report a child who concurrently developed polycythaemia, dystonia, and T1 shortening in the globus pallidus, medial cerebral peduncle and superior cerebellar peduncles on MRI.  

Fiber-tract definition in the cerebral peduncle of the midbrain of healthy volunteers showed intersubject variation, with two general patterns recognized: dispersed (60% of cases) and compact (40% of cases).  

On the other hand, the second type was classified as congenital dysgenesis of the brain: microbrachycephaly, immature or simple convolution pattern of the cerebral gyri, thickened leptomeninges, persistent subpial granule cells, hypoplasia of the anterior thalamic nuclei, neurohypophysis, lateral geniculate body, cerebral peduncle, ventral pons and cerebellar internal granular layer, and heterotopic cell nests in the cerebellar white matter.  

In all of them, lesions likely responsible for unilateral PTS involved the motor pathway at the level of the posterior limb of the internal capsule or the cerebral peduncle on the opposite side.  

The FB-labeled neurons were found in: 1) the parapedunculopontine tegmental and cuneiform nuclei, caudal linear nucleus of the raphe, and adjacent area of the cerebral peduncle; 2) the thalamic posterior nuclear group and subparafascicular, parafascicular, and gelatinosus thalamic nuclei; 3) the parastrial amygdaloid and subthalamic nuclei; and 4) the olfactory tubercle, granular, and agranular insular cortex, parietal and lateral orbital cortices.  

One small accumulation of the CTB-immunopositive retinofugal terminals was located in a small area just medial to the medial edge of the cerebral peduncle and anterior to the attachment of the oculomotor nerve, suggesting the existence of a ventral division of the MTN of the AOS. Caudally, one very small bundle of the retinofugal fibers extending dorsally from this accumulation was seen running along the medial edge of the cerebral peduncle and substantia nigra to the small region corresponding to the dorsal division of the MTN. These fibers coursed medially through the cerebral peduncle and substantia nigra to reach some restricted areas of the mesencephalic reticular formation between the medial lemniscus and the substantia nigra..  

Monosynaptic IPSCs were evoked by electrical stimulation of the cerebral peduncle in the presence of the glutamate receptor antagonists CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) and AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid).  

Six of the seven animals with SIV encephalitis had calbindin immunoreactive astrocytes in the subcortical white matter, corpus callosum, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, pontine white matter, and cerebellar white matter.  

Radiologically it was a large extra-axial mass isointense to brain parenchyma on precontrast T1-weighted images that filled the suprasellar cistern and deformed the left cerebral peduncle.  

By using immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, and neuronal tracing techniques, we examined the region of the axon tract, the cerebral peduncle, overlying the basilar pons for cellular structures that correlate spatially and temporally with collateral branch formation. These findings suggest that dendrites are not essential for collateral branch formation but that they may enhance this process and define discrete preferred locations for collateral branch initiation and elongation within the cerebral peduncle..  

Postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) were evoked by brief (0.1 ms) negative current pulses (10-250 microA) applied to either the cerebral peduncle or the pontine tegmentum. In addition to single PSPs, sequences consisting of two to four distinct EPSPs could be recorded after stimulation of the cerebral peduncle. Pairs of electrical stimuli applied to the cerebral peduncle resulted in a marked enhancement of the amplitude of the second EPSP for interstimulus intervals of 10-100 ms.  

The chief finding was a tumor involving the right cerebral peduncle and periaqueductal area.  

Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium revealed thick enhancing dura on the right half of the tentorium cerebelli, with edema of the adjacent midbrain, pons, and cerebral peduncle.  

We herein report a case of adenocarcinoma of the right main bronchus disseminated to the pons, left cerebral peduncle, and liver.  

Injury to the contralateral cerebral peduncle was clearly shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed in the postoperative period. MRI T2-weighted images demonstrated an abnormally increased signal area in the right cerebral peduncle. T1-weighted coronal images showed the anatomical relationship between the hypointense lesion in the right cerebral peduncle and tentorial edge.  

We have examined these pathways to determine the fibre relationships along the extent of their course through the internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, longitudinal pontine fasciculus, pyramid, pyramidal decussation, and dorsal column of the spinal cord. More caudally, within the cerebral peduncle and the longitudinal pontine fasciculus, axons from more distant cortical areas remain largely separate, but those from adjacent cortical areas begin to overlap.  

The 2-point, 40-slice method was used to determine the T1 in the cortical gray matter, cerebellar gray matter, caudate nucleus, cerebral peduncle, globus pallidus, colliculus, lenticular nucleus, base of the pons, substantia nigra, thalamus, white matter, corpus callosum, and internal capsule..  

Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed compression of the contralateral (left) cerebral peduncle against the tentorium, thus resulting in ipsilateral (right-sided) motor weakness (the Kernohan-Woltman notch phenomenon). MRI also showed a right cerebral peduncle hypointensity.  

Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated involvement of the cerebral peduncle, the substantia nigra, the subthalamic region and the thalamus..  

This report describes a patient with locked-in syndrome whose magnetic resonance images showed bilateral infarcts in the cerebral peduncle.  

MRI of the brain showed a left temporal meningioma, a left temporal lobe herniation and two high-signals in the right cerebral peduncle. The involvement of the pyramidal tract in the foot of the cerebral peduncle, in this case, results from temporal lobe hemiation.  

The first segment (S1), or anterior extends from the basilar artery bifurcation to the point where the artery reaches the level of the most lateral edge of the cerebral peduncle, the second segment (S2), or middle extends from the posterior limit of S1 to a point located just before the most medial extent of the artery in the quadrigeminal cistern (collicular point), and the third segment (S3), or posterior corresponds to the collicular point and to the portions of the posterior cerebral artery distal to it.  

Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed Kernohan's notch in the cerebral peduncle and infarctions in the occipital lobe and posterolateral part of the thalamus on the left side, contralateral to the supratentorial lesion..  

Labeled fibers from the caudal GP distribute to the caudate-putamen, nucleus of the ansa lenticularis, reuniens, reticular thalamic nucleus (mainly its posterior extent), and along a thin strip of the zona incerta adjacent to the cerebral peduncle. Descending fibers from the caudal GP course in the cerebral peduncle and project to posterior thalamic nuclei (the subparafascicular and suprageniculate nuclei, medial division of the medial geniculate nucleus, and posterior intralaminar nucleus/peripeduncular area) and to extensive brainstem territories, including the pars lateralis of the substantia nigra, lateral terminal nucleus of the accessory optic system, nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus, nucleus sagulum, external cortical nucleus of the inferior colliculus, cuneiform nucleus, and periaqueductal gray.  

The lesions involved the cerebral peduncle in the periaqueductal region and the nuclear complex of the III in the first case.  

Neuroimaging revealed a lesion in the pons and cerebral peduncle, which was supposed to be a highly malignant glioma.  

Atrophy of the right cerebrum and cerebral peduncle was seen on magnetic resonance imaging.  

Autoradiographic studies using [ (125)I]SCH 23982 indicated that D(1) family receptors were located along the ventral edge of the subthalamic nucleus and the dorsal aspect of the cerebral peduncle.  

Camera lucida reconstruction of 263 fibers arising from laminae V and VI revealed that all corticostriatal projections derive from collaterals of lamina V cells whose main axons descend into the cerebral peduncle.  

The authors report a 2-year-old female patient with a posterior cerebral artery aneurysm presenting with seizures, right third nerve palsy and right hemiparesis caused by compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle.  

This case report describes the use of neuropsychological testing to Iocalize and diagnose lesions The testing was instrumental in disentangling contradictory symptoms to reveal a Kernohan's notch (later confirmed by MRI), thus ruling out incorrect diagnoses We describe the case of a 36-year-old right-handed man who developed a left epidural hematoma after suffering head trauma from a blunt instrument Sequelae 2 months post-injury included left hemiparesis (ipsilateral to the lesion), dysphonic speech, severe naming/word-finding deficits, and severe memory impairment This patient's symptom pattern presented somewhat of a mystery as his cognitive deficits appeared consistent with left hemisphere damage, while his left motor symptoms suggested right hemisphere damage Medical records were inconsistent Deficits on neuropsychological testing at 3 months post-injury included impairment in verbal and visual memory, confrontation naming, and left-sided motor function Attention, visual-spatial skills, nonverbal problem solving, and right motor speed and coordination were intact A herniation syndrome, Kernohan's notch, was considered to be the most likely explanation This phenomenon occurs when a mass occupying lesion causes significant midline shift of the midbrain, pressing the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorium This pressure produces an ischemic infact in the region of the corticospinal (motor) pathways Subsequent MRI confirmed a lesion in the right cerebral crus The pattern of neuropsychological finding in this patient is discussed..  

Mouse lateral and medial ganglionic eminence grafts placed into the substantia nigra exhibited similar fibre outgrowth patterns; both types of grafts thus innervated the substantia nigra-pars reticulata and extended axons into the cerebral peduncle.  

No comparable modulation was observed in a volley evoked by electrical stimulation of the corticospinal fibres via chronically implanted electrodes in the cerebral peduncle.  

One group (n = 34) underwent hippocampal resection posteriorly to the anterior edge of the cerebral peduncle (partial hippocampectomy).  

By postnatal day 2, the cerebral peduncle, brain stem neurofibers, molecular layer of the cerebellum, corpus striatum, and piriform cortex became immunoreactive.  

Retrograde tracer injections into the ipsilateral striatum and cerebral peduncle in allografted animals failed to show any axonal growth to either subcortical target. In addition, using an antibody to porcine glial fibers, we observed more extensive graft glial fiber growth into the same host fiber tracts, as far caudally as the cerebral peduncle, but not into gray matter targets outside the cortex.  

After the injection of carbocyanine dye DiI into the hindlimb area of the primary motor cortex of the rat, corticospinal axons and their terminal arbors were anterogradely labeled: DiI-labeled corticospinal fibers proceeded caudally in the ipsilateral internal capsule, cerebral peduncle and medullary pyramid, crossed at the pyramidal decussation and descended in the ventralmost area of the contralateral dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord.  

Pyramidal tract degeneration was prominent starting at the level of the cerebral peduncle and was continued to be seen until the level of lumbar cord.  

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