Central Medial Nucleus Of Thalamus

Compared with the control group, the CPP and CPA groups showed a significant increase of c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial striatum, central medial nucleus of the thalamus, and the basolateral amygdala.  

Control injections were made in the central medial nucleus (CEM) of the thalamus.  

BDA injection in the medial parafascicular nucleus and the central medial nucleus labeled mainly the medial limbic territory of the Str. The medial parafascicular nucleus projected to the medial-most region of the GP, while the central medial nucleus projection to the GP was very sparse.  

Animals of the EA36S groups had significantly higher levels of c-Fos expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, posterior hypothalamus and central medial nucleus of the thalamus.  

Administration of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs leads to activation of cells in the nucleus accumbens shell, central amygdaloid nucleus, and midline thalamic central medial nucleus, implicating important shared effects of these drugs. However, the exact cell types responding to antipsychotic drugs in the nucleus accumbens shell, central amygdaloid nucleus, and midline thalamic central medial nucleus are unclear. The present study provides pharmacological evidence, at the cellular level in vivo, that the shared effects of antipsychotic drugs, whether typical and atypical, is activation of dynorphinergic GABA neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell, central amygdaloid nucleus, and midline thalamic central medial nucleus.  

The following groups can be discerned: (1) a dorsal group, consisting of the paraventricular, parataenial and intermediodorsal nuclei, involved in viscero-limbic functions; (2) a lateral group, comprising the central lateral and paracentral nuclei and the anterior part of the central medial nucleus, involved in cognitive functions; (3) a ventral group, made up of the reuniens and rhomboid nucleus and the posterior part of the central medial nucleus, involved in multimodal sensory processing; (4) a posterior group, consisting of the centre médian and parafascicular nuclei, involved in limbic motor functions..  

In all three primates, DL/MT(C) had reciprocal connections with the pulvinar and claustrum; received afferents from the locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe, nucleus annularis, central superior nucleus, pontine reticular formation, lateral geniculate nucleus, paracentral nucleus, central medial nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, basal nucleus of the amygdala, and basal nucleus of Meynert/substantia innominata; and sent efferents to the pons, superior colliculus, reticular nucleus, caudate, and putamen.  

We examined the occurrence and severity of the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related cytoskeletal pathology and beta-amyloidosis in the seven intralaminar nuclei (central lateral nucleus, CL; central medial nucleus, CEM; centromedian nucleus, CM; cucullar nucleus, CU; paracentral nucleus, PC; parafascicular nucleus, PF; subparafascicular nucleus, SPF) in 27 autopsy cases at different stages of the cortical neurofibrillary pathology (cortical NFT/NT-stages I-VI) and beta-amyloidosis (cortical phases 1-4).  

In situ hybridization revealed neurons containing corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger RNA in the posterior thalamic nuclear group and the central medial nucleus of the thalamus, which interfaces with the ventral posteromedial nucleus (parvicellular part).  

After localized injection of BDA into the Mx, labeled CT axons were found ipsilaterally in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), the ventroanterior-ventrolateral complex (VA-VL), the central lateral nucleus (CL), the central medial nucleus, and the centromedian nucleus, but with the primary focus in the VA-VL.  

In a separate group of rats, the retrograde tracer cholera toxin beta-subunit (CTb) was injected into one of the intralaminar thalamic nuclei-lateral parafascicular, medial parafascicular, central lateral (CL), paracentral (PC), or central medial nucleus-or one of the midline thalamic nuclei-paraventricular (PVT), intermediodorsal (IMD), mediodorsal, paratenial, rhomboid (Rh), reuniens (Re), or caudal ventral medial (VMc) nucleus.  

These studies have also shown that morphine can induce c-Fos in the central medial nucleus of the thalamus (CM).  

A band of labeled cells involving CL, central medial nucleus (CM) and rhomboid nucleus (Rh) formed a halo around the periphery of submedial (gelatinosus) nucleus (Sm).  

The anterior group of intralaminar nuclei (central lateral nucleus, paracentral nucleus and central medial nucleus) showed intense staining for both calbindin-D28k and calretinin.  

Additionally, a diffuse projection with small varicosities spreads in the area between the two VPpc nuclei and the central medial nucleus.  

A few labelled neurons were found in the adjoining central medial nucleus of the inferior pulvinar, as well as in the lateral pulvinar and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

Moderate or low concentrations of phenyletanolamine-N-methyltransferase-immunopositive fibres are present in the paratenial nucleus, and all parts of the central nucleus, nucleus reuniens, central medial nucleus, centromedian nucleus, medial geniculate body and medial pulvinar nucleus, while only scattered immunoreactive axons are found in other thalamic nuclei.  

In Experiment 2, an impairment comparable to the pyriform lesion was observed for a lesion of the intralaminar nuclei (PC-CL plus the central medial nucleus) but not for a larger lesion of MDn.  

In the central medial nucleus, the segregation of modality is evident: The visual-projecting sector is dorsal, and the somatosensory is ventral.  

Recordings were also made from nine cells from the central medial nucleus of the thalamus (CM) and five from the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH).  

It receives much smaller projections from the central medial nucleus and the ventral, anterior, and medial thalamic groups.  

Area 24 was found to receive pain-related thalamic inputs from the intralaminar nuclei including the central medial nucleus, midline nuclei, modiodorsal nucleus and possibly the submedial nucleus.  

Recordings were made in the frontal cortex and in various nuclei of the thalamus, in specific nuclei such as the ventroposterolateral, the ventroposteromedial and the ventrolateral nuclei, as well as in non-specific nuclei such as the mediodorsal nucleus, the reticular thalamic nucleus, the interanteromedial nucleus and the intralaminar nuclei (the central medial nucleus, the centrolateral nucleus and the paracentral nucleus). Cells in the central medial nucleus and interanteromedial nucleus did not fire in a phase-locked manner.  

Since the central medial nucleus receives important direct cholinergic projections from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, these two nuclei form a discrete ascending system which regulates seizure threshold..  

Fibres from the central medial nucleus terminate centrally and dorsolaterally in the rostral part of the nucleus accumbens and medially in the caudate-putamen.  

Midline thalamo-hippocampal cells are concentrated in the nucleus reuniens; thalamo-accumbens neurons prevail in the ventral portion of the paraventricular nucleus, and in the central medial nucleus.  

Moreover, the paratenial and the paraventricular thalamic nuclei project only to the PL area, and the central medial nucleus projects mostly to the PL area.  

Following injections of the central medial nucleus, label is present in the presylvian sulcus; but in contrast to the central lateral and paracentral projections, the suprasylvian gyrus is labeled only in its posterior part. The central medial nucleus also projects to the posterior lateral gyrus, both laterally and medially. Also, the central medial nucleus projects heavily to rostral cortical zones, which include the Of, Prag and La areas, cruciate sulcus, and the rostral cingulate gyrus. The laminar distribution of label is as follows: the central lateral, paracentral and para-stria medullaris nuclei project primarily to layers I and III, whereas the central medial nucleus projects to layers I and VI.  

When an injection was made into the dorsal division (DLEA), a large number of labeled cells were detected in the reuniens nucleus, and less numerous labeled cells were found in the central medial nucleus.  

Stimulation of the Pf induced bilateral increases in LCGU in the Pf and central medial nucleus of the thalamus, sensory cortex, ventral areas of the striatum and substantia nigra, and ipsilateral increase in LCGU in the periaqueductal gray, parabrachial pontine nucleus and deep layers of the superior colliculus.  

In the thalamus, AII-stained cells were found in the paraventricular nucleus, the central medial nucleus, the nucleus reuniens, and rostral parts of the zona incerta.  

A prominent recrossing of cerebellothalamic fibers from the fastigial, posterior interpositus, and dentate nuclei occurred through the central medial nucleus of the internal medullary lamina.  

Local low-frequency stimulation of the thalamic central medial nucleus leads to the appearance of both "generalized" and "local" spindles.  

After injection of HRP into the head of the caudate nucleus (Cd), thalamic neurons labeled with HRP were observed mainly in the rhomboid nucleus (Rh), central medial nucleus (Ce), centre médian-parafascicular complex (CM-Pf) as well as in the midline and intralaminar regions surrounding the mediodorsal nucleus (MD).  

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