Caudate Nucleus

One million cells were stereotactically injected into the right caudate nucleus of 21 nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice.  

Previous brain-imaging studies have reported that major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by decreased volumes of several cortical and subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and caudate nucleus. Compared with healthy controls, MDD participants were found to have decreased gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate nucleus and the thalamus. The present results suggest that smaller volume of the caudate nucleus may be related to the pathophysiology of MDD and may account for abnormalities of the cortico-striatal-pallido-thalamic loop in MDD..  

the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampus and basal ganglia (globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, and substantia nigra).  

Patients exposed to atypicals (olanzapine and risperidone) exhibited a decrease in caudate nucleus volume (p=0.001). In contrast to typical antipsychotics, atypicals have differential effects on lateral ventricle and caudate nucleus volumes..  

Compared with H2H2, the H1 carriers showed up to 19% smaller GM volume in the head of the right caudate nucleus, in the right middle frontal gyrus, in the left insula and orbito-frontal cortex, and in the inferior temporal and inferior cerebellar lobes, bilaterally.  

Despite extensive analysis of the motor functions of the basal ganglia and the fact that multisensory information processing appears critical for the execution of their behavioral action, little is known concerning the sensory functions of the caudate nucleus (CN) and the substantia nigra (SN).  

Functional imaging studies have reported with remarkable consistency hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and caudate nucleus of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

Using event-related fMRI and an auditory and visual conjunction technique, we identified a long-range supramodal network active during reasoning processes including areas in the left frontal and parietal regions as well as the bilateral caudate nucleus.  

Several regions of interest, including the bilateral nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, anterior insula, right cerebellar lobule VI, and left putamen, were sensitive to informative feedback regardless of valence.  

Western immunoblotting techniques has been used to evaluate the serum antibodies against the caudate nucleus.  

Significant group-level reductions in brain atrophy were observed in the head of the caudate nucleus and the posterior thalamus.  

Here we examine the specific role of the caudate nucleus, and in particular, how this differs from that of the putamen. We conclude that the caudate nucleus contributes to behaviour through the excitation of correct action schemas and the selection of appropriate sub-goals based on an evaluation of action-outcomes; both processes fundamental to successful goal-directed action.  

To create HT model, right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was conducted with intraluminal thread technique; 30 min after MCAO, 50 muL arterial blood was injected into the caudate nucleus where the infarction occurred.  

Of the structures that receive direct projections from the cortex, the thalamus, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus showed changes specific to subjects with schizophrenia, and changes in the amygdala and putamen were similar in both groups.  

A 47-year-old male underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (25 Gy) for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation located in the right caudate nucleus, using a linear accelerator.  

In this study, magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained for volumetric measurements of striatum (putamen and caudate nucleus) and whole brain from 11 PD patients, 13 aged healthy human subjects, as well as 8 parkinsonian and 30 normal NHP. However, this ratio is significantly smaller for striatum (5.7-6.5), caudate nucleus (4.6-6.6) and putamen (4.4-6.6).  

In conditions of sleep deprivation, the caudate nucleus showed increases in the quantities of dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptor material, while there was a simultaneous decrease in the amount of immunoreactive material in the substantia nigra. Post-deprivation sleep was accompanied by decreases in the quantities of immunoreactive D(1) receptor material and increases in D(2) receptor material in the caudate nucleus, with an increase in the quantity of immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra.  

Canine olfactory bulb-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) isolated from dog brains were expanded ex vivo and implanted into the caudate nucleus/thalamus or cortex of allogeneic dogs.  

Cerebral glucose uptake was reduced in all analyzed neocortical areas, but preserved in the caudate nucleus, the hippocampus and the thalamus.  

Objective: To compare the volumes of the caudate nucleus, using traditional volumetry and a three-dimensional brain mapping technique, in a group of individuals with late-life depression and a group of age- and education-equated nondepressed comparison subjects. Three-dimensional (3-D) surface models were created from manually traced outlines of the caudate nucleus from spoiled gradient echo images. Results: Relative to comparison subjects, depressed subjects had significantly lower mean volumes for both the left (p = 0.029) and right (p = 0.052) caudate nucleus as well as total caudate volume (p = 0.032). Conclusion: Late-life depression is associated with left and right caudate nucleus reduction especially in anterior portions. These results are consistent with growing evidence that the anterior caudate nucleus, especially the head, may be structurally and functionally abnormal in affective disorders..  

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Frontostriatal circuits involving the caudate nucleus have been implicated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We assessed caudate nucleus volumetrics in FTLD and subtypes: frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n = 12), semantic dementia (SD, n = 13), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA, n = 9) in comparison with healthy controls (n = 27) and subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD, n = 19). RESULTS: Paired t tests (P < .05) showed that the right caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger than the left in controls and PNFA. Across the groups, there was a positive partial correlation between the left caudate nucleus volume and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores (r = 0.393, n = 76, P = .001) with higher left caudate volumes associated with higher MMSE scores. CONCLUSIONS: Volume of the head and body of the caudate nucleus differs in subtypes of FTLD, due to differential frontostriatal dysfunction in subtypes being reflected in structural change in the caudate, and is correlated with cognition..  

Age-group analyses suggested a more extended pattern of volume increases in the younger subjects, which included entorhinal, temporopolar, caudate nucleus, motor-precentral and precuneus gray matter, and white matter of the frontal and temporal lobes.  

Emotion-specific rCBF also correlated with HF-HRV in the caudate nucleus, periacqueductal gray and left mid-insula.  

In homosexual men, the left angular gyrus, left caudate nucleus, and right pallidum were activated; in contrast, heterosexual men showed no activation in these regions.  

In the present study, we examined the relationships among cognitive function, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain metabolite indices measured in the basal ganglia, and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the caudate nucleus and the putamen in the earliest stages of HIV-related cognitive involvement.  

We included cortical regions as well as limbic area's (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex) basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus), thalamus and cingulated gyrus.  

We hypothesized that the strict interaction between anxiety symptoms and executive functions could depend on specific pathological features at the level of caudate nucleus characterizing early phases of dementia.  

In contrast, delayed rewards evoked hyperactivation in dorsal caudate nucleus and amygdala of ADHD patients. Hyperactivation during delayed reward processing, gradually increasing along the ventral-to-dorsal extension of the caudate nucleus, and especially the concomitant hyperactivation of the amygdala are in accordance with predictions of the delay aversion hypothesis..  

Injury appeared in symptomatic vs asymptomatic OSA subjects in the mid- and anterior cingulate, anterior insular, medial pre-frontal, parietal, and left ventrolateral temporal cortices, left caudate nucleus, and internal capsule.  

We also conducted testing of group differences with region-of-interest (ROI) measurements of the caudate nucleus.  

Acute stress modulates multiple memory systems in favor of caudate nucleus-dependent stimulus-response and at the expense of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory.  

Binding Potentials (BP) at D(1) receptors were calculated for the caudate nucleus and putamen. RESULTS: The BP for [ (11)C]-SCH23390 at D(1) receptors in OCD patients was significantly reduced in both caudate nucleus (0.59+/-0.06 vs 0.88+/-0.06, p<0.05) and putamen (0.89+/-0.06 vs 1.14+/-0.06, p<0.05) compared with healthy controls.  

It also increased synapsin I immunoreactivity bilaterally in most hippocampal subfields, but not in the caudate nucleus, sensorimotor cortices, or piriform cortex.  

The major findings were as follows: (1) A shift of activation to the hemisphere contralateral to the turn was found in the putamen, and-for initiation of the turn-in the caudate nucleus.  

The subcortical structures such as the caudate nucleus and the left marginal division of the striatum (MrD) were activated in both two calculation tasks. The cortex including the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and cingulate gyrus were activated during mental calculation, while the subcortical structures such as the caudate nucleus, the globus pallidum and the left marginal division of the striatum also played a critical role in the neural networks of the calculation at the same time.  

Induction was observed in various brain regions including those affected in Parkinson's disease (PD) such as substantia nigra (3-fold, p=0.01), putamen (2.1-fold, p=0.001) and brainstem (2.4-fold, p=0.001), with the caudate nucleus approaching significance (1.6-fold, p=0.07).  

Control subjects showed more activation than MA patients bilaterally in the precuneus and in the right caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).  

We report a highly significant regional increase of the BOLD response in the caudate nucleus in a group of Danish Christians while performing silent religious prayer.  

A single template of predefined VOI 3D-drawn on right and left caudate nucleus and putamen was applied to the spatially normalized BR images.  

Then HbV or homologous RBC suspension ([ Hb] = 8.6 g/dL, 20 muL) was injected into the right caudate nucleus.  

Apathy was associated with GM density loss in the anterior cingulate and frontal cortex bilaterally, the head of the left caudate nucleus and in bilateral putamen.  

Neuroimaging studies showed a hyperactivity of the prefrontal cortex and the caudate nucleus which appears to reflect abnormalities in cerebral circuits.  

The volume of the hippocampus and caudate nucleus correctly categorized 92% and 92% respectively of DS individuals without AD, and 75% and 80% respectively of DS individuals with AD.  

2.1 +/- 1.1; p < 0.05) and caudate nucleus (1.0 +/- 0.8 and 0.6 +/- 0.7 vs.  

Our aim was to develop a reliable and valid manual segmentation protocol for tracing the caudate nucleus in MRI for volumetric and, potentially, shape analysis of the caudate. In study 1, the intra-rater class correlation ICC(1,1) for an experienced rater (JCLL) using this protocol for caudate nucleus volumes was evaluated by repeating right and left caudate measurements on 10 scans (20 comparisons) and was 0.972. We therefore developed a novel, reliable and reference image-based, method of outlining the caudate nucleus on axial MRI scans, usable in two different image analysis laboratories, across two different sets number of tracers reliably, and across software platforms.  

The aim of the study is to present a new method for the segmentation of the caudate nucleus and use it to compare the caudate heads and bodies of an attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) group with those of a control group. Our new method for segmenting the caudate nucleus detected differential abnormalities of the right caudate head and body in the ADHD group, explaining previous heterogeneous findings in the literature..  

Here, a novel automated technique of voxel-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis was applied to determine the volumes of caudate nucleus and putamen in nine patients with proven ChAc in comparison with 257 healthy controls.  

The most significant and consistent structural imaging findings include smaller total brain volumes, and reduced volumes in the right frontal lobe, right parietal cortex, caudate nucleus, cerebellar hemispheres, and posterior-inferior lobules of the cerebellar vermis.  

Cerebral contusions were seen in the frontal lobes bilaterally, left temporal lobe, right caudate nucleus and cerebellar vermis.  

RESULTS: [ 11C]DTBZ DV was decreased significantly in caudate nucleus, anterior putamen, and posterior putamen in DLB and PD compared with AD and NC. DLB and PD groups showed an anterior-to-posterior gradient of binding loss relative to NC, least in caudate nucleus and largest in posterior putamen.  

DWI abnormality in the caudate nucleus showed a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: FLAIR and DWI abnormalities in the caudate nucleus and putamen offer the best sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing fCJD.  

With the use of EEG source image we found three different neural patterns in aged individuals: (1) left hippocampus and midbrain in mild AD, (2) left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus, left nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, thalamus, posterior cinguli, right precuneous, right superior parietal lobe in MCI, and (3) right lateral-medial orbitofrontal gyrus, caudate nucleus, thalamus, right lateral occipitotemporal gyrus in elderly controls.  

We measured the XO activity in following brain areas: hippocampus, regio entorhinalis, thalamus, putamen and caudate nucleus.  

We found that the FD uptake constant (Ki) in the caudate nucleus of patients with IP declines with both age (p = 0.002) and duration (p = 0.05) of symptoms. We conclude that the effect of aging on the dopaminergic function in the caudate nucleus in IP differs from that in normal aging.  

Regional transverse diffusivity in the caudate nucleus was decreased (p < 0.0001), and the corresponding FA was increased (p < 0.0001), suggesting reduced dendritic branching and connectivity. Diffusion tensor imaging-metrics involving gray matter volume and the caudate nucleus, but not other structures, predicted variations in IQ (r = 0.37-0.50; p < 0.05).  

Neuropathologically, the patient showed marked atrophy and neuronal loss, particularly small and medium-sized neurons, with astrocytic gliosis in the caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus. The neuronal density of the dorsal caudate nucleus was lower than that of the ventral side in this patient as well as in three Huntington's disease (HD) patients. The neuronal densities in both the rostral and caudal sides were lower than that in the middle region at the anterior commissure level, while in the three HD patients, the neuronal densities of the caudate nucleus were more decreased in the caudal side. This ChAc patient showed faint immunoreactivity in the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus with antibodies against the striatal neurotransmitters, methionine-enkephalin, leucine-enkephalin and substance P.  

Patients with VarAD had significantly higher [ (11)C] PIB uptake than the control group in the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, occipital cortex and thalamus.  

Many brain nuclei composing a complicated network are involved in processing acupuncture analgesia, including the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), periaqueductal grey (PAG), locus coeruleus, arcuate nucleus (Arc), preoptic area, nucleus submedius, habenular nucleus, accumbens nucleus, caudate nucleus, septal area, amygdale, etc.  

Results of MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus and the area of the corpus callosum are summarized. Existing research suggests that autistic individuals have larger total brain, cerebellar and caudate nucleus volumes; however, the area of the corpus callosum is reduced.  

Within the patient group NSS were significantly associated with reduced grey or white-matter densities in the pre- and post-central gyrus, pre-motor area, middle and inferior frontal gyri, cerebellum, caudate nucleus and thalamus.  

However the lateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus showed a non-linear U-shape relationship between motor disease severity and regional brain activation.  

Bilateral affected structures were hippocampal cortex, amygdala, caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus, lower temporal gyrus and somatomotor cortex.  

In this study, we demonstrated that autologous whole blood infusion in caudate nucleus up-regulates the expression of AQP4 and AQP9 mRNAs and proteins.  

Eight patients (89%) had a solitary lesion located in the lateral ventricle close to of the head of the caudate nucleus, the remaining patient (11%) had two tumors, one located close to the head of the left caudate nucleus and the other in the central part of the right lateral ventricle.  

The causes of Sydenham's chorea are considered, especially an immune reactivity against the basal ganglia, supported by the finding of antibodies reactive against the neurons of the caudate nucleus.  

BSP patients had increased activation in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen and lateral globus pallidus, whilst CD patients showed increased activation in the caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus.  

Human CD20-transfected murine B-lymphoma cells (38C13 CD20+) were inoculated in the vitreous via the pars plana or in the caudate nucleus using a stereotaxic frame in immunocompetent syngeneic mice.  

Thereafter, the patient had two clinical relapses: one was due to a lesion in the dorsal part of the medulla oblongata associated with a disturbance of deep sensation in both hands, and the other was due to a lesion involving the right internal capsule, the globus pallidus, and the caudate nucleus associated with left facial nerve palsy.  

BOLD signal alterations were also observed in the left caudate nucleus, left thalamus, along with various areas of the left cerebral and cerebellum hemispheres.  

Three brain regions were studied, the right caudate nucleus, the anterior gyrus cinguli and the occipital cortex bilaterally.  

Clusters of 3-10 dysplastic cells similar to reactive astrocytes were observed in the amygdala, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus in cases 1 and 2.  

The present study used legacy DTI data collected in 10 younger (22-37 years) and 10 older (65-79 years) men and women at 3.0T and fast spin-echo (FSE) data collected at 1.5T and 3.0T to derive an estimate of the field-dependent relaxation rate increase (the "FDRI estimate") in the putamen, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus, and a frontal white matter sample comparison region. In contrast to lower anisotropy and higher diffusivity typical in white matter of older relative to younger adults observed with DTI, both anisotropy and diffusivity were higher in the older than younger group in the caudate nucleus and putamen; the thalamus showed little effect of age on anisotropy or diffusivity.  

Measurements in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus yielded globally different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values between drug treated patients with TD and control subjects but the magnetization transfer ratios showed no significant variations.  

Regional cerebral perfusion was increased in the ADHD group in the left caudate nucleus, frontal and parietal regions. Psychomotor stimulant treatment acted to normalise perfusion in frontal cortex and the caudate nucleus with additional decreases in parietal and parahippocampal regions.  

Electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle of anesthetized post-natal age 28 days (PN28) and PN65 rats elicited dopamine release in caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens core before and after 15 mg/kg cocaine i.p.  

The authors report that, following breaches of trust, oxytocin facilitates prosocial behavior while modulating neural signals in the amygdala and caudate nucleus.  

We report that DSI tractography accurately shows the known anatomic fiber crossings in optic chiasm, centrum semiovale, and brainstem; fiber intersections in gray matter, including cerebellar folia and the caudate nucleus; and radial fiber architecture in cerebral cortex.  

Survivors of childhood ALL who underwent cranial irradiation during childhood had smaller WM volumes and reduced GM concentration within the caudate nucleus and thalamus.  

Participants who were told that they would be able to smoke during the study exhibited smaller responses to monetary gains and losses in the caudate nucleus than did those who anticipated having to wait several hours before having the opportunity to smoke.  

Using SPECT or PET, rapid, high, and selective accumulation of PE2I was found in the caudate nucleus and putamen in monkeys, whereas rapid wash out from the cerebellum was observed.  

Physiophysiological interactions further indicated that the dorsal anterior cingulate and the caudate nucleus modulate this pathway.  

The levels of Glu in putamen and caudate nucleus of electrodes side at 1 week, 1, 8 and 12 months were increased significantly. The levels of GABA in putamen and caudate nucleus of electrodes side at 1 week, 1 month increased significantly compared with before turning on the pulse generator while decreased at 8, 12 months. The level of Tau in putamen and caudate nucleus increased significantly. CONCLUSION: Long-term STN HFS can increase the level of glutamate and taurine, while decrease the level of GABA in putamen and caudate nucleus of electrodes side.  

The present study examines the effect of droperidol on the pain-evoked response of pain-excitation neurons (PENs) and pain-inhibition neurons (PINs) in the caudate nucleus (Cd) of rats.  

Admission computed tomography scans revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage in the left caudate nucleus with intraventricular extension.  

We have studied alterations in gene expression in the substantia nigra, the caudate nucleus and putamen of four PD patients and four matched controls using custom designed Agilent microarrays. We identified changes in the expression of 287 transcripts in the substantia nigra, 16 transcripts in the caudate nucleus and four transcripts in the putamen.  

Specifically, during the perinatal state, striosomal FOXP2 expression was detected in both the caudate nucleus and the putamen, although expression was more prominent in the caudate nucleus than in the putamen. Striosomal FOXP2 expression declined during the postnatal period, first in the putamen and later in the caudate nucleus.  

No association of water content and HE grade was established for the occipital visual and frontal cortices, the thalamus, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the caudate nucleus and the coronal white matter.  

In healthy controls we report Dice overlap measures of 0.81, 0.83, 0.74, 0.86 and 0.75 for the right caudate nucleus, putamen, pallidum, thalamus and hippocampus respectively. We also find statistically significant improvement of accuracy in FS+LDDMM over FreeSurfer for the caudate nucleus and putamen of Huntington's disease and Tourette's syndrome subjects, and the right hippocampus of Schizophrenia subjects..  

The head of the caudate nucleus has been implicated in processing performance feedback, or in other words, information about the outcomes of one's actions.  

BOLD signal changes associated with ictal EEG activity (i.e., periods of three per second GSW) were analyzed in predefined regions-of-interests (ROIs), including the thalamus, the precuneus, and caudate nucleus. Three per second GSW were associated with regional BOLD signal decreases in parietal areas, precuneus, and caudate nucleus along with a bilateral increase in the BOLD signal in the medial thalamus.  

SO increased serotonin level and decreased both norepinephrine and dopamine levels in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, midbrain and pons and medulla.  

Neurohistopathological evaluation revealed a significantly greater proportion of ischemically damaged neurons in the caudate nucleus and putamen in pigs subjected to 8 mins of cardiac arrest. Performance worsens with increasing ischemia time and is structurally associated with alterations in the caudate nucleus and the putamen..  

Relative amounts of the glutamate metabolizing enzymes - glutamine synthetase, glutamine synthetase-like protein, three isoenzymes of glutamate dehydrogenase as well as creatine phosphokinase (a main astroglial energy metabolism enzyme) and major proteins of astro- and oligodendroglia - a glial fibrillary acidic protein and a myelin basic protein were determined in postmortem brain extracts from three areas - the prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus and cerebellum - from mentally healthy subjects (n=21) and patients with chronic schizophrenia (n=23).  

RESULTS: Uptake of 11C-PiB was increased especially in the striatum (caudate nucleus to 225% and 280% of the control mean and putamen to 166% and 185% of the control mean) and in the posterior cingulate (to 168% and 198% of the control mean), and it was marginally increased in other cortical brain areas.  

In CSE, the fractional anisotropy in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, and striatal D2R binding significantly predicted reduced performance of attention and psychomotor speed.  

hNSCs were implanted into the caudate nucleus (bilaterally) and substantia nigra (unilaterally) of 7, adult St.  

The role of the caudate nucleus (CN) in motor control has been widely studied.  

Principally, the brain response of heterosexual paedophiles to heteropaedophilic stimuli was comparable to that of heterosexual males to heterosexual stimuli, including different limbic structures (amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus), the substantia nigra, caudate nucleus, as well as the anterior cingulate cortex, different thalamic nuclei, and associative cortices.  

We found that implantation of adeno-associated virus type 2 encoding GDNF (AAV2-GDNF) in the normal monkey caudate nucleus induced overexpression of GDNF that persisted for at least 6 months after injection. In a 6-month within-animal controlled study, AAV2-GDNF enhanced the survival of fetal dopamine neurons by 4-fold, and increased the outgrowth of grafted fetal dopamine neurons by almost 3-fold in the caudate nucleus of MPTP-treated monkeys, compared with control grafts in the other caudate nucleus.  

While diffuse plaques, including those in caudate nucleus and presubiculum, were less prominently labelled, amorphous Abeta plaques in the cerebellum were not detectable with 6-CN-PiB.  

Hypoperfusion in the superior and middle frontal gyrus, and head of caudate nucleus was seen by SPECT with easy Z score imaging system in both patients.  

Activity in a lateral inferior prefrontal region reflects retrieval of information in a declarative module; activity in a posterior parietal region reflects changes to problem representations in an imaginal module; activity in the anterior cingulate cortex reflects the updates of control information in a goal module; and activity in the caudate nucleus reflects execution of productions in a procedural module.  

In addition, the violent schizophrenia group, compared with controls, showed reduced activity in the caudate nucleus during the condition requiring inhibition.  

After sleep, an elevation of D1 receptors immunoreactivity in caudate nucleus and reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in compact part of substancia nigra was found. After postdeprivation sleep, a decrease of D1 receptors immunoreactivity and increase of D2 receptors immunoreactivity in caudate nucleus together some increase of tyrosine hydroxilase immunoreactivity in substancia nigra compacta has been observed.  

Reduced rCBF was also observed in both frontal lobes and the right caudate nucleus.  

Asymmetric perfusion was observed in the caudate nucleus in four AC. In semiquantitative analyses, statistically significant hypoperfusion was found in the right inferior and superior frontal, left superior frontal, right parietal, right mesial temporal and right caudate nucleus. This preliminary study suggests the existence of regional brain perfusion alterations in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex and in caudate nucleus in AC and in their first-degree family members..  

The cortical point at which perpendicular puncture provides the best trajectory for ventricular access, traversing the least brain tissue and avoiding important brain structures, such as the head of the caudate nucleus, anterior limb of the internal capsule, and Broca's cortex in the dominant hemisphere, was measured.  

An increase in 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in the caudate nucleus was detected in the group of schizophrenic patients (0.7+/-0.1) when compared to the healthy controls (0.5+/-0.3) (p=0.02). However, a preliminary finding of increased 5-HT(2A) binding in the caudate nucleus requires further investigation to explore the relation of subcortical and cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding..  

Prior research suggested that the caudate nucleus may be especially vulnerable to early environment and that its size relates to IQ. To test the hypothesis that the caudate nucleus could be a neural substrate for cognitive effects of early nutrition, we compared two groups of adolescents, assigned a Standard- or High-nutrient diet in the postnatal weeks after preterm birth.  

This pattern was essentially mimicked in the caudate nucleus, suggesting a related functional role in the control of cognitive actions.  

Immunohistochemically, macrophages and activated astrocytes were distributed more widely over the limbic system, namely internal capsule, thalamus, caudate nucleus and substantia nigra.  

Here we demonstrate that the human pulvinar is interconnected with subcortical structures (superior colliculus, thalamus, and caudate nucleus) as well as with cortical regions (primary visual areas (area 17), secondary visual areas (area 18, 19), visual inferotemporal areas (area 20), posterior parietal association areas (area 7), frontal eye fields and prefrontal areas).  

RESULTS: There was a negative correlation between age and T2* values in the caudate nucleus (r = -0.34 Pearson correlation; P = .001) and lentiform nucleus (r = -0.67; P = .001) and a positive correlation in the occipital (r = 0.41; P = .001) and subcortical (r = 0.45; P = .001) WM.  

We describe a case of adult onset simple phonic tic after subcortical stroke involving left caudate nucleus.  

After escitalopram administration, less activation was shown in the caudate nucleus, thalamus, and frontal areas. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current pharmaco-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study give a first indication of involvement of serotonin in sustained attention through modulating activation of selective brain areas including the thalamus and caudate nucleus.  

Structural changes consisted in a significant decrease in the size of neuronal bodies in the sensorimotor cortex (layers III and V) and caudate nucleus together with changed variability of these parameters compared to the corresponding values in the control. The neuroglial index increased by 22% in layer V, tended to decrease in layer III, and remained unchanged in the caudate nucleus. L-Dopa changed specific activity of enzymes: tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the sensorimotor cortex decreased by 25%, while monoamine oxidase B activity in the caudate nucleus increased by 33%.  

Regions of interest in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and cerebellum were defined on coregistered MRIs. FCP DVRs were significantly higher in the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in both the caudate nucleus (11.7% difference, p=0.02) and putamen (11.6% difference, p=0.03).  

RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in [ 11C]raclopride BP ND were observed between the groups either in the caudate nucleus (+1.7%, CI -4.8% to +8.3%), putamen (-1.0%, CI -7.2% to 5.1%), thalamus (-2.4%, CI -8.7% to 4.0%), or ventral striatum (-3.8%, CI -9.3% to +1.6%).  

Medium-sized spiny projection neurons (MSN) in the head of the primate caudate nucleus are thought to have preferred dendritic orientations that tend to parallel the orientations of the striosomes.  

Our immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrated that the mu-opioid receptor co-localized with the dopamine D1 receptor in neurons of the cortex and caudate nucleus.  

We validated this algorithm by comparing the automatic approach with three representative manually segmented volumetric regions (the subcortical caudate nucleus, the neocortical pre-central gyrus and the archicortical hippocampus) using similarity indices (SI), a measure of spatial overlap (intersection over average).  

The search for potential biomarkers was carried out with repeated permutation tests: results highlighted well-defined areas of the ventricular surface being discriminating features for AD: the left inferior medial temporal horn, the right medial temporal horn (superior and inferior), and the areas close to the left anterior part of the corpus callosum and the head of the right caudate nucleus.  

The effects of stimulation and destruction of the caudate nucleus on the cat short-term memory were studied by the method of classical delayed reactions. Short-term memory improved, if electrical stimulation of the caudate nucleus before presentation of the conditioned signal caused desynchronization of the electrocorticogram in the prefrontal and temporal cortex. Unilateral destruction of the caudate nucleus leading to the development of hyperactivity and attention disorders deteriorated short-term memory..  

The extent of alpha-synuclein, tau, and amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) deposition in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens was assessed.  

Compared with the normal group, SPM localized declines of the [ F-18] DOPA Ki bilaterally in the putamen, the right caudate nucleus and the left ventral midbrain for the PD group. A relative difference in 18F-dopa uptake between PD and PDD was the bilateral decline in the anterior cingulate area and ventral striatum and in the right caudate nucleus in the PDD group.  

Target-related fMRI activation on the other hand was confirmed in a network comprising distributed frontoparietal regions as well as bilateral caudate nucleus and cerebellum.  

In a region-of-interest analysis, significant interactions between drug and genotype were observed in the right medial orbitofrontal gyrus and the left caudate nucleus.  

VBM revealed gray matter differences in the bilateral caudate nucleus and the thalamus, as well as in inferior parietal and right lateral prefrontal regions.  

The results demonstrate that the anterior part of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was more active in envisioning emotional events in the far future than in the near future, whereas the caudate nucleus was engaged in envisioning emotional (especially positive) situations in the near future.  

We recorded from phasically active neurons in the caudate nucleus while monkeys performed a probabilistically rewarded delayed saccade task.  

During this suppression task, activations changed from anterior to posterior insula; also there was a suppression of activity in the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) and caudate nucleus. The cortical correlate seems to be a shift of cerebral activation from anterior to posterior right insula and a suppression of activity in the ACC and caudate nucleus..  

The results showed the dynamics of final product accumulation in two structures of rat caudate nucleus: AChE-positive neuropil and the AChE-negative myelin bundle during histochemical incubation.  

We studied 32 minimally treated schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy subjects with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the frontal and occipital lobes, caudate nucleus, and cerebellum.  

All patients showed a decrease in BOLD signal in the head of the caudate nucleus with a variable onset. These changes in thalamo-cortical activity are followed by a deactivation of the caudate nucleus.  

In both BIBD and NIFID, the frontotemporal cortex including the precentral gyrus, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus including the dentate gyrus, substantia nigra, and pyramidal tract were severely affected, whereas lower motor neuron degeneration was minimal.  

BACKGROUND: The striatum (caudate nucleus, CN, and putamen, Put) is a group of subcortical nuclei involved in planning and executing voluntary movements as well as in cognitive processes.  

The hippocampus, caudate nucleus, thalamus, and hypothalamus showed profound BBB disruption and brain edema formation.  

The MCA reached to deep structures of the brain, including the internal capsule, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, insular cortex, and thalamus with a high-extent probability.  

We found lower baseline D2R availability in opiate-dependent subjects than controls in the left caudate nucleus.  

Changes secondary to an infarct were seen in the region of the caudate nucleus..  

These differences could not be explained based on the smaller gray matter volumes of the corresponding regions, although in Huntington's disease patients smaller caudate nucleus volumes predicted lower dorsal-lateral prefrontal activity.  

Neuroimaging showed the most extensive grey matter loss in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and frontal operculum/insular cortex of the right hemisphere and, to a lesser extent, in the anterior cingulate gyrus, head of the caudate nucleus and the posterolateral orbitofrontal cortex and insular cortex bilaterally.  

Additional signal increases were located in the depth of the left superior frontal sulcus, over the ventral part of the left anterior cingulate, in the depth of the right central sulcus and in the caudate nucleus/putamen.  

distractor) we found significant activation especially in the thalamus and some parts of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen). According to our findings there is strong evidence, that especially the thalamus, the caudate nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobule and the prefrontal cortex are responsible for an accurate ambiguity resolution in the human brain..  

In each patient, the caudate nucleus showed dramatic atrophy.  

RESULTS: The authors found no significant difference in the binding potential of [ 11C]DASB between the recovered depressed patients and healthy comparison subjects in any of the brain regions (amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus, frontal cortex, hippocampus, insula, thalamus, and dorsal raphe) studied.  

VPT individuals compared to controls showed reduced GM in temporal, frontal, occipital cortices and cerebellum, including putamen, insula, cuneus, fusiform gyrus, thalamus and caudate nucleus, and increased GM predominantly in temporal and frontal lobes, including cingulate and fusiform gyri and cerebellum.  

For dyspnea, significant activation was located in the right caudate nucleus, the anterior cerebellum (Z = 5 and 4.65, respectively; corrected P < 0.05), and the premotor cortex, whereas deactivation occurred in the left prefrontal cortex (Z = 4.11).  

We found significant rCBF decrements in the pre-central gyrus, pre-motor cortex and caudate nucleus bilaterally, left prefrontal areas and right thalamus.  

Simultaneous recording of the EEG activity of superficial cortical and deep (caudate nucleus, dorsal hippocampus, anterior hypothalamus) brain parts has been performed for the first time after a 2-h swinging of frequency of 0.2 Hz in Wistar rats of juvenile age. In the parietal occipital brain cortex and in caudate nucleus, the changes of the EEG spectral composition also were of individual character.  

The following brain regions were examined: cingulate cortex, cerebellum, nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, putamen, pons, hippocampus, locus coeruleus, and basal ganglia.  

Our study is the first to provide evidence of: (1) the similar localization of [ 3H]LY341495 specific binding to mGluR2/3 in the primate basal ganglia as compared to receptor distribution measured by immunohistochemistry in human and rat as well as this ligand binding in intact rat brain; (2) no change of [ 3H]LY341495 specific binding in basal ganglia after nigrostriatal denervation by MPTP; and (3) a widespread reduction of [ (3)H]LY341495 specific binding to mGluR2/3 in the caudate nucleus (-17% to -31%), putamen (-12% to -45%) and globus pallidus (-56 to -59%) of non-dyskinetic animals treated with L-Dopa+cabergoline as compared to controls, MPTP monkeys treated with saline, L-Dopa alone (dyskinetic) or L-Dopa+CI-1041 (non-dyskinetic).  

This reversal of asymmetry in the globus pallidus and caudate nucleus were statistically significant.  

Phylogenetically older regions of the brain tended to show larger vascular responses to hypoxia than evolutionary younger regions, e.g., the putamen, brain stem, thalamus, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and pallidum received greater than average increases in blood flow, while cortical regions generally received below average increases.  

ICH model was induced by injecting collagenase into right caudate nucleus, level of [ Ca2+]i was determined by fluorescent tracing assay, and the expression of ICAM-1 was determined using immunohistochemical technique.  

We statistically analyzed the relative signal intensities of the globus pallidus, putamen, substantia nigra, caudate nucleus, red nucleus, and thalamus for correlation with age.  

RESULTS: In two patients with lesions affecting the head of the caudate nucleus, there was no identifiable N30 component on the affected side. In one patient with lesion of the tail of the caudate nucleus, the N30 component was unaffected. CONCLUSION: Our results further support the importance of the basal ganglia, especially the head of the caudate nucleus in the generation of the N30 component of the median nerve SEPs..  

The analysis of the explicit condition showed increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals especially in the caudate nucleus, the cingulum and the right prefrontal cortex.  

Following correction for confounding factors (post-mortem interval), these deficits only remained significant in the caudate nucleus (p = 0.019). We also found significant deficits in VGluT1 in the caudate nucleus (p = 0.009) in schizophrenia. The data provides additional evidence for a glutamatergic synaptic pathology in the caudate nucleus in schizophrenia and may reflect a loss of glutamatergic cortico-striatal pathways.  

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