Substantia Grisea Centralis

Both norepinephrine and dopamine displaced the binding of the radioligand though to a different extent in most of the regions studied (e.g., area X, the lateral part of the magnocellular nucleus of anterior nidopallium, HVC, arcopallium dorsale, ventral tegmental area and Substantia grisea centralis) but not in the robust nucleus of the arcopallium.  

cGnRH-II ir-perikarya were observed in only two areas regardless of reproductive status: (1) ventral to the Substantia grisea centralis and caudal to the oculomotor complex, and (2) scattered in and about the lateral hypothalamus.  

5-HT and DA in the nucleus raphe dorsalis (NRD), substantia nigra (SN), nucleus caudatus putamen (NCP) and in the Substantia grisea centralis, and NE in the former two nuclei were significantly decreased in these animals.  

AR-ir material was detected in the nucleus of cells located in a variety of brain areas in the preoptic region and the hypothalamus including the medial preoptic (POM), the supraoptic, the paraventricular (PVN), and the ventromedial (VMN) nuclei, but also in the tuberculum olfactorium, the nucleus accumbens/ventral striatum, the nucleus taeniae, the tuberal hypothalamus, the Substantia grisea centralis (GCt), and the locus ceruleus.  

The use of tyrosine hydroxylase antiserum shows coexpression of the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme and En-2 protein in the caudal part of the nuclei tegmenti pedunculo-pontinus, the area ventralis of Tsai and the Substantia grisea centralis, but not in the locus coeruleus.  

20 complete series of the rat brain, stained with cresylviolet or with the NADPH-diaphorase positive neurons demonstration method were used to compare the topographical organization of the borders of the dorsal mesopontine tegmental nuclei (latero-dorsal tegmental nucleus, dorsal and ventral tegmental nuclei of Gudden, dorsal raphe nucleus and Substantia grisea centralis pontis) and to describe in detail NADPH-d positive cells and fibres in this area.  

interpeduncularis, in the substantia nigra, in the Substantia grisea centralis, in the locus coeruleus, in the n.  

Anterograde projections reached the tuberal hypothalamus, the area ventralis of Tsai, and the Substantia grisea centralis. Implantation of DiI into the Substantia grisea centralis also revealed massive bidirectional connections with a large number of more caudal mesencephalic and pontine structures. The Substantia grisea centralis therefore appears to be an important center connecting anterior levels of the brain to brain-stem nuclei that may be involved in the control of male copulatory behavior..  

Immunoreactive fibers were observed not only throughout the preoptic area-hypothalamus, but also in the septal region, nucleus intercollicularis, Substantia grisea centralis and the classical catecholaminergic areas of the mesencephalon, such as the area ventralis of Tsai and the nucleus tegmenti pedunculo-pontinus, pars compacta.  

A gonadal modulatory role was not always evident in all brain areas as revealed by long-day photic cycles producing diminished (p < 0.01) binding levels in the anterior neostriatum and the nucleus rotundus of both castrated and gonadally intact animals, although elevated values were also found in the Substantia grisea centralis (p < 0.05) of the same animals.  

The most intense staining was seen in the Substantia grisea centralis, the substantia grisea et fibrosa periventricularis, the torus semicircularis and the nucleus intercollicularis.  

Two groups of ir-cGnRH II cells were observed: a magnocellular group lying between the Substantia grisea centralis and the nucleus ruber; and a parvicellular group lying medial to the nucleus of the basal optic root and extending into the lateral hypothalamic area.  

Noxious thermal stimulation resulted in the activation of c-fos expression, and bilateral increased nuclear immunostaining was counted in dorsal horn of lumbar and sacral segments of spinal cord (laminae I, II), nucleus raphe dorsalis, Substantia grisea centralis (ventralis), nucleus paraventricularis thalami, nucleus anterior thalami, nucleus ventralis thalami, nucleus medialis thalami, nucleus reuniens, nucleus rhomboideus, nucleus habenulae lateralis, nucleus paraventricularis hypothalami, nucleus arcuatus, nucleus lateralis hypothalami, nucleus preopticus lateralis, nucleus septi lateralis, nucleus amygdala, nucleus striae terminalis, nucleus tractus diagonalis, and cortex cerebri.  

In experiments in dogs it has been found that testing electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus (duration of this stimulation--5-7 s), of the ventromedial hypothalamus and of the Substantia grisea centralis of mesencephalon reproduced earlier elaborated acid-defensive instrumental conditioned reflex.  

the septum, the area ventralis of Tsai, the lateral habenula, the optic tectum, the Substantia grisea centralis, the nucleus tractus solitarii, the lateral medulla, the nucleus intercollicularis and in the archistriatum surrounding the nucleus robustus archistriatalis.  

To explore the possible involvement of certain neuronal groups of central nervous system in EAA, we examined the EAA accompanied c-fos expression throughout the neuraxis, and a lot of specific c-fos protein labelled neurons were found in lumbar spinal cord (laminae I and II), nucleus raphe magnus, nucleus raphe dorsalis, Substantia grisea centralis, nucleus habenulae lateralis, nucleus habenulae medialis, nucleus medialis thalami, nucleus lateralis hypothalami, nucleus supramamillaris, nucleus supraopticus, nucleus arcuatus, nucleus preopticus medialis, nucleus amygdala, nucleus tractus diagonalis, etc.  

In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the Substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.  

In the recovery-period group, compared with the control group, a relative increase was found in the frontal, temporal and occipital cortex, amygdala, Substantia grisea centralis mesencephali, cerebellar nuclei and caudate putamen, as well as the parietal cortex, dorsal and ventral hippocampus and dentate gyrus.  

Part of the Substantia grisea centralis pontis adjoining the oral pole of the ncl.  

The results, showed that in aged rats there was a marked reduction in CGRP binding, without any change in binding affinity, in the hippocampus, the nucleus rhomboideus, the nucleus arcuatus, the colliculus superior, the Substantia grisea centralis and the spinal cord.  

The rank of the beta-endorphin levels of five cerebral zones (hypothalamus, Substantia grisea centralis, pons dorsalis, medulla oblongata dorsalis medialis, thalamus medialis) of the patient was homologous to that of subjects without the syndrome, except for the medulla oblongata dorsalis medialis.  

The main afferent source of the area hypothalamica dorsalis arises from the Substantia grisea centralis, where a large number of labeled cells were observed bilaterally, although more abundant on the ipsilateral side.  

Intermediate binding (0.5-1.0 pmol/mg of protein) was found in the septum pellucidum, columna fornicis, corpus mamillare, cortex piriformis, gyrus cinguli, striatum, Substantia grisea centralis, substantia nigra, and cerebellum.  

Following 3H-T or 3H-E2 injection and autoradiography, labelled cells were found in nucleus septalis lateralis (SL), nucleus preopticus medialis (POM), nucleus paraventricularis (PVN), regio lateralis hypothalami (LHy), nucleus inferior hypothalami (IH), nucleus infundibuli (IN), nucleus intercollicularis (ICo), Substantia grisea centralis (GCt), nucleus taeniae (Tn), and in the reticular formation near nucleus motorius nervi trigemini (MV).  

Numerous somatostatin-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers were present in several areas of the brainstem including the Substantia grisea centralis and the reticular formation.  

Cytoarchitectonically speaking, the parabrachial subnuclei appear to be of polyphyletic origin: the medial and dorsomedial subnuclei being close to the Substantia grisea centralis, the ventral subnucleus to the small-cell lateral reticular formation, and the lateral and dorsolateral subnuclei to the ncl.  

These are the cochlear nuclei, cuneate nucleus, spinocerebellar tracts, and Substantia grisea centralis at the level of red nuclei which lie outside the known locomotor regions.  

The distribution of this enzyme is highly uneven, with highest activity levels (greater than 30 pmol/mg of protein/h) in hypothalamic nuclei, Substantia grisea centralis, and nucleus ruber; moderate activity levels (10-30 pmol/mg of protein/h) in globus pallidus, septum, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, and cervical spinal cord; and low activity levels (1-10 pmol/mg of protein/h) in other telencephalic and thalamic structures.  

These areas include the lateral and medial septum, the lateral habenula, the Substantia grisea centralis, the area ventralis (Tsai), the locus coeruleus, raphe nuclei, the nucleus tractus solitarii, and lateral medulla.  

Apart from the entopeduncular nucleus, different hypothalamic areas and substantia nigra, labelled neurons were found in ventral tegmental area, Substantia grisea centralis, raphe and vestibular nuclei, nucleus of tractus solitarius and brainstem reticular formation.  

Neurons projecting into the POL were located in three areas: the telencephalon, where they were scattered in the paleostriatum, the archistriatum and ventral hyperstriatum, and among the fibers of different tracts including the anterior commissure, the occipito-mesencephalic tract and the fasciculus prosencephali lateralis; the diencephalon, where fluorescent neurons with large multipolar perikarya were found in the dorsal thalamic wall; the midbrain, where large perikarya were located in the ventralis area of Tsai, the locus coeruleus, the nucleus subcoeruleus, around the medial longitudinal fasciculus, in the Substantia grisea centralis, the formatio reticularis mesencephali and among the fibers of the brachium conjunctivum.  

intercalatus and Substantia grisea centralis, and they decreased them in the n.  

The beta h-E was found mainly localized in the hypothalamus anterior, hypothalamus posterior followed by a lower concentration in the Corpora mamillaria and the Substantia grisea centralis.  

Ascending projections to the lateral thalamic nuclear group from the Substantia grisea centralis (SGC) were studied by injections of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated with HRP (WGA-HRP) into the laterodorsal (LD) and lateroposterior (LP) thalamic nuclei.  

Additional populations of CRF neurons were also located in various brainstem areas Substantia grisea centralis, locus caeruleus, n.  

Immunoreactive perikarya are located in numerous brain loci, including the cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hypothalamus (especially the magnocellular nuclei), thalamus, Substantia grisea centralis, parabrachial nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, and other nuclei.  

tegmenti pedunculo-pontinus pars compacta and bilateral: zona peri-fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, Substantia grisea centralis, n.  

In the control animals the nucleus caudatus putamen, globus pallidus, hippocampus, nuclei of amygdala, nuclei hypothalami, Substantia grisea centralis, griseum pontis, nucleus trapezoideus, nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, nucleus parabrachialis, nucleus vestibularis, nucleus nervi hypoglossi, nucleus dorsalis nervi vagi, nucleus olivaris and nucleus centralis superior are found to be very rich in ATPase.  

Numerous SP-IR fibers are present in the nucleus solitarius, nucleus dorsalis nervi vagi and nucleus spinalis nervi trigemini, various parts of the formatio reticularis, Substantia grisea centralis mesencephali, locus coeruleus and nucleus parabrachialis. In addition, SP-IR cell bodies are located in the nuclei raphe magnus and incertus, ventral and dorsal to the nucleus tegmentalis dorsalis (Gudden), nucleus raphe dorsalis, Substantia grisea centralis mensencephali, locus coeruleus, nucleus parabrachialis and colliculus superior.  

This projection extends into the mesencephalic Substantia grisea centralis and may also contribute to the innervation of more dorsally situated nuclei in the pons and medulla, such as the parabrachial nuclei and nucleus tractus solitarius.  

High densities of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors were observed in the dorsal motor nucleus of the Xth nerve, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the locus coeruleus and the Substantia grisea centralis.  

dorsalis nervi vagi, Substantia grisea centralis, n.  

Depending on the coronal plane of implantation, the dorsal boundary of the circling substrate was located within the pedunculus cerebellaris superior or the floor of the Substantia grisea centralis.  

Numerous NT-IR perikarya were found in the nuclei amygdaloidei, nuclei septi interventriculare, hypothalamus, nucleus parafascicularis thalami, Substantia grisea centralis mesencephali, ventral medulla oblongata, nucleus solitarius and spinal cord.  

The perikarya were found to project fibers to all regions of the hypothalamus, to the septum, nucleus proprius striae terminalis, nucleus paraventricularis thalami, nucleus centralis thalami, nucleus reuniens, medial, central and basal amygdala, area praetectalis, area tegmentalis ventralis of Tsai, Substantia grisea centralis mesencephali, formatio reticularis mesencephali, nucleus centralis superior, locus coeruleus, nuclei parabrachiales, nucleus raphe magnus, A 5-region, vagus-solitarius complex, ventral medulla, nucleus spinalis nervi trigemini, and substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord.  

Most of these cells were found in sites of location of monoaminergic systems (nucleus reticularis lateralis, locus coeruleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, raphe nuclei, Substantia grisea centralis) parabrachial and certain sensory nuclei of the brainstem.  

The only structures where no apparent crossreactivity occurred were perikarya and fibres in the nucleus dorsomedialis, ventromedialis, periventricularis and paraventricularis hypothalami and fibres in the area lateralis hypothalami, nucleus parabrachialis, Substantia grisea centralis mesencephali, various parts of the formatio reticularis, and spinal cord.  

The NE content in the Wulst could be related to noradrenergic afferents originating in the ipsilateral locus coeruleus and Substantia grisea centralis, since an electrolytic lesion of the pontine tegmentum caused a 60% reduction in the NE level in the ipsilateral Wulst.  

septi, Substantia grisea centralis, and n.  

In addition to the well known immunoreactive CCK-8-like containing cell groups such as those in the ventral tegmental area, Substantia grisea centralis of the mesencephalon, and n. centralis superior, nucleus of group O, pontine Substantia grisea centralis, n.  

tegmentalis ventralis et dorsalis Guddeni, Substantia grisea centralis pontis, medial part of ncl.  

Large numbers of CRF-containing perikarya were observed in the nucleus paraventricularis, with scattered cells in the following nuclei: accumbens, interstitialis stria terminalis, preopticus medialis, supraopticus, periventricularis hypothalami, amygdaloideus centralis, dorsomedialis, Substantia grisea centralis, parabrachialis dorsalis and ventralis, tegmenti dorsalis lateralis, vestibularis medialis, tractus solitarius and reticularis lateralis. Moderate numbers of CRF-like fibers were observed in the following nuclei: lateralis and medialis septi, tractus diagonalis, interstitialis stria terminalis, preopticus medialis, supraopticus, periventricularis thalami and hypothalami, paraventricularis, anterior ventralis and medialis thalami, rhomboideus, amygdaloideus centralis, habenulae lateralis, dorsomedialis, ventromedialis, Substantia grisea centralis, cuneiformis, parabrachialis dorsalis and ventralis, tegmenti dorsalis lateralis, cerebellum, vestibularis medialis, reticularis lateralis, substantia gelatinosa trigemini and lamina I and II of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.  

Immunoreactive varicosities, however, were seen in many other areas of the central nervous system such as in the hypothalamus, in the nucleus proprius striae terminalis, in the nuclei thalami mediani, in the Substantia grisea centralis, in the nuclei raphe, in the formatio reticularis and in the vagus neucleus tractus solitarii-system.  

VIP-IR perikarya were found not only in previously documented areas of the cortex, hypothalamus and Substantia grisea centralis, but also in the nucleus nervi vagi, nucleus solitarius and the formatio reticularis..  

High concentrations of opiate receptors were found in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord, nucleus tractus solitarius, area postrema, lateral parabrachial nucleus, Substantia grisea centralis, several nuclei of the thalamus and hypothalamus, substantia innominata and in the amygdala.  

Numerous cell somata containing SRIF were identified in the interpeduncular nucleus and Substantia grisea centralis (GCT) at the level of the nucleus nervi trochlearis.  

parabranchialis medialis (group A7), and in the locus coeruleus (group A6) and subcoeruleal regions, as well as in the Substantia grisea centralis, concentrate (3H)-DHT in their nuclei. olivaris inferior, the ventrolateral portion of the Substantia grisea centralis, n.  

In 54% of the cases nerve cell damage was localized in the medulla oblongata, in 40% the thalamus and in one third the Substantia grisea centralis was affected by nerve cell necroses.  

Large numbers of BPP-containing perikarya were observed in the acute nucleus, with scattered cells in the cerebral cortex, nucleus olfactorius anterior, nucleus tractus diagonalis, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, neostriatum, nucleus interstitialis stria terminalis, nucleus preopticus medialis, area retrochiasmatica, zona interna of the median eminence, Substantia grisea centralis, locus coeruleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, and in the region of the nucleus reticularis lateralis.  

Intermediate levels were found in the thalamus, hypothalamus, septal nuclei, dentate gyrus, hippocampus and Substantia grisea centralis..  

At the level of the mesencephalon, rostral telencephalic projections were found to originate in the Substantia grisea centralis, the strata cellulare externum and internum, the lateral reticular formation and the area ventralis.  

tractus mesencephalicus nervus trigemini, Substantia grisea centralis).  

dorsales thalami, corpus geniculatum laterale and mediale, corpora mamillaria, nucleus supraopticus, Substantia grisea centralis, colliculi superiores and inferiores.  

In addition, certain non-CA-containing neurons with nuclear uptake of 3H estradiol were observed to be surrounded by CA terminals in such areas as Substantia grisea centralis, n.  

3) After section of the Substantia grisea centralis at the midcollicular level, SER disappeared.  

Slow firing units of the DR were not influenced by the stimulation, although faster firing units in the nearby Substantia grisea centralis (SGC) were.  

periventricularis and the Substantia grisea centralis.  

[ View All ]