Nucleus Solitarius

Fibers from the Nucleus solitarius predominantly terminate in the shell division, similar to the situation described in mammals.  

Following survival times >/=3 days, PRV-infected neurons were additionally present in Nucleus solitarius and the gracile and cuneate nuclei.  

While no PACAP-positive neurons were observed in caudal medulla brainstem regions, PACAP-containing nerve fibers were found in the region of the Nucleus solitarius.  

Also, central changes may occur in the special sensory fibers that impact on the brainstem nucleus for taste (Nucleus solitarius) and therefore the patient's perception of taste..  

In this study, the immunohistochemical localization of c-fos was studied in the neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus (XII), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve (X), the Nucleus solitarius (Sol), the accessory cuneate nucleus (Cun), the spinal trigeminal nucleus (V) and the inferior olive (Oli) of the human medulla oblongata from forensic autopsy cases.  

Autoradiographic studies showed highest specific binding in area postrema and Nucleus solitarius, with intermediate levels of binding in entorhinal cortex and hippocampus.  

Our study was done to classify synapses in the gustatory part of the Nucleus solitarius using objective quantitative criteria and a cluster analysis procedure. Unlike classification schemes used for the cerebral cortex, where synaptic apposition density thickness and shape of vesicles is useful (Gray's Type I and II synapses), the concentration of vesicles in a terminal was a more useful measurement with which to classify terminals in the Nucleus solitarius. To validate that vesicle density (vesicles/microm2) is a useful defining characteristic to classify terminals in the Nucleus solitarius, terminals of a known type were used.  

The location of these GABAergic neurons, bordering both the Nucleus solitarius and caudal vestibular complex, emphasizes the importance of the Psol in the processing of both vestibular and autonomic information pertinent to postural control..  

Injections of retrograde tracers into the lateral tegmental field and rostral ventrolateral medulla also produced labeled cell bodies in other regions, including the medial and inferior vestibular nuclei and Nucleus solitarius.  

We also demonstrate that while the beta 2S- and beta 2L-subunit messenger RNAs frequently co-localize in many brain areas, certain structures (e.g., the ectostriatum, the hippocampus, the Nucleus solitarius, the nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis, the nucleus isthmi, pars magnocellularis, the paleostriatum primitivum, the Purkinje cell layer, and the deep cerebellar nuclei) exclusively or predominantly contain either the beta 2S- or the beta 2L-subunit transcript.  

A and f are due to vagal reflex resulting from the excitation of afferent sensory neurons in the heart and are parasympathetic efferent effects from the Nucleus solitarius.  

Labeled hindbrain cells were also seen in the pontine region, around Nucleus solitarius, and in the ventrolateral medulla..  

In the adult brain TH-ir neurons were observed in the telencephalon (in the olfactory bulbs and the ventral telencephalic region), the diencephalon (in both the parvicellular and magnocellular portions of the preoptic nucleus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the ventromedial thalamic nucleus, the posterior tuberal nucleus, the organon vasculosum hypothalami, the lateral recess nucleus and the dorsal periventricular region of the medial lobe recess), the pretectal region (nucleus pretectalis periventricularis), the isthmal region (locus coeruleus) and the medulla oblongata (in the area postrema, Nucleus solitarius, the reticular area of the vagal region, and the reticular nucleus of the octaval region). The earliest TH-ir nuclei were observed in 10- to 11-min embryos in the posterior tuberal nucleus, locus coeruleus, Nucleus solitarius and vagal reticular neurons.  

While the two transcripts are found to be colocalized throughout the chick neuroaxis, certain nuclei (for example, the nucleus isthmi, pars magnocellularis, the nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis, the Nucleus solitarius and the paleostriatum primitivum) are found to contain predominantly either the gamma2S- or the gamma2L-subunit mRNA.  

T2-weighted MR images showed bilateral symmetrical tubular hyperintense lesions in the medio-caudal part of the medulla oblongata that correlated well with demyelination and gliosis in the regions of the reticular formation and the Nucleus solitarius found at autopsy.  

In rats and most likely humans CCK is released from the upper intestine after a mixed meal and appears to activate afferent vagal fibers by causing pyloric contraction with resultant gastric distention or directly binding to the gastric afferent vagus which courses to the Nucleus solitarius with further projections to the paraventricular nucleus and ultimately the ventromedial hypothalamus. Peripherally released CCK may also bind to CNS receptors in the area postrema overlying the Nucleus solitarius.  

However, latencies from the Nucleus solitarius (mean 47.6 +/- 1.4 ms; n = 59) were significantly longer (P less than 0.05) than from the ventrolateral medulla (41.5 +/- 2.0 ms; n = 17). This manoeuvre affected zero out of five oxytocin cells similarly excited by Nucleus solitarius stimulation.  

The responses were equally distributed bilaterally in the region of Nucleus solitarius in the caudal brain stem.  

The gastric branches of the dorsal and ventral vagal trunks which serve the proximal stomach were electrically stimulated while recording in Nucleus solitarius in the brainstem to identify evoked unitary responses.  

Elevated LCGU was observed in the pontine nuclei and the nuclei and the Nucleus solitarius.  

Enkephalin projections to the spinal trigeminal nucleus were also found to originate from the Nucleus solitarius, nucleus raphe pallidus, nucleus raphe magnus, nucleus raphe dorsalis, nucleus reticularis paragigantocellularis, nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars alpha and the deep mesencephalic nucleus. These included the Nucleus solitarius, raphe obscurus, nucleus paragigantocellularis and the ventral reticular nucleus of the medulla.  

This increased [ 14C]2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake in the commissural and medial portions of the right Nucleus solitarius.  

The celiac ganglion had many labeled neurons; however, no labeled neurons were seen in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, Nucleus solitarius, nucleus ambiguus, or any other brain stem structure after renal injections of HRP-WGA.  

Apart from scattered NPY-IR cell bodies in the regions listed above, NPY-IR cell bodies in the lateral portion of the Nucleus solitarius and in the caudal part of the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve did not exhibit IR to either DBH or VIP.  

This topography puts it in relation with numerous other spinal and cerebral centers = ventral and dorsal horns of the spinal cord, including spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve, Nucleus solitarius, motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve, reticular formation, etc...  

Areas particularly enriched in these sites were Nucleus solitarius, nucleus ambiguus, substantia gelantinosa of the trigeminal nerve, the habenula, and the medial nucleus of the amygdala.  

It was particularly remarked that the fastigial nucleus, tractus and Nucleus solitarius, which have been suggested to be related to cardiovascular control, was severely affected.  

Autoradiographs of medullas showed evidence of 3H-digoxin binding to small- and medium-sized neural cells in the regions of the Nucleus solitarius, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, area postrema, and in the zone between the area postrema and the underlying neuropil. The 3H-digoxin-labeled cells in the medulla were located mainly in the commissural and medial portions of Nucleus solitarius at the level of the area postrema. The small- and medium-sized neurons of the caudal portions of the Nucleus solitarius are internuncial in position with respect to cardiovascular afferents of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves and sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiovascular efferent neurons of the medulla. The results of this study suggest that these 3H-digoxin-labeled cells, presumably neurons of Nucleus solitarius, may possess high affinity binding sites for digoxin.  

Numerous SP-IR fibers are present in the Nucleus solitarius, nucleus dorsalis nervi vagi and nucleus spinalis nervi trigemini, various parts of the formatio reticularis, substantia grisea centralis mesencephali, locus coeruleus and nucleus parabrachialis. SP-IR perikarya occur in the substantiae gelatinosa and intermedia of the spinal cord, the nucleus spinalis nervi trigemini-pars caudalis, the nucleus dorsalis nervi vagi, and the Nucleus solitarius, as well as in the adjacent formatio reticularis and the medullary nuclei of the raphe. A peripheral afferent portion seems to terminate in the Nucleus solitarius and an efferent part is postulated to originate from the nucleus dorsalis nervi vagi and from the area of the nuclei retroambiguus, ambiguus and retrofacialis..  

High concentrations of muscarinic cholinergic receptor sites were associated with many nuclei and areas of the brainstem including the nucleus facialis (VII), hypoglossus (XII), ambiguus, the motor trigeminal nucleus (V), the Nucleus solitarius, the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, the superior and inferior colliculi, the sensory trigeminal nucleus (substantia gelatinosa), the pontine nuclei, the parabrachial nuclei, some tegmental nuclei and the periaqueductal gray matter.  

Based on threshold vs depth contours, fibers appeared to terminate in the ipsilateral nucleus gracilis and Nucleus solitarius.  

Numerous NT-IR perikarya were found in the nuclei amygdaloidei, nuclei septi interventriculare, hypothalamus, nucleus parafascicularis thalami, substantia grisea centralis mesencephali, ventral medulla oblongata, Nucleus solitarius and spinal cord.  

Numerous GLU-IR and GLI-IR perikarya are located in the area of the nucleus ambiguus, in the adjacent formatio reticularis, and less frequently in the nucleus reticularis lateralis, the nuclei raphe obscurus and commissuralis and the caudal part of the Nucleus solitarius.  

Following larger injections, which may have spread significantly into the cerebellar, secondary gustatory, trigeminal or vestibular nuclei, labelled cell bodies were also found in the nucleus ruber, Nucleus solitarius, the rostral spinal trigeminal nucleus and the rostral rhombencephalic reticular formation.  

The pathway concerned with onset of spontaneous or induced attacks begins, as proposed, with oxygen desaturation--which, upon reaching threshold levels may induce a hyperactive chemoreceptor response, and stimulate through afferent pathways the nuclei of the 7th and 10th cranial nerves and respiratory centers, via the Nucleus solitarius.  

Eight medullary nuclei were sampled: (1) dorsal motor nucleus of X and ventral Nucleus solitarius, (2) the dorsomedial reticular formation, (3) the hypoglossal nucleus, (4) the ventromedial reticular formation, (5) the nucleus ambiguus, (6) nuclei raphe obscurus and pallidus, (7) the inferior olivary nucleus and (8) the descending (spinal) nucleus of V. The dorsal motor nucleus of X and ventral Nucleus solitarius contained the highest levels of NE, DA and 5-HT (218 +/- 10, 31 +/- 2 and 75 +/- 8 pmole/mg protein, respectively), whereas the lowest of these amines were found in the descending (spinal) nucleus of V (28 +/- 1, 3.6 +/- 0.8 and 32 +/- 2 pmole/mg protein, respectively).  

Neurotensinergic projections to the raphe magnus originate predominantly from the periaqueductal gray, the Nucleus solitarius, the dorsal and ventral parabrachial nuclei, and the nucleus cuneiformis.  

The findings (1) are consistent with Day et al's [ 4] suggestion of maximal protein synthesis inhibition at 1 hr post CXM injection with an approximately linear decline thereafter, and (2) provide no support for the involvement of the brain stem Nucleus solitarius in taste aversion learning..  

The syringobulbia involved the hypoglossal nuclei, the dorsal motor nuclei of the vagus in the lower medulla, the right nucleus ambiguus, the right fasciculus and Nucleus solitarius, the right mediolateral reticular formation, and the right dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus at the level of the obex.  

VIP-IR perikarya were found not only in previously documented areas of the cortex, hypothalamus and substantia grisea centralis, but also in the nucleus nervi vagi, Nucleus solitarius and the formatio reticularis..  

Nuclei providing both enkephalin and substance P inputs to the raphe magnus include the nucleus reticularis paragigantocellularis, the nucleus cuneiformis, the Nucleus solitarius and the trigeminal subdivision of the lateral reticular nucleus.  

Immunoreactive fibers and/or terminals were located around the immunoreactive cell bodies and, in addition in the lateral septal area of the telencephalon; in the preoptic and hypothalamic areas of the diencephalon; in the anterior intercollicular area, periaqueductal central gray, area C, and the midventral tegmentum of the mesencephalon; in the Nucleus solitarius, nucleus IX-X, nucleus intercalatus, nucleus intermedius, and ventrolateral areas of the rhombencephalon.  

The Nucleus solitarius complex projects contralaterally via the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus but ipsilaterally via the middle of the lateral funiculus.  

Nevertheless, 5HT-containing cells are present within the raphe region, particularly in the upper two-thirds of the medulla, and CA-containing perikarya can be found along the lateral border of the medulla and within the confines of the Nucleus solitarius.  

Densely arranged immunoreactive fibers and/or basket-like fiber terminals are observed within the following afferent systems: somatic afferent systems (nucleus spinalis nervi trigemini, substantia gelatinosa dorsalis of the entire spinal cord), and visceral afferent systems (Nucleus solitarius, regio intermediolateralis and gelatinosa gelatinosa of the sacral spinal cord).  

Lesions were consistent in the tonsils, along the pathways of the sensory branches of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves, the tractus and Nucleus solitarius and the area postrema in the medulla.  

Fiber density was moderate in the tuberculum olfactoriu, anterior hypothalamus including the medial preoptic area, mediobasal hypothalamus (especially dorsomedial region), periventricular thalamus, lateral lemniscal system, parabrachial nucleus, Nucleus solitarius, and area postrema.  

The centripetal transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to visualize the central projections of afferent fibers of the aortic arch nerve to the Nucleus solitarius in pigeons. Our results indicate that aortic nerve afferents have a restricted distribution within one subdivision of the Nucleus solitarius, designated the subnucleus sulcalis dorsalis.  

No clear evidence of a projection to the Nucleus solitarius was found.  

Insertion of an electrode into the Nucleus solitarius (NS) occassionally evoked slight and transient bradycardia, but similar mechanical irritation to the nucleus ambiguus (NA) usually evoked prolonged and intense bradycardia.  

Unit activity evoked by electrical stimulation of the aortic and vagus nerves was recorded in the dorsal motor nucleus and Nucleus solitarius of unanesthetized rabbits. These cells were activated by aortic, and usually vagus, nerve stimulation, appeared to be polysynaptically activated, and were located in medial Nucleus solitarius rostral to the obex.  

In mammals at least, the gustatory system, which provides sensory control of feeding, sends fibers to the Nucleus solitarius. The behavioral similarities are based on the animals' having similar gustatory systems, similar convergence of gustatory and internal afferents to the Nucleus solitarius, and similar midbrain regulatory mechanisms.  

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