Nucleus Intercollicularis

Towards the end of hatching, [ (3)H]-thymidine labeling was examined, and the results were as follows: 1) Neuronal generation in the Nucleus intercollicularis (ICo) (shell region) began at E3, whereas neurogenesis began at E4 in the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd) (core region); 2) Neurogenesis initiated at E3 in the nucleus ovoidalis (Ov) shell, but initiated at E4 in the rostral Ov core.  

Increasing levels of DDT resulted in: (i) smaller brain and relative forebrain volumes; (ii) a reduction in the size of two song nuclei, nucleus robustus arcopallialis (RA) and HVC; and (iii) a drastic reduction in neuronal size and overall volume of Nucleus intercollicularis (ICo), a structure that is critical for normal sexual behaviour.  

the preoptic area, bed nucleus striae terminalis, arcopallium, Nucleus intercollicularis, periaqueductal gray and the ventral tegmental area. Interestingly, c-fos and Zenk expression was high in the Nucleus intercollicularis, a midbrain vocal control nucleus, of I+F and CX+T+F birds that displayed copulatory behavior but emitted few crows but not in the Nucleus intercollicularis of CX+T+EA birds that crowed frequently.  

Specifically, POM projected to dorsomedial Nucleus intercollicularis (DM), mesencephalic central gray (GCt), area ventralis of Tsai (AVT), and locus ceruleus (LoC), structures projecting directly to nuclei involved in song production (DM --> vocal-patterning and respiratory nuclei; GCt, AVT, LoC --> RA and HVC, and the context in which song is sung (AVT --> area X).  

Expression was also found in many areas of the hypothalamus and dorsal thalamic nuclei, Nucleus intercollicularis and ventricular areas of the midbrain, cerebellar Purkinje and granule cells, the hyperstriatum, medial neostriatum, medial LPO, and archistriatum.  

The results indicate that: 1) Substance P labeled terminal and part cells were distributed in the Area X; 2) Substance P labeled cells were distributed in the nucleus high vocal center (HVc), magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (MAN), robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA) and dorsolateral nucleus of the anterior thalamus (DLM); 3) Substance P labeled terminal and fibers were distributed in the vocal control nuclei such as nucleus dorsalis medialis (DM) and the nucleus hypoglossi, pars tracheosyringealis (nXI-Its), and in the auditory nuclei such as the nucleus ovidalisashell (Ov shell), the shell regions of mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis (MLd shell) and the Nucleus intercollicularis (ICo).  

In the midbrain, both species showed prominent androgen receptor immunoreactivity in the Nucleus intercollicularis, as had been reported in previous studies.  

Quantitative morphometric analyses demonstrate that, in quail, these elements are expressed in a sexually dimorphic manner (males>females) in regions involved in the control of different aspects of reproduction: i.e., the POM (copulatory behavior), the lateral septum (secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone [ GnRH]), the Nucleus intercollicularis (control of vocalizations), and the locus coeruleus (the main noradrenergic center of the avian brain).  

DARPP-32-ir cells were also observed in telencephalic and mesencephalic areas (hyperstriatum accessorium, paleostriatum, Nucleus intercollicularis, optic tectum).  

In the mesencephalon, intensely stained, multipolar neurons were abundantly scattered in the central gray, Nucleus intercollicularis, reticular formation, nucleus tegmenti pedunculo-pontinus, pars compacta, area ventralis of Tsai, and ansa lenticularis.  

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of a midbrain vocal nucleus, the Nucleus intercollicularis, in the production of the acoustic and postural components of crowing in quail. Brief electrical stimuli were applied to the Nucleus intercollicularis during spontaneously emitted crows in quail with chronically implanted electrodes, to determine if perturbing neural activity in the Nucleus intercollicularis resulted in a disruption of ongoing crowing behavior. These results imply that the Nucleus intercollicularis plays a role in the production of both the acoustic and postural components of crowing in quail..  

Contrary to the results of a previous study in which gonadally intact birds were used, Fos induction was observed neither in the medial preoptic nucleus nor in the Nucleus intercollicularis in birds that had interacted for 1 h with a female.  

In addition, an increase in the deoxyglucose incorporation was specifically observed in the paleostriatum primitivum, rostral preoptic area, Nucleus intercollicularis, nucleus interpeduncularis and third nerve but a decrease was observed in the dorsomedial part of the hippocampus and in the nucleus nervi oculomotori in birds of the consummatory sexual behavior group by comparison with controls.  

Sexual interactions significantly induced FLI cells in the hyperstriatum ventrale, the part of the archistriatum just lateral to the anterior commissure, and the Nucleus intercollicularis.  

Fibers were also present in brain regions that are involved in the control of vocal behavior including the ventromedial capsular region of the nucleus robustus archistriatalis and the dorsomedial portion of the mesencephalic Nucleus intercollicularis.  

Cells exhibiting a dense AR-ir label were also detected in the Nucleus intercollicularis.  

Copulation increased the number of ZENK-ir cells in the nucleus striae terminalis and the Nucleus intercollicularis, while both copulation and the proximity response induced increases in the medial and anterior ventral hyperstriatum.  

Copulation induced the appearance of Fos-like immunoreactive (FLI) cells in the preoptic area, the hyperstriatum ventrale, parts of the archistriatum, and the Nucleus intercollicularis.  

In this study we describe descending neural pathways to the dorsomedial portion of the Nucleus intercollicularis (ICo) in a galliform (male Grey partridges) by means of the DiI in vitro tracing technique.  

A substantial number of immunoreactive cell bodies and/or fibers was further observed within the septal nuclei in the telencephalon and several mesencephalic nuclei including the Nucleus intercollicularis (ICo) involved in the control of vocalizations.  

A morphometrical analysis of the midbrain Nucleus intercollicularis showed a cell size increase in T-treated birds regardless of their sex.  

Similar levels of binding outlined the paleostriatum primitivum, the nucleus pretecalis and the Nucleus intercollicularis.  

To address this question, we used quantitative in vitro autoradiography to determine the anatomical distribution and to measure the densities of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors in vocal control regions (area X, higher vocal center, and Nucleus intercollicularis) of adult male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We found area X, the higher vocal center, and Nucleus intercollicularis to contain the three receptor types under study, but opioid receptor densities did not vary seasonally in any of these regions.  

GABA-LIR was found throughout the song system in neurons and neuropil of the robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), the higher vocal center (HVC), Area X, the magnocellular nucleus of the neostriatum (MAN), and the dorsomedial portion of the Nucleus intercollicularis (DM of ICo).  

Immunoreactive fibers were observed not only throughout the preoptic area-hypothalamus, but also in the septal region, Nucleus intercollicularis, substantia grisea centralis and the classical catecholaminergic areas of the mesencephalon, such as the area ventralis of Tsai and the nucleus tegmenti pedunculo-pontinus, pars compacta.  

The most intense staining was seen in the substantia grisea centralis, the substantia grisea et fibrosa periventricularis, the torus semicircularis and the Nucleus intercollicularis.  

the septum, the area ventralis of Tsai, the lateral habenula, the optic tectum, the substantia grisea centralis, the nucleus tractus solitarii, the lateral medulla, the Nucleus intercollicularis and in the archistriatum surrounding the nucleus robustus archistriatalis.  

In quail, androgen receptor-immunoreactive cells were observed in the Nucleus intercollicularis and in various nuclei of the preoptic-hypothalamic complex, namely, the nucleus preopticus medialis, the ventral part of the nucleus anterior medialis hypothalami, the nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis, the nucleus ventromedialis hypothalami, and the tuberal hypothalamus. In the two songbird species, labeled cells were also observed in various nuclei in the preoptic-hypothalamic region, in the nucleus taeniae, and in the Nucleus intercollicularis.  

Castration in fact, elevated [ 3H] flunitrazepam binding in the nucleus preopticus anterior and reduced binding levels in archistriatum dorsalis et ventralis and in the Nucleus intercollicularis; all of these areas are known to have gonadal steroid receptors.  

Serotonin-immunoreactive nerve fibers are widely distributed throughout the brain, but appear to be particularly abundant in regions involved in the control of reproductive activities, such as the septal region, the medial preoptic nucleus, the Nucleus intercollicularis, and the external zone of the median eminence.  

The Nucleus intercollicularis in quail is implicated in the control of a number of vocalizations. A morphometrical analysis of the Nucleus intercollicularis was therefore undertaken in male and female Japanese quail that were either gonadectomized or gonadectomized and treated with testosterone or left intact as controls. The changes observed in the Nucleus intercollicularis of males represent a morphological marker for the cellular actions of the steroid.  

The midbrain Nucleus intercollicularis exhibited the highest number of cells expressing both ER and AR, whereas ER and AR are expressed only in disjunctive cell populations in the forebrain nucleus hyperstriatalis ventrale, pars caudale.  

Hyperstriatum ventral, pars caudale (HVc) is the highest nucleus, with its efferent fibers projecting to the rubust nucleus of archistriatum (RA), which in turn projects to the Nucleus intercollicularis (ICo) of midbrain and the nucleus intermedius (IM) of medulla oblongata IM innervating vocal organ (syrinx) also receives input from ICo.  

Five nuclei of the song system (Area X [ X], nucleus magnocellularis of the anterior neostriatum [ MAN], nucleus robustus archistriatalis [ RA], Nucleus intercollicularis [ ICo], hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudalis [ HVc]) and three preoptic-hypothalamic areas (preoptic anterior [ POA], periventricular magnocellular nucleus [ PVM], and posterior medial hypothalamic nucleus [ PMH]) were studied as well as other limbic and control non-steroid-sensitive areas.  

Androgen modulation of neurotransmitter receptor density was investigated in the Nucleus intercollicularis (ICo) of male and female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).  

This was particularly the case for the nucleus taeniae, the Nucleus intercollicularis and the central gray.  

Scattered cells were also seen at the border of the Nucleus intercollicularis-nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis complex.  

The Nucleus intercollicularis is an important site in the control of vocalization in birds. In oscines, a subregion of the Nucleus intercollicularis called the dorso-medial intercollicular nucleus appears to play a key role in this process because it receives the majority of the projections from the nucleus robustus archistriatalis and sends most of the projections to the motor nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve. In this paper, we present neurochemical studies of the Nucleus intercollicularis in the Japanese quail which suggest the presence of heterogeneity within this structure.  

In the mesencephalon, labelled fibers were found in the Nucleus intercollicularis and in all layers of the optic tectum except the stratum opticum.  

Following 3H-T or 3H-E2 injection and autoradiography, labelled cells were found in nucleus septalis lateralis (SL), nucleus preopticus medialis (POM), nucleus paraventricularis (PVN), regio lateralis hypothalami (LHy), nucleus inferior hypothalami (IH), nucleus infundibuli (IN), Nucleus intercollicularis (ICo), substantia grisea centralis (GCt), nucleus taeniae (Tn), and in the reticular formation near nucleus motorius nervi trigemini (MV).  

Of the song control nuclei, nucleus magnocellularis of the anterior neostriatum; hyperstriatum ventralis, pars caudalis; Nucleus intercollicularis; and nucleus hypoglossus were labelled.  

Highest densities of binding sites were observed in the optic tectum, in the nucleus pretectalis, the Nucleus intercollicularis and the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord.  

Finally, VT fibers and varicosities occur in centers including the nucleus robustus archistriatalis and Nucleus intercollicularis that have been implicated in vocal control..  

Aromatase activity was restricted to limbic tissues (anterior hypothalamus greater than posterior hypothalamus greater than septum greater than archistriatum containing nucleus taenia) while hyperstriatum, cerebellum, and midbrain containing Nucleus intercollicularis were aromatase-negative.  

Horseradish peroxidase was infused into various portions of the Nucleus intercollicularis, an estrogen concentrating area, which disrupts nest calls when lesioned and induces the vocalization when stimulated by estrogen.  

Implantation of estrogen in the Nucleus intercollicularis of ovariectomized females restores the ability to produce nest-coos. These results are consistent with the possibility of a Nucleus intercollicularis projection to regions that regulate reproductive function..  

Labeled PVM fibers are found in the lateral septal nucleus, nucleus of the anterior pallial commisure, dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, dorsolateral anterior thalamic nucleus (pars ventralis), median eminence, medial and lateral hypothalamus, medial mammillary area, and Nucleus intercollicularis and central gray of the midbrain.  

Standard microelectrode recording techniques were employed to monitor single unit activity in the pigeon's Nucleus intercollicularis and medial substantia grisea et fibrosa periventricularis in response to visual, tactile and auditory stimuli.  

Most of the sites where sound production could be elicited were found in the Nucleus intercollicularis (ICo), lying rostromedial to the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis (Mld).  

T, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT), 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone, estradiol-17 beta (E), or cholesterol was implanted in or around the Nucleus intercollicularis region (ICo) of the castrated male.  

Projections from POM and AM-PMH were traced to nucleus septalis lateralis, nucleus dorsomedialis thalami, nucleus dorsolateralis anterior thalami (pars ventralis), posterior hypothalamic and medial mammillary areas, area ventralis tegmenti (Tsai), central gray of midbrain and Nucleus intercollicularis and substantia grisea periventricularis of the midbrain.  

Descending pathways from mesencephalic structures originate from the interstitial nucleus of the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, the tectum mesencephali, the Nucleus intercollicularis, the tectotegmental junction zone, and from diffusely arranged tegmental neurons.  

The Nucleus intercollicularis (ICo) region of the midbrain has been shown to concentrate testosterone and to be involved in the neural control of avian vocal behavior.  

The involvement of the Nucleus intercollicularis (ICo) region of the midbrain, an estrogen-sensitive area, in the expression of estrogen-dependent female courtship behavior was examined with radiofrequency lesion and intracranial hormone implant techniques.  

The largest target of these fibers is the reticular formation, but diffusely organized axons also reach 1) the gray matter of the spinal cord, 2) the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, 3) the nucleus "A" of the medulla oblongata, 4) the central gray substance of the brainstem, 5) the cerebellar cortex, 6) the cerebellar nucleus, 7) the Nucleus intercollicularis, 8) the mesencephalic tectum, and 9) the dorsal thalamus.  

Minimum thresholds were found in the medial Nucleus intercollicularis, higher threshold sites surrounded these. These results indicate that the Nucleus intercollicularis acts as a controller rather than an organizer of calling..  

The brain regions examined were the caudal nucleus of the hyperstriatum ventrale (HVc), magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (MAN), robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), Nucleus intercollicularis of the midbrain (ICo), the tracheosyringeal hypoglossal motor nucleus (nXIIts), and periventricular magnocellular nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (PVM).  

In the mesencephalon and medulla, labeled cells were found in the Nucleus intercollicularis and in the nucleus nervi hypoglossi, respectively.  

5), the Nucleus intercollicularis of the mesencephalon (ICo, fig.  

After injection into the palaeostriatum, labeling can be observed (i) in the neostriatum dorsale, (ii) in the hyperstriatum ventrale, (iii) in the archistriatum, (iv) in the diencephalic nuclei, nucleus ansae lenticularis and nucleus spiriformis lateralis, and (v) in the mesencephalic nuclei, nucleus tegmenti pedunculo-pontinus and Nucleus intercollicularis. Connections also exist between these auditory areas and presumed vocal-motor areas (neostriatum dorsale, archistriatum, Nucleus intercollicularis)..  

Others join the ventral peduncle of LFB and enter ventromedial nucleus (thalami), while the remaining fibers continue caudally in the ventral peduncle to the mesencephalic prerubral field, central gray, substantia nigra, Nucleus intercollicularis, reticular formation and pretectal nucleus posterodorsalis.  

Some of the neurons in the Nucleus intercollicularis and auditory cortex of the echolocating bat Eptesicus fuscus respond selectively to sonar echoes occurring with specific echo delays or pulse-echo intervals.  

In the midbrain, substantial uptake of labelled hormone was found in the Nucleus intercollicularis (ICo).  

Among these areas are the caudal nucleus of the hyperstriatum ventrale, Nucleus intercollicularis of the midbrain, and the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla (nXIIts).  

Degenerating fibers from RA joined the occipitomesencephalic tract and had widespread ipsilateral projections to the thalamus, Nucleus intercollicularis of the midbrain, reticular formation, and medulla.  

Vocal reactions of hens are realized via Nucleus intercollicularis, nucleus mesencephalicus, nucleus isthmi (pars principalis magnocellularis), nucleus isthmi (pars principalis parvocellularis), formatio reticularis and other midbrain structures.  

Labeled cells were localized primarily in the Nucleus intercollicularis, an area from which vocalizations can be electrically stimulated in birds. These autoradiographic results suggest that the Nucleus intercollicularis is a site in the action of androgens on avian vocal behavior..  

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