Nucleus Geniculatus Lateralis Pars Ventralis

Serotonin-IR fibers and terminals were found to be very broadly distributed within the brain and were particularly prominent in several structures of the telencephalon (archistriatum pars dorsalis, nucleus taeniae, area parahippocampalis, septum), diencephalon (nuclei preopticus medianus, magnocellularis, Nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis, nucleus triangularis, nucleus pretectalis), mesencephalon-rhombencephalon (superficial layers of the optic tectum, nucleus ectomamillaris, nucleus isthmo-opticus and in most of the cranial nerve nuclei).  

The ascending system projects upon the red nucleus and the dorsally adjacent interstitial nucleus of Cajal and midbrain central grey, the prerubral fields continuing into the stratum cellulare externum, the nucleus intercalatus thalami, the ventrolateral thalamic nucleus, the medial spiriform nucleus, the nucleus principalis precommissuralis, the nucleus of the basal optic root, the Nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis, the dorsolateral thalamus, including the dorsal intermediate posterior, and the dorsolateral intermediate and anterior nuclei.  

The retinal ganglion cells project contralaterally to thalamus (nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars dorsalis, Nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis and nucleus ventrolateralis pars ventralis and nucleus ventrolateralis pars ventralis), pretectum (nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, nucleus geniculatus pretectalis and nucleus posterodorsalis) and optic tectum (layers 14 and 12, mainly, and layers 13 and 11).  

Ipsilateral projections were found in the nucleus lateralis anterior thalami, nucleus dorsolateralis anterior thalami pars lateralis, Nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis, nucleus lentiformis mesencephali pars magnocellularis and nucleus ectomamillaris.  

In the 5 species the retinal ganglion cells project to the contralateral hypothalamus (nucleus suprachiasmaticus), thalamus (Nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis, nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars dorsalis), pretectum (nuclei lentiformis mesencephali, geniculatus pretectalis, postero-dorsalis griseus tectalis), tectum opticum (layer 2 to layer 6 of the stratum griseum et fibrosum superficiale) and tegmentum mesencephali (nucleus opticus tegmenti).  

That is, the optic tectum gives rise to ipsilateral ascending projections to pretectal nuclei, to nucleus rotundus and to Nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis of the diencephalon and, in addition, to a contralateral ascending pathway which courses via the supraoptic decussation to the contralateral diencephalon. A lesion restricted to the superficial retinal-recipient layers, stratum griseum et album superficiale, resulted in degeneration in only nucleus isthmi pars magnocellularis and Nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis.  

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