We report a case of pulmonary torsion of the Lingula. Bronchoscopy and chest contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) were conducted, and she was diagnosed with torsion of the Lingula.  

A single paramedian osteotomy between the canine and the first premolar was used in 4 cases, whereas a combination of a horizontal osteotomy above the Lingula and a paramedian osteotomy between the canine and first premolar was employed in 8 cases.  

Three blinded readers using a 5-point scale from 1 (nondiagnostic) to 5 (excellent) independently evaluated image quality in five lobes and the Lingula.  

Radical surgical resection of the mass was performed through a left lateral thoracotomy and completed with a wedge resection of the Lingula.  

A previous chest CT in 2003 showed a small thin-walled cavity in his left Lingula. The patient developed pneumothorax one month later and underwent segmentectomy of the left Lingula after unsuccessful thoracic drainage.  

There were few symptoms in contrast with the left ventricular output dependent on the flow of the left upper lobe vein and from the Lingula.  

Chest CT scans on admission revealed nodular opacities in the right S3 and Lingula bronchus, and bilateral bronchiectasis with mucoid impactions.  

CT showed bronchiectasis predominantly in the right middle lobe, Lingula, and lower lobes.  

Using 3D tomography data, nerve position at osteotomy sites was measured and the geometric relationship examined between the antiLingula and mandibular foramen. The results gave the mean distance from buccal plate to mandibular canal at the second molar, from mandibular canal to inferior border of the mandibular body, from the mandibular foramen to the highest tip of the Lingula, and from the mandibular foramen to the anterior margin of the oblique ridge.  

Chest X-ray and computed tomography demonstrated infiltrates in the right middle lobe and Lingula.  

Nodular/bronchiectatic disease is characterized by centrilobular nodules and diffuse bronchiectases in the right middle lobe and the left Lingula in middle-aged women.  

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the incidence of Lingula shapes in Thai adult mandibles and to compare the accuracy of panoramic radiograph measurement with the dry mandible measurements for localizing the position of the Lingula. The ten distances from the Lingula to the anterior, posterior ramus, to the coronoid notch and lower border of the mandible were measured on the dry mandibles and compared with the same distances on panoramic radiographs. The distribution of the Lingula shape is described. Paired t test and correlation were used to evaluate the accuracy of panoramic radiographs in localizing the position of the Lingula. RESULTS: Truncated Lingula were most commonly found (68 sides or 47%). CONCLUSIONS: The Lingula has different shapes in different populations. In adult Thai mandibles, the truncated Lingula shape is most common. Panoramic radiographs present not only the position but also the shape and number of Lingula and mandibular foramen.  

Round pneumonias tended to be solitary 98% (107/109), have well-defined borders 70% (77/109), and be posteriorly located 83% (91/109), with the following lobar distribution: left lower lobe (36), right lower lobe (33), right upper lobe (28), left upper lobe (7), right middle lobe (4), and Lingula (2).  

CONCLUSION: LTS may be suitable as a standard treatment if the tumor is small and the suspected margins are well away from the Lingula..  

The sounding radar SHARAD on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapped detailed subsurface stratigraphy in the Promethei Lingula region of the south polar plateau, Planum Australe.  

A soft flat red tumor approximately 2 cm in diameter was shown on the pleura of the Lingula, mimicking a blood clot on the pleura.  

The attaching style of the sphenomandibular ligament to the mandibular ramus was classified into three types: Type I (5 in 40 samples; attached only to the mandibular Lingula), Type II (12 in 40 samples; attached to the mandibular Lingula and extended toward the rear part of the internal surface of the mandibular ramus), and Type III (23 in 40 samples; attached to the mandibular Lingula and toward the posterior border of the mandibular ramus).  

METHODS: BAL was performed by instilling 150-300 ml normal saline either in the middle lobe or the Lingula.  

Isolated pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children may have an unfavorable prognosis and in contrast with adults, it may present on computed tomography with lower lobe predominance and without sparing the lung bases or the anterior parts of middle lobe and Lingula..  

Chest x-ray showed two lung masses, one in the superior right lobe and the other in the Lingula lobe of the left lung.  

Bronchial arteriography revealed hypervascularization with dilated vessels distributing to the Lingular lobe and convoluted and a dilated bronchial artery extending to the right upper lobe. After bronchial artery embolization of the right and left bronchial arteries, he underwent segmentectomy of the Lingula and was discharged without complications.  

PURPOSE: The antiLingula is an important landmark in mandibular ramus surgery. Its relationship to the Lingula provides useful clinical information as to the position of the mandibular foramen and inferior alveolar nerve. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of using the antiLingula as a guide to osteotomy placement for intraoral vertical ramus osteotomies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen cadaver mandibles were harvested and the antiLingula was identified on each hemimandible by palpating the most prominent bulge on the lateral aspect of the mandible. In addition, the Lingula (the entrance of the mandibular neurovascular bundle into the medial aspect of the ascending ramus of the mandible) was identified. A 1 mm fissure bur was used to drill a hole perpendicular to bone, from the deepest aspect of the concavity at the center of the Lingula. The distance from the antiLingula to Lingula was measured and recorded in both the anterior-posterior and the superior-inferior planes. RESULTS: There was complete concordance of the position of the Lingula and antiLingula in the anterior-posterior dimension in 11.1% of the specimens. In 33% of the specimens, the Lingula was found anterior to the antiLingula and in 45.6% the Lingula was found posterior to the antiLingula. There was complete concordance of the Lingula and antiLingula in the superior-inferior dimension in 2.8% of specimens. The Lingula was found superior to the antiLingula in 47.2% of the specimens and inferior to the antiLingula in 50% of samples. CONCLUSION: In most instances, the position of the Lingula was posterior-inferior relative to the position of the antiLingula. At a measurement of 5 mm posterior to the antiLingula (at the level of the antiLingula), there was no risk of damaging the neurovascular bundle in this cadaveric study..  

Chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) disclosed bilateral diffuse infiltrative shadows and tree-in-bud appearance in the right upper lung field and the left Lingula.  

Chest radiograph and computed tomograph showed bronchiectasis and centrilobular nodules in the right middle lobe and Lingula, which had not changed from previous examination.  

There are contradicting data and reports regarding the position of the mandibular Lingula in relation to the mandibular foramen and the mylohyoid groove. The current observation attempts to describe the location of the Lingula in relation to the mandibular foramen, and the location of the mylohyoid groove in relation to the Lingula and mandibular foramen. The Lingula was observed to belong into 5 major groups based on shape and size as large nodular, small nodular, large triangular, small triangular, and small bony spicule type located anterior or posterior to the mandibular foramen. In 64% (32) of the mandibles the mylohyoid groove originated from the medial wall of the mandibular foramen, at the posterior border of the Lingula, in 24% (12) the mylohyoid groove started on medial wall of the mandibular foramen, non-related to the Lingula and in 12% (6) at the posterior border of the mandibular foramen. We conclude that in more than half of the adult mandibles the Lingula contributes into formation of the anterior half to two third of the medial wall of the mandibular foramen and the mylohyoid groove starts at the posterior border of the Lingula. In less than half of the adult mandibles the mylohyoid groove is not related to the Lingula starting at the posterior one third of the medial wall or at the posterior border of the mandibular foramen. This implies that the attachment for the sphenomandibular ligament is either on the Lingula or on the medial wall of the mandibular foramen or on both leading into variation in the location of the mylohyoid groove..  

Finally, in folia I (Lingula) and X (nodulus) all Purkinje cells strongly expressed zebrin II.  

A computed tomographic scan of the chest showed pulmonary infiltration in the right middle lobe and the Lingula of the left upper lobe; pneumonia was diagnosed, and appropriate antibiotic therapy was started.  

An 18-year-old man presented with a large (12 x 10 cm) cystic mass involving the lower lobe and Lingula of the left lung on computed tomography.  

After four months of treatment with anti tuberculosis agents, a significant improvement in symptoms, normal CXR, absence of pulmonary medium lobe condensation, and persistence fibro-atelectatic band in Lingula were observed..  

Because of the absence of improvement, a CT-scan was performed and an abscess localized at the base of the condyle, surrounding the posterior margin of the mandible, very high above the Lingula. Outcome was favourable after a second surgery.DISCUSSION: Formation of an abscess very high above the Lingula, around the condylar neck is rarely reported in the literature.  

We present a case of pulmonary nocardiosis in an immunocompetent patient with bronchiectasis in the middle lobe and Lingula.  

Briefly, in MAC respiratory infection, right middle lobe and left Lingula are frequently involved and centrilobular nodules and diffuse bronchiectases are characteristic radiological findings..  

RESULTS: The percentages of affected lobes were as follows: right lower lobe, 65%; middle lobe, 56%; left lower lobe, 51%; right upper lobe, 37%; Lingula, 30%; and left upper lobe, 30% (chi(2) = 18.4; p = 0.002).  

In 1992, a particular presentation of pulmonary MAC, occuring in otherwise healthy middle-aged women, was described with pulmonary consolidations localized in Lingula and middle lobe. We report a particular case of this syndrome, in which an otherwise healthy individual developed clinically significant disease upon MAC (subtype: Mycobacterium avium) infection of the right middle lobe and Lingula of the lung.  

Cavitations were more common in the right (28.23%) and left upper lobes and less common in the left lower and Lingula (9.68%) lobes (Table 3).  

Radiological investigations revealed a solitary nodular lesion in the Lingula of the left lung.  

In MAC respiratory infection, right middle lobe and left Lingula are frequently involved and centrilobular nodules and diffuse bronchiectases are characteristic radiological findings.  

This article presents a patient with multifocal intrathoracic mass lesions involving the mediastinum and the Lingula associated with mediastinal shift, eventually diagnosed as extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma..  

Middle lobe syndrome - recurrent atelectasis and/or bronchiectasis involving the right middle lobe and/or Lingula - has, up to now, not been reported as the pulmonary manifestation of primary Sjögren's syndrome.  

RESULTS: In the dry mandibles and patients with prognathism, the mandibular foramen was located slightly posterior to the center of the width of the mandibular ramus, and the Lingula tip was located about one third the distance from the sigmoid notch to the inferior border of the ramus.  

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the position of the mandibular Lingula (ML) to provide data for inferior alveolar nerve block techniques in children. CONCLUSIONS: The mandibular Lingula's ratio position remained constant. The mandibular Lingula should be considered a reliable reference for further studies of inferior alveolar nerve block techniques..  

Motion artifacts at the level of lobar pulmonary arteries were noted only in the lower divisions of the Lingula (n = 1, 1.5% of patients) and in the left lower lobe (n = 2, 3% of patients). At the level of the segmental pulmonary arteries, motion artifacts were most frequently found in the lower divisions of the left upper lobe (Lingula) (n = 19, 27.5% of patients) and left lower lobe (n = 29, 42% of patients). At the subsegmental level, motion artifacts were most common in the lower divisions of the left upper lobe (Lingula) (n = 30, 43.5% of patients) and left lower lobe (n = 35, 51% of patients). Pseudofilling defects were depicted at the segmental and subsegmental levels in 28 patients (41% of the study group), almost exclusively located in the Lingula and left lower lobe.  

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Middle lobe syndrome (MLS) in children is characterized by a spectrum of clinical and radiographic presentations, from persistent or recurrent atelectasis to pneumonitis and bronchiectasis of the right middle lobe (RML) and/or Lingula. DESIGN: Children with atelectasis of the RML and/or Lingula persisting for > 1 month or recurring two or more times despite conventional treatment underwent high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning and FOB.  

At operation, the tumor tissue was found to have invaded the Lingula and pericardium, involving the left phrenic nerve. Resection of the left lower lobe, Lingula and pericardium including the phrenic nerve was performed for extended pulmonary malignancy.  

BAL was performed under local anesthesia, on the unaffected lung of patients; either subsegments of right middle or Lingula.  

A Lingula movement was also identified in the course of tongue movement.  

Complete sequence determination of the brachiopod Lingula anatina mtDNA (28,818 bp) revealed an organization that is remarkably atypical for an animal mt-genome.  

MEASUREMENTS: Quantitative culture of BAL from the right middle lobe and Lingula.  

However, why is MAC which is opportunistic pathogen with weak virulence, able to form a lesion at unimpaired lung parenchyma? Is there really normal site? Why dose it start from Lingula? Why is MAC seen a lot in woman? While it is extremely pathognomonic clinical picture, and, is an extremely interesting problem, most are still unidentified.  

INVESTIGATIONS: Thorax X-ray revealed an infiltrate in the Lingula with segmental borders.  

Significant correlations between percent signal change in BOLD effect and age occurred in left Broca's, middle frontal, Wernicke's, and inferior parietal regions, and anterior cingulate during the verb generation task; in precentral, postcentral, middle frontal, supplementary motor, and precuneus regions during the finger tapping task; and in bilateral Lingula gyri during the word-picture matching task.  

Characteristic histological lesions were seen in the Lingula, uvula, or both, of all affected calves regardless of their age..  

Resection of the left upper lobe with preservation of the Lingula is the anatomic equivalent of a right upper lobectomy with preservation of the right middle lobe.  

Since the inferior alveolar nerve enters the mandibular foramen to supply the strctures of the lower jaw, the relationship of Lingula to the inferior alveolar nerve is of clinical significance to dental surgeons. It becomes a necessety to know the morphology of linguls so as to preserve the important structures during surgical interference of mandible around the Lingula region. The present study was undertaken mainly to establish the frequency of various morphological types of Lingula in adult human mandibles of South Indian background. In each mandible, the Lingula was scored using the classification proposed by Tuli et al (2000). The assimilated type, whether unilateral or bilateral was more or lesws similar in frequency along with other non metric variants of the skull, morphological types of Lingula can also be useful as anthropological marker to assess population and recial distances..  

The most affected segments were right middle lobe (50%) and left Lingula (26.2%).  

They were visible in the middle lobe, Lingula and lower lobes.  

The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the impact of OLB between patients presenting with and without RD, (2) to focus on the impact of an urgent OLB as compared to an elective OLB, and (3) to compare the different yields of specific diagnoses in the middle lobe or Lingula as compared to the other lobes. Twelve specimens from the middle lobe or Lingula were compared to 25 specimens from the other lobes. The diagnostic yield from biopsy sites in the middle lobe or Lingula resembled those specimens from the other lobes.  

BAL was performed in either the middle lobe or the Lingula, and also in a lower lung segment. For the right middle lung lobe or Lingula there was excellent agreement between ground-glass opacification and the finding of alveolitis on BAL from segments in the same lung regions, but this was not observed for the lower lobes. CONCLUSION: BAL of the middle lobe or Lingula may underestimate the presence of active alveolitis.  

Forty-seven fractures (49%) were located between the Lingula and mental foramen, and 50 fractures (51%) were located distal to the mental foramen.  

We report the case of a 71-year-old man who underwent exploration for dyspnea and chest pain associated with weight loss and a heterogeneous opacity in the Lingula.  

Lung biopsy sections of the Lingula were taken by 2 methods: group A, left anterolateral thoracotomy employing a 12-mm Endo-GIA stapler and group B, left thoracoscopy employing the Ligasure 5-mm instrument.  

The right superior accessory fissure (5%), the accessory fissure between the medial and lateral segments of the right middle lobe (5%), and the accessory fissure between the superior and inferior segments of the Lingula (5%) were seen in equal frequencies.  

The high-resolution-computed tomography (HRCT) showed an interstitial lung disease in the anterior upper lobe on the left side as well as in the Lingula. An open Lingular biopsy showed an interstitial lymphoplasmocytotic infiltrate with some eosinophilic granulocytes and a few scattered giant cell granulomas, consistent with hypersensitivity pneumonitis.  

Location was divided into 8 areas [ right side; 4 areas, upper lobe (RUL)/middle lobe (RML)/S6 (RS6)/basal segment of lower lobe (RBS): left side; 4 areas, upper division of upper lobe (LUD)/Lingula (LLS)/S6 (LS6)/Basal segment of lower lobe (LBS)].  

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To review our experience with specific characteristics, indications, and results of pulmonary resection in children with middle lobe/Lingula syndrome. Patients and intervention: Thirteen children with middle lobe, Lingula, or both syndromes were treated with pulmonary resection from January 1995 to December 1999. Bronchiectasis and atelectasis of right middle lobe, Lingula, or both was noted in nine patients. CONCLUSION: Right middle lobe or Lingula syndrome with the presence of bronchiectasis, bronchial stenosis, or failure of lung to re-expand are indications for early pulmonary resection..  

Consequently, a left pneumonectomy had to be performed and the following developmental abnormalities combined with pathological changes caused by MAC infection were disclosed: concerning the upper lobe, defect of Lingula, formation of a peripheral type of congenital air-filled parenchymal cyst measuring 5 x 6 cm in S3, and atelectatic induration caused by MAC infection on the remaining part of the upper lobe where strong adhesion was seen between the chest wall and the lung.  

In the first, a 59-year-old man had a pulsatile polypoid lesion in the bronchus of the Lingula; and in the second, a 24-year-old woman had a nodule in the bronchus of the right lower lobe.  

Subjective image quality criteria (image noise, motion artifacts, and diagnostic accessibility) were rated by three radiologists in consensus for the upper lobe, middle lobe and/or Lingula, and lower lobe. RESULTS: Subjective assessment showed significant differences in motion artifact reduction in the middle lobe, Lingula, and left lower lobe.  

In MAC respiratory infection, right middle lobe and left Lingula are frequently involved and centrilobular nodules and diffuse bronchiectasis are characteristic radiological findings.  

The "Lingula" or "small tongue", a pancreatic portion overlapping the common bile duct on the posterior aspect of the pancreas, is a key structure in resection of the extrahepatic bile duct..  

We designed a modified tonsillar blade to retract the tissues medial to the ramus of the mandible to gain access to the inferior alveolar nerve at the Lingula..  

An acid-fast bacterial smear of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the left Lingula showed Gaffky's scale No.  

They cut the specimens 2 millimeters above the Lingula for both the lingual nerve and inferior alveolar nerve and opposite the site of the middle of the third molar for the lingual nerve, and they counted the number of fascicles at each site. RESULTS: For the lingual nerve at the Lingula, the mean number of fascicles was three (range, one to eight). In every case, there were more fascicles in the third molar region than above the Lingula in the same nerve. At the Lingula, the inferior alveolar nerve had a mean of 7.2 fascicles (range, three to 14). In 33 percent of cases, the lingual nerve had only one fascicle at the Lingula; a unifascicular nerve may be injured more easily than a multifascicular one.  

Patients were divided into 2 groups; 34 patients with single biopsy from Lingula or right middle lobe (RML) and 45 with 2 biopsies from other sites. The diagnostic yield of each group was comparable (32/34 from Lingula/RML; 44/45 other sites), (p=0.3). Postoperative complications occurred in 4/34 of patients with single biopsy from Lingula or RML and 4/45 patients with 2 biopsies from other sites (p=0.6). Single lung biopsy from Lingula or RML compared to other anatomic sites has an equivalent diagnostic yield..  

Recently, this type of pulmonary MAC infection, which consists with scattered nodular lesion and local bronchiectasis in middle lobe or Lingula, attracts attention. Why is there much frequency in women? Why does it originate from middle lobe or Lingula? Although, it shows a characteristic X-ray pattern, ant it is still an interesting problem, the origin of the disease cannot be clarified.  

CONCLUSIONS: It was apparent that the safest region in which to establish the medial osteotomy line was just superior and 5 to 6 mm posterior to the Lingula, directing the line slightly inferior..  

A chest radiograph and computed tomograph showed centrilobular nodules in the right middle lobe and left Lingula, and right pleural effusion.  

Extent of bronchiectasis, severity of bronchial wall thickening, and presence of small-airway abnormalities and mosaic attenuation were evaluated in each lobe, including the Lingula.  

The simple technique assists with the location of the Lingula, protects the inferior alveolar nerve as it enters the mandibular foramen, and enables a bone cut to be placed into the mandibular foramen itself..  

The radiographic findings are bronchiectasis and small nodules, predominately located within the middle lobe and Lingula. The combination of bronchiectasis involving exclusively, or primarily, the right middle lobe and Lingula is highly suggestive of pulmonary MAC, even in the face of negative sputum cultures.  

Of these four cases of Klebsiella pneumonia, three developed in the right lung, as determined radiologically, but esophagogastroduodenoscopy indicated that the lesions of Case 3 had developed in the left Lingula and upper lobe..  

All nodules were distributed in the middle lobe, Lingula, or lower lobe.  

Cardiac and vessel pulsation artefacts predominated on T1-weighted GRE, respiration artefacts on T2-weighted TSE (Lingula and middle lobe).  

RESULTS: Compared with control subjects, the subgroup of patients with Hamilton depression scores of 22 or greater demonstrated decreased absolute rCMRglu in right prefrontal cortex and paralimbic/amygdala regions as well as bilaterally in the insula and temporoparietal cortex (right > left); they also exhibited increased normalized metabolic activity bilaterally in the cerebellum, Lingula/cuneus, and brain stem.  

The results show that the bony Lingula is prominent in 28.5% of all patients, or in 56.0% of those with unsuccessful anesthesia.  

The Lingula has technical advantages on account of which it is frequently used. Only once from a total of 38 samples (2.6%) collected from the Lingula an unequivocal diagnosis was not established. The authors assume therefore that pulmonary biopsy collected from the Lingula is still justified..  

Other accessory fissures observed were the right superior accessory fissure ( n=2; 1%), the azygos fissure ( n=1; 0.5%) and intersegmental fissures between the medial and lateral segments of the right middle lobe ( n=3; 2%), the superior and inferior segments of the Lingula ( n=2; 1%), the anterobasal and laterobasal segments of both the right ( n=1; 0.5%) and the left ( n=3; 2%) lower lobe.  

In such cases, however, the left upper lobe of the lung and the Lingula may exert unwanted traction on the newly constructed coronary graft.  

RESULTS: rCBF correlated directly with flashback intensity in the brainstem, Lingula, bilateral insula, right putamen and left hippocampal and perihippocampal, somatosensory and cerebellar regions.  

The sphenomandibular ligament, which is derived from the sheath of Meckel's cartilage, is a fibrous structure that passes between the spine of the sphenoid bone and the Lingula of the mandible. The appearance of the Lingula also varied, and did not seem to reflect the size of attachment of the ligament, suggesting an alternative explanation of Lingula morphology, perhaps related to a continuation of the mylohyoid ridge and anterior border of the mylohyoid groove..  

Atelectasis of the Lingula due to obstructive endobronchial metastasis, resistant to combination chemotherapy, led us to perform high-dose rate (HDR) endobronchial brachytherapy for the first time in this rare tumor with a favorable response.  

METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers, of them 5 smokers and another 7 nonsmokers, underwent right middle lobe bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial instillation of KLH into Lingula.  

Thirty-three CF children, aged 1.5-57 months, underwent in random order sequential BAL of their right middle and Lingula lobes. These six children had similar inflammatory indices in their right middle and Lingula lobes, and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the latter were significantly higher than that observed within the Lingula lobes of the 24 CF children with bacterial counts < 1 x 10(5) cfu x mL(-1). Lingula neutrophil and IL-8 levels correlated best with right middle lobe bacteria numbers.  

Chest X-ray was near normal but during bronchoscopy--narrowing of Lingula bronchi was revealed.  

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The anterior and posterior rameal widths, upper and lower rameal heights and the height of the Lingula were measured with respect to the position of the mandibular foramen. The height of the Lingula however showed great variation.  

WG was recognized in 45-year-old patient on the basis of: 1) clinical symptoms (joint pain and swollen, purpura on the skin which appeared one week after respiratory tract infection, ulceration of the tonsils and Lingula), 2) results of additional testing (X-chest-ray-infiltrates of both lungs), positive results of the cANCA (titre 1:640) and rapidly progressive renal failure [ the increase of serum creatinine level (Pcr) from 123.7 to 707 mumol/l (1.4 to 8.0 mg/dl) during one week].  

Six nodules were located in the lower lobes and 2 nodule was in the Lingula.  

The conjoint physiological effects of hypercapnia and the consequent air hunger produced strong bilateral, near-midline activations of the cerebellum in anterior quadrangular, central, and Lingula lobules, and in many areas of posterior quadrangular, tonsil, biventer, declive, and inferior semilunar lobules.  

The surgeons performed a thorascopic wedge resection of the lacerated Lingula.  

Phylogenetic analyses based on partial nucleotide sequences of the 5'-end of nuclear 28S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene support the morphologically based taxonomy that groups the Chinese Ligula within the same species as their Europe counterpart: Lingula intestinalis.  

The Lingulae of both sides of 165 dry adult human mandibles, 131 males and 34 females of Indian origin, were classified by their shape into 4 types: 1, triangular; 2, truncated; 3, nodular; and 4, assimilated. Triangular Lingulae were found in 226 (68.5%) sides, truncated in 52 (15.8%), nodular in 36 (10.9%) and assimilated in 16 (4.8%) sides. Triangular Lingulae were found bilaterally in 110, truncated in 23, nodular in 17 and assimilated in 7 mandibles.  

The lungs were divided into six regions (fives lobes + Lingula), and read for attenuation/mosaic, ground-glass, micronodules, fibrosis, and emphysema.  

A 17-year-old girl presented with recurrent episodes of pneumonia related to localized bronchiectasis in the Lingula.  

Enhanced pulmonary CT showed a small coin lesion in the peripheral Lingula. Lingular segmentectomy was performed..  

In both groups, bronchiectasis was most commonly found in the middle lobe and in the Lingula. In pulmonary MAC infection group, 38 patients (74.5%) had bronchiectasis in the middle lobe, and 40 patients (78.4%) had them in the Lingula. In BE group, 18 patients (66.7%) had them in the middle lobe and in the Lingula respectively.  

The Lingula offers technical advantages for biopsy, however the quality of tissue obtained by Lingula biopsy has been questioned. We sought to determine whether Lingula biopsy was a satisfactory site for biopsy in terms of diagnostic yield, therapeutic interventions, and survival results. Patients were divided into 2 groups, depending upon site of biopsy: patients with Lingula biopsy only and those with biopsies from other sites. RESULTS: There were 75 patients; 20 underwent biopsy of the Lingula alone, 48 had biopsy of other sites with or without biopsy of the Lingula, and location of biopsy was unknown in 7 patients. Significant beneficial therapeutic changes were made in 14 Lingula patients, and consisted of immunosuppression in 12 cases. There was no significant difference between patients that had biopsy of the Lingula alone and those that had biopsies from other sites in urgency, technique, histologic diagnosis, rate of therapeutic interventions, hospital mortality, or 1 year survival. CONCLUSIONS: Lung biopsy of the Lingula compared to other anatomic sites has equivalent diagnostic yield, therapeutic significance, and survival.  

There was a normal right pulmonary artery, and a main left pulmonary artery supplying the left upper lobe, Lingula, and anterior segments of the left lower lobe.  

The middle lobe and Lingula are predisposed to chronic inflammation because of their particular anatomic structures.  

During the development of thirst, the anterior and posterior quadrangular lobule, Lingula, and the vermis were activated.  

The lesions of 12 patients were located in the right upper lobe, 13 patients in the right middle lobe and 14 patients in the left Lingula.  

The radiologic features of nonclassic NTMB infection are characteristic: bronchiectasis and centrilobular nodules isolated to or most severe in the Lingula and middle lobe.  

Landmark-adjusted lattices were used to divide the cerebellum into three radial (lobules I-V = Lingula/lobulus/culmen, lobules VI-VII = declive/folium/tuber, lobules VIII-X = pyramis/uvula/nodulus) and three transverse subdivisions (vermis, medial, lateral hemisphere).  

A 60-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia presented to our institution with a recurring Lingular pneumonia. On fiberoptic bronchoscopy, the patient was found to have an endobronchial mass obstructing the Lingula and left upper lobe.  

The severity of bronchial dilatation was greatest for the upper lobes (mean score, 1.75 right, 1.58 left) compared with the middle lobe/Lingula (mean score, 1.42 right, 1.17 left) and lower lobes (mean score, 1.09 right, 1.17 left).  

The middle lobe and Lingula were frequently involved.  

Suppression of baculate secretion also occurred in the dorsal valve of living Discinisca while, in Lingula, baculi have been replaced by botryoidal aggregates of mosaics at least since Carboniferous times.  

Anatomical considerations suggest that longitudinal bronchotomy on the pars membranacea of the main bronchial axis (stem bronchi, intermedius br (right), and lower lobar bronchus) gives direct visualization from inside also of foreign bodies sited into the lobar bronchi (sup, middle and Lingula), allowing an easy bronchotomy repair, without lumen distortion or stenosis.  

Because of the controversies about these marking points it has been decided to perform measurements on a large sample of macerated mandibulae that are significant to location and shape of foramen mandibulae (FM) and Lingula in relation to the surrounding orientation points. Extreme heterogeneity was noticed in the measurements of Lingula. The Lingula was prominent, although unevenly, in 51% of study samples..  

The initial BAL was performed in the right middle lobe (RML) and the second BAL was performed in the same location and the Lingula. BAL fluid recovered from the Lingula contained increased concentrations of TNF-alpha only at 4 h.  

Prominent CT features included centrilobular abnormalities (in the lower part of the right upper lobe, middle lobe, and Lingula predominance), airspace consolidation, and bronchiectasis in the middle lobe and Lingula. Patterns of development typically began with centrilobular abnormalities in the lower part of the right upper lobe, middle lobe, or Lingula. These centrilobular abnormalities tended to fuse, leading to airspace consolidation in the middle lobe and Lingula. Bronchial wall thickening was followed by bronchiectasis in the middle lobe and Lingula.  

A began the gravity-assisted positioning head downward tip for: right lower lobe, middle lobe, left lower lobe and Lingula; then supine with no tip for anterior segments of the upper lobes followed by apical segments of upper lobes in a sitting position.  

A CT scan showed a non-enhancing mass between the Lingula and left basal bronchus.  

CR did not show changes particularly affecting the upper and lower lung lobes and the Lingula.  

High resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) revealed bronchiectactic involvement of the lower lobes in seven and middle lobe/Lingula in four cases.  

Lesion locations were right lower lobe (n = 5), left lower lobe (n = 4), and Lingula (n = 1).  

Major fibers of this ligament are attached to the sphenoid spine and the mandibular Lingula.  

Adenocarcinoma of the Lingula (T 4 N 2 M 0) was diagnosed in a 45-year-old man, who then underwent chemoradiotherapy.  

Although a small amount of atelectasis was found in the Lingula, neither lung adhesion nor necrotic change of the chest wall was observed.  

METHODS: Eight allergic asthmatic subjects, six normal subjects, and six atopic nonasthmatic subjects were challenged with saline in the Lingula and with serial concentrations of histamine (1 x 10(-7) to 5 x 10(-5) mol/L) in the right middle lobe followed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 15 minutes and 6 hours later.  

The arrow hit him tangentially on the left side of the chest and disappeared completely into his chest traversing the chest wall and lacerating the superior Lingula segment of the lung but the tip of the arrow was only about 1.5 cm short of the pericardium.  

The examination was meant to reveal if the Lingula of the mandible was clearly recognizable and measurable on panoramic X-rays and, to what extent it was similar to the position of the Lingula as determined by Szokolóczy's method applied in mandibular nerve block analgesia.  

Bronchiectasis involving the RUL, RML, Lingula and LLL and small nodules involving the RML were often seen in patients with MAC.  

The exception to this is the Lingula, which because it is the embryological homologue of the right middle lobe should be treated in the same way--that is, with the vessels opened from the pleural side and the bronchi from the hilum.  

Two recombinant proteins, Phascolopsis gouldii hemerythrin (Pg-Hr) and Desulfovibrio vulgaris rubrerythrin (Dv-Rr), have been examined as well as hemerythrin isolated from Lingula reevii (Lr-Hr).  

73-88) that the center of rotation lies at the Lingula is also not confirmed.  

Although a small area of atelectasis was found in the Lingula, neither lung adhesion nor necrosis of the chest wall was observed.  

Surgery revealed that the left Lingula was atelectatic and that the mass was in the left S4, not in the mediastinum.  

It was found that the location of the posterior branch point coincided almost invariably with the mandibular foramen/Lingula.  

We immunized nine atopic asthmatics and nine non-atopic controls with 500 micrograms KLH instilled into a subsegment of the Lingula and examined serum anti-KLH, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA1, IgA2, and IgM and specific antibody production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells for 25 days.  

As to the location of initial lesions, the middle lobe and Lingula were the most important sites, and the right upper lobe and the left upper division were the next..  

A CT scan showed collapse of the right middle lobe and mucoid impactions in the Lingula.  

In dry mandibles of Koreans, Lingular tips were located somewhat posteriorly and superiorly on the mandibular ramus. On the same sections, all the fusion points of the buccal and lingual cortical plate were located above the mandibular Lingula and beneath the mandibular notch. So, performing the SSRO on Koreans, medial horizontal osteotomy should be done through the superior aspect of the mandibular Lingula. The cut line is extended 5-8 mm posterior to the mandibular Lingula to preserve sufficient cortical width to strengthen the involved osseous segments and reduce possible surgical complications..  

CT examinations were done on 13 patients, and pulmonary infiltrations were found in addition to right middle lobe or Lingula in many cases.  

Bronchoscopy showed that the haemoptysis originated from the Lingula. Only two months after the transplant, left internal mammary arteriograms revealed proliferation and enlargement of the bronchial arteries in the Lingula.  

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers (20 sides) with mandibular third molars underwent bilateral axial and coronal high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the posterior mandible and floor of the mouth from the Lingula to the mental foramen.  

Case 1: a 46-year-old male presented with a pedunculated solid tumor which was found between the lobes projecting from the Lingula lobe.  

The BAL protocol involved an initial instillation of 20 ml saline followed by four sequential 50-ml saline washes carried out in both the right middle lobe and the Lingula.  

BACKGROUND: In a series of 229 patients infected with mycobacterial organisms, we noted a specific female phenotype that involves isolated infections of the middle lobe and Lingula. METHODS: Thirteen patients were found to have infections of the middle lobe, Lingula, or both. All underwent resection of the middle lobe, Lingula, or both. Anatomic findings at operation included a complete major fissure and at least a partially complete minor fissure with middle lobe resections or an elongated Lingula. CONCLUSIONS: Mycobacterial infection of the middle lobe and Lingula is primarily a disease of asthenic women and is often associated with skeletal abnormalities and complete fissures or an elongated Lingula.  

Malformations in the vascular territories of both lungs (right lower lobe and Lingula) were detected by X-rays and magnetic resonance.  

We compared 99mTc-technegas SPECT with HRCT in six regions: the right upper, middle, and lower lobes, the left upper lobe, the Lingula, and the left lower lobe, in 15 patients with pulmonary emphysema.  

The resulting specimens were studied concerning the divisions of the Lingular bronchus and the types of arterial and venous vascularization of the Lingula. As a rule the Lingular bronchus divided into two segmental bronchi. A single Lingular artery was found in 80% of the cases and a single Lingular vein in 58%. Patterns of bronchial division showed complete concordance with those of arterial vascularization of the Lingula in 64% of the lungs and consistency with venous drainage patterns in 54%..  

Computed tomography showed multiple nodular shadows with or without bronchiectasis located in the middle lobe or the Lingula. These results indicate that middle lobe syndrome is not rare, and that infection with mycobacterium avium complex should be considered when multiple nodular shadows are seen in the middle lobe or the Lingula..  

A CT scan of the thorax revealed a lesion of the Lingula and the patient underwent an atypical lung resection with complete solution of the symptom.  

A tumour in the Lingula was diagnosed histologically to be a granulomatosis, most likely a sarcoidosis.  

20 cadaver mandibles were studied for the presence of an antiLingula and its relationship to the true Lingula and mandibular foramen. Three independent observers evaluated the mandibles for the presence of an antiLingula. On 9 of the sides, there was complete concordance on the position of the antiLingula between the three observers. In only 43% of the cases was the antiLingula within 5 mm of the true Lingula. In most cases, the true Lingula was postero-inferior to the antiLingula. There was a negative horizontal and positive vertical correlation between the position of the antiLingula on one side and its position on the contralateral side..  

BAL results were obtained simultaneously from the right middle lobe and the Lingula. BAL fluid obtained simultaneously from the middle lobe and Lingula were not significantly different.  

X-ray revealed 2 solitary nodules in the lower lobe of the right lung, and another in the Lingula. The lesions of the right lung were resected, resulting in complete recovery from symptoms, while the nodule in the Lingula resolved spontaneously..  

The combination of right middle lobe and Lingular bronchiectasis was seen only in MAC (p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: A subgroup of patients with MAC may be distinguished from those with MTB by the presence of widespread bronchiectasis, particularly if it involves the right middle lobe and Lingula.  

A 63-year-old man underwent left upper lobectomy because of a 35-mm tumor in the Lingula. In addition to the tumor in the Lingula, another nodule was found in the left lower lobe and was resected at thoracotomy.  

Middle lobe syndrome (MLS) is an uncommon lung disorder involving the right middle lobe and/or Lingula and is characterized by a spectrum of clinical and pathological lesions ranging from recurrent atelectasis or pneumonias to bronchiectasis. The right middle lobe was involved in 11 patients, the Lingula in four patients, and both right middle lobe and Lingula in six patients. The presence of bronchiectasis, bronchitis or bronchiolitis, organizing pneumonia, or atelectasis in specimens from the right middle lobe or of Lingula in the absence of an identifiable cause of bronchial obstruction should suggest a diagnosis of MLS..  

Ground-glass opacity in the middle lobe and Lingula, and subpleural patchy consolidation were seen on the computed tomogram of the chest.  

The complete amino-acid sequences of the alpha- and beta-subunits of hemerythrin from the brachiopod Lingula reevii have been determined. reevii hemerythrin are closely related to their counterparts in hemerythrin from the related brachiopod, Lingula unguis, showing 95% and 87% sequence identities, respectively.  

The fissures separated the anterior segment of the left upper lobe from the superior segment of the Lingula (left minor fissure) in 13 cases (72%), the superior from the inferior segment of the Lingula in three cases (17%), and the apico-posterior from the anterior segment in two cases (11%). CT studies showed that nine of the 10 fissures seen on radiographs represented a left minor fissure, and the remaining fissure separated the two segments of the Lingula.  

The remaining 19 were largely normal at presentation and were predominantly elderly (mean age, 71 +/- 11 yr), female (79%), nonsmokers (89%) who presented with cough (94%) and localized radiographic infiltrates (84%), often in the right middle lobe and/or Lingula (73%).  

The unipolar brush cells are highly concentrated in the flocculo-nodular lobe, the ventral uvula and the ventral paraflocculus, occur at relatively high density in the Lingula, at moderate-to-low density in other folia of the vermis and in the narrow intermediate cortex, and at low to very low density, with the exception of a few hot spots, in the lateral regions of the cerebellar hemispheres and in the dorsal paraflocculus.  

The two bronchoscopies were separated by at least five days, and both the order of bronchoscopies and site of bronchoalveolar lavage (middle lobe or Lingula with contralateral lower lobe bronchial biopsy) were randomised.  

Type B (4 cases) was anastomosis between the left main and upper segmental bronchi with resection of the lower lobe and Lingula or between the left main bronchus and the basal bronchus with resection of the upper lobe and superior segment of the lower lobe.  

Pulmonary artery branches in the upper lobes were more commonly affected than those in the lower and middle (Lingula) lobes.  

The posterior view scan with a defect involving the entire Lingula was judged to be normal by all observers.  

Adult sheep underwent whole lung lavage with subsequent HCl instillation into the right middle lobe (RML) and Lingula (LING) to create a nonuniform injury.  

The authors have been noted aspiration bronchograms associated with barium-filling study of the upper gastrointestinal tract in 58 patients involving basal medial, anterior, lateral and posterior segments of the lower pulmonary lobes, mammary segment of the middle lobe, moreover inferior Lingula.  

During bronchoscopy, airway inflammation was assessed by two independent observers, prior to BAL, by visual inspection of each lobe and the Lingula, and the results were quantitated using the bronchitis index and our endoscopic scoring system.  

Three previously unreported findings are described: a) enlarged funnel-shaped mandibular Lingula; b) extension of the mandibular premolar and molar roots below the inferior dental canal, and of the second molars into the lower border of mandibular cortical bone; and c) hypercementosis of the maxillary incisors and mandibular molars surrounded by a radiolucent halo in several teeth.  

During fiberoptic bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed from the middle lobe and standardized bronchial brushings were taken from the Lingula and left lower lobe bronchi.  

Bronchoalveolar lavages were obtained from the right middle lobe or Lingula in single lung transplant and from both sites in double lung transplant recipients.  

With the subjects supine, BAL was performed in the right middle lobe (RML), right lower lobe (RLL) and Lingula (LING).  

Because of the exertional dyspnea and the large shunt, a segmentectomy of the Lingula and a wedge resection of the rts7 were simultaneously performed.  

In Group 2 (n = 40), we found good interlobar correlations for asbestos body counts between the right middle lobe (21.0 +/- 5.8 AB/ml BAL fluid) and the Lingula (22.4 +/- 5.9 AB/ml BAL fluid) (r = 0.941, p < 0.001) and, in Group 3 (n = 15), between the ventral basal segment of the right (41.2 +/- 13.6 AB/ml BAL fluid) and left lung (39.0 +/- 13.6 AB/ml BAL fluid) (r = 0.966, p < 0.001)..  

An initial bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed before inhalation challenge, and a further BAL on the previously spared right middle lobe subsegment or Lingula 6 h after challenge.  

Following SS-induced BR, c-fos gene expression was observed in the Lingula, uvula, nodulus, simplex, centralis, and culmen of the cerebellum, while following AVP-induced BR, c-fos gene expression was observed in the first four of the above-mentioned regions of the cerebellum, but not in the centralis or culmen.  

Segmental and subsegmental bronchial dilatation were recognized mainly in the middle, Lingula and lower lobes, but there was no relationship between clinical duration and bronchiolar dilatation..  

INTERVENTION: Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in the middle lobe (or Lingula) and the apical segment of the same lung.  

In a normal population, we noted that the Lingula is a common site of unsuspected and asymptomatic air-trapping.  

Computed tomography and/or bronchography showed that the bronchiectatic changes commonly involved the lower lobes and to a lesser extent, the middle and Lingula lobes.  

Resonance Raman spectra were observed for the oxy and azidomet forms of a cooperative hemerythrin (Hr) isolated from Lingula unguis and a noncooperative Hr from Siphonosoma cumanense.  

Meckel's cartilage appeared as a single, continuous fibrous structure lying between the mandibular Lingula and the malleus of the middle ear in fetuses of 210 mm crown-rump length (22 weeks of age) and over.  

The lavage was performed two months after radiotherapy, in the anterior part of the Lingula (left side) or of the right middle lobe (right side), depending on which side had been exposed to radiation.  

The dependent portion of the Lingula or its counterpart, the middle lobe, was initially affected.  

Two nodules of the Lingula removed by open lung biopsy revealed a homogeneous cut surface.  

The location of the bullae was the upper lobe (or upper segment) in 95.5%, the middle lobe (or Lingula) in 6%, and the lower lobe (S6) in 20%..  

The five regions of interest included the following: (1) Lingula and centralis, (2) culmen, (3) declive, folium, and tuber, (4) pyramis, and (5) uvula and nodulus. The area of the dorsal regions declined with age, whereas the ventral segments of the vermis--Lingula-centralis and uvula-nodulus--showed no significant age-related shrinkage.  

A chest radiograph showing bilateral periphilar infiltrates and a patchy infiltrate in the right upper lobe and Lingula did not explain the physical examination with diffuse bilateral fine crackles.  

Local findings, like focal infections, were seen later in the Lingula and basal portions of the graft.  

Lung maps showed the greatest number of lesions in the Lingula, right middle lobe, and anterior segments of both upper lobes.  

Reported are results on the subunit composition of octameric hemerythrin (Hr) from the brachiopod Lingula reevii. Very recently, one other Hr, that from the brachiopod Lingula unguis, was also shown to contain equimolar proportions of two different subunits [ Satake, K., Yugi, M., Kamo, M., Kihara, H., & Tsugita, A.  

For histologic study, an average of 17.3 transbronchial biopsy specimens (range, 6 to 56) were taken from three lobes (or from two lobes and Lingula of one lung).  

The amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit of the allosteric hemerythrin from Lingula unguis was determined.  

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