Corpus Cerebelli

In the valvula and Corpus cerebelli GDNF, GFRalpha1 and RET immunoreactivity was seen co-localized in Purkinje cells, identified morphologically and by using an antiserum against a specific marker for these cells, aldolase C enzyme.  

Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and Corpus cerebelli.  

By external examination, the sea bass exhibits a prominent Optic tectum and Corpus cerebelli as expected in a predator species with a highly developed visual system.  

Time-lapse recordings of parallel fiber projections and retrograde labeling reveal that spatial patterning within the rhombic lip corresponds to granule cells of two different functional compartments of the mature cerebellum: the eminentia granularis and the Corpus cerebelli.  

To investigate the role of the Corpus cerebelli in the control of sustained swimming or cruising in goldfish, Carassius auratus, we conducted experiments examining the effects of partial ablation of the Corpus cerebelli (CC) on swimming performance against constant water flow at various speeds.  

The Corpus cerebelli is relatively small and upright and, unlike other notothenioids, has prominent transverse sulci on the dorsal and caudal surfaces. In some species reduction in the size of the telencephalon, tectum, and Corpus cerebelli imparts a "stalked" appearance to the brain with the neural axis visible between the reduced lobes.  

At short-term survival, male zebrafish had a higher number of labelled cells at proliferation sites of the molecular layer of Corpus cerebelli (CCe) and the granular layer of the caudal lobe of the cerebellum (LCa) than did females.  

Eurydendroid cells of the Corpus cerebelli and medial valvula project to many brain regions, from the diencephalon to the caudal medulla.  

After tracer injections into the periventricular pretectal nucleus, labeled neurons were observed ipsilaterally in the area pretectalis pars ventralis, area pretectalis pars dorsalis, optic tectum and ventrolateral nucleus of semicircular torus, bilaterally in the ventromedial thalamic nucleus, principal sensory trigeminal nucleus and descending trigeminal nucleus, and contralaterally in the periventricular pretectal nucleus and Corpus cerebelli. Anterogradely labeled terminals were present in the ipsilateral area pretectalis pars dorsalis, optic tectum and Corpus cerebelli, the bilateral ventromedial thalamic nucleus, lateral valvular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and inferior olive, and the contralateral periventricular pretectal nucleus.  

Conversely, a higher density of binding sites was observed in the caudal substantia reticularis and in the Corpus cerebelli in the FW adapted eels.  

In the present study, we have isolated intrinsic stem cells from the telencephalon, Corpus cerebelli, and valvula cerebelli of the teleost Apteronotus leptorhynchus and examined their properties in vitro.  

From the Corpus cerebelli some fibers also project to the posterior tubercle and the hypothalamus.  

This phenomenon has been well studied after application of stab-wound lesions to the Corpus cerebelli, a cerebellar subdivision, in the teleost fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus.  

Labeled terminals were mainly observed in the ipsilateral Corpus cerebelli and valvula cerebelli.  

Proliferation zones were located in specific regions of the olfactory bulb, dorsal telencephalon (including a region presumably homologous to the mammalian hippocampus), preoptic area, dorsal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus, optic tectum, torus longitudinalis, vagal lobe, parenchyma near the rhombencephalic ventricle, and in a region of the medulla oblongata lateral to the vagal motor nucleus, as well as in all three subdivisions of the cerebellum, the valvula cerebelli, the Corpus cerebelli, and the lobus caudalis cerebelli. In the valvula cerebelli and the Corpus cerebelli, the young cells migrated from their site of origin in the molecular layers to the corresponding granule cell layers.  

To clarify their morphology, eurydendroid cells were labeled retrogradely by biotinylated dextran amine injection into the base of the Corpus cerebelli. The monopolar type cells were distributed predominantly in the Purkinje cell layer of the ventrocaudal portion of the Corpus cerebelli.  

The holocentrid Corpus cerebelli (CC) is composed of the dorsal (CCd) and ventral (CCv) lobes.  

We performed total ablation of the Corpus cerebelli to examine the effect of irreversible effects. We also performed localized cooling of the Corpus cerebelli, in place of the ablation, for reversible inactivation of the cerebellar function. Both the cardiac arousal response to the first presentation of the conditioned stimulus and the cardiac reflex to the aversive unconditioned stimulus were not impaired by the ablation or cooling of the Corpus cerebelli. In addition, localized cooling of the Corpus cerebelli reversibly suppressed the expression of established conditioned response.  

Fiber connections of the nucleus prethalamicus (PTh) were investigated by biocytin injections into the Corpus cerebelli, optic tectum, and telencephalon in holocentrids. The present study revealed the Corpus cerebelli projections to the plexiform layer of the contralateral PTh, optic tectum to the marginal and large cell layers of the ipsilateral PTh, and telencephalon to the small cell layer of the ipsilateral PTh. These observations suggest that projections of the Corpus cerebelli, optic tectum, and telencephalon to the PTh are topographically organized..  

In the present study, the role of microglia/macrophages, identified by tomato lectin binding, was examined in this process of neuronal regeneration in the Corpus cerebelli of the teleost fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. In the intact Corpus cerebelli, or after short survival times following application of a mechanical lesion to this cerebellar subdivision, microglia/macrophages were virtually absent.  

Only lateral TL injections labeled terminals in the Corpus cerebelli. The present results therefore suggest that the TL and SM are components of an intricate circuitry that exerts telencephalic descending visual influence on the optic tectum and Corpus cerebelli..  

However, DiI application to the pretectal region revealed that the pretectocerebellar projection mainly targeted to the caudal region of the Corpus cerebelli. Application of DiI to the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle revealed three clusters of cerebellar projection neurons located in the granular layers of the auricles, valvula, and Corpus cerebelli, mostly contralateral to the application site.  

Anterogradely labeled terminals were found in a caudal part of the bilateral Corpus cerebelli (CC).  

The torus longitudinalis projected mainly to the stratum marginale of the optic tectum, area pretectalis, and Corpus cerebelli.  

Efferent targets of the Corpus cerebelli are the posterior parvocellular preoptic nucleus, the ventromedial and ventrolateral thalamic nucleus, dorsal posterior thalamic nucleus, periventricular nucleus of posterior tuberculum, dorsal periventricular pretectal nucleus, inferior lobe, optic tectum, torus semicircularis, nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle, nucleus ruber, dorsal tegmental nucleus, nucleus lateralis valvulae, reticular formation, torus longitudinalis, and the medial and lateral lobe of the valvula cerebelli. Efferent targets of the medial lobe of the valvula cerebelli are similar to that of the Corpus cerebelli except for lacking a projection to the inferior lobe and torus longitudinalis, but showing one to the Corpus cerebelli. On the other hand, the lateral lobe of the valvula cerebelli projects only to the dorsal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus, the diffuse nucleus of the inferior lobe, corpus mamillare, vagal lobe and the Corpus cerebelli.  

Since compensation for postural symptoms occurs and Purkinje cells play an important role in movement coordination and motor learning, we analyzed in situ the induction of NOS in the Purkinje cell population of the cerebellum (Corpus cerebelli) of frog after unilateral transection of the eighth statoacoustic nerve to gain insight into the role of NO in neural plasticity after injury.  

In the cerebellum, where approximately 75% of all brain cells are born during adulthood, cells originate from the molecular layers of the Corpus cerebelli and the valvula cerebelli partes lateralis and medialis, as well as from the eminentia granularis pars medialis.  

Fifteen days after application of a mechanical lesion to the Corpus cerebelli in the teleost fish Apteronotus leptoryhnchus, the areal density of vimentin-positive fibres increased significantly at the lesion site and in the remaining ipsilateral molecular layer.  

Following application of tracers to cervical or lumbar dorsal root fibers, a large number of labeled granule cells were detected in the Corpus cerebelli, the brainstem, and the spinal cord.  

Furthermore the relative volumes of the telencephalon and the Corpus cerebelli were determined.  

The optic tectum and Corpus cerebelli are smaller than in most other gadiforms. The shape of the Corpus cerebelli is not distinctive among gadiforms.  

It is composed of three parts; the valvula cerebelli (Va), the Corpus cerebelli (CCe), and the crista cerebellaris (CC).  

Approximately 8 days after application of a mechanical lesion to the Corpus cerebelli in the teleost fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus, the areal density of radial glial fibers increased markedly in the ipsilateral dorsal molecular layer compared to shorter survival times, or to the densities found in the intact brain or in the hemisphere contralateral to the lesion.  

Adult teleost fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, exhibit an enormous regenerative capability after application of mechanical lesions to the dorsalmost subdivision of the cerebellum, the Corpus cerebelli.  

Both direct and indirect spinocerebellar fibers can be followed through the dorsolateral fasciculus, with or without relay in the lateral funicular nucleus and terminating in a restricted portion of the granule cell layer of the ipsilateral Corpus cerebelli.  

Lesions were applied to one subdivision of the cerebellum, the Corpus cerebelli, in the teleost fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. Cerebellar lesions induce high proliferative activity especially in areas in close vicinity to the injury, although the number of cells produced is also increased in other regions of the Corpus cerebelli.  

The general distribution of the two types of IGF receptors in larval tissues appeared similar except for the muscle and the Corpus cerebelli, in which IGF-1R was detected only by SpIR6 antisera.  

In the metencephalon, Purkinje cells were PV-immunopositive in the valvula cerebelli, lobus caudalis cerebelli, and in the Corpus cerebelli.  

In the cerebellum, expression of ZFOR1 was detected in valvula cerebelli, Corpus cerebelli, and lobus vestibulolateralis in both granule and Purkinje cells.  

Following application of mechanical lesions to the Corpus cerebelli, a cerebellar subdivision, in adult individuals of the teleost fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus, the pattern of expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin was examined by employing immunohistochemical techniques. In the intact Corpus cerebelli, only a very few cells displayed somatostatin-like immunoreactivity.  

In the Corpus cerebelli and the valvula cerebelli, they are produced in the molecular layers, whereas in the eminentia granularis the newborn cells stem from proliferation zones in the pars medialis. Moreover, after mechanical lesions of the Corpus cerebelli, the expression of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity is tremendously increased in several cell types (presumably astrocytes, microglia and granule cell neurons) near the path of the lesion; the time course of this expression coincides with the temporal pattern underlying the recruitment of new cells incorporated at the site of the lesion..  

Cells in the granular layer of the ventral part (i.e., Corpus cerebelli) of the cerebellar plate were not CaBP-immunoreactive, nor were any fibers in the molecular layer of this cerebellar region. The pattern of calbindin immunoreactivity in the auricular lobes and marginal part of the cerebellar plate provides additional evidence that this cerebellar compartment, which is already present in tadpoles, has a distinct origin, biochemical characterization and connectivity and is separate from the compartment that forms the Corpus cerebelli of frogs during metamorphosis..  

The first immunoreactive elements, identified by their localization and posterior morphological evolution as immature Purkinje cells, appeared at 6 days posthatching in the presumptive Corpus cerebelli and lobus vestibulolateralis.  

By application of lesions to one subdivision of the cerebellum, the Corpus cerebelli, the role of apoptosis in neuronal regeneration was examined in the gymnotiform fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.  

A modification of the tissue printing technique was used to acutely isolate and culture cells from the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL), Corpus cerebelli (CCb), and eminentia granularis pars posterior (EGp) of the adult weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.  

In the granule cell layers of two cerebellar subdivisions, the Corpus cerebelli and the valvula cerebelli pars medialis, the areal density of apoptotic cells displays a significant negative correlation with body weight, thus pointing to a decrease in the number of apoptotic events with age.  

In the Corpus cerebelli and the valvula cerebelli, the vast majority of newborn cells originate in the respective molecular layers.  

Such cell groups are located in the ventral telencephalic area, the nucleus of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum and another nucleus immediately dorsal to it, the torus semicircularis, the valvula cerebelli and the Corpus cerebelli.  

In the Corpus cerebelli and valvula cerebelli, NADPH-d label was present in Purkinje cell somata, mossy fiber synaptic glomeruli, granule cells, and parallel fibers.  

Zones displaying proliferative activity were restricted to small areas, such as narrow stripes around the midline of Corpus cerebelli and valvula cerebelli, the boundary between corpus and valvula, and a large portion of the area covered by the eminentia granularis medialis.  

The presence of GABAergic cells and fibres in the Corpus cerebelli and auricles of a dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula, was studied with immunocytochemistry.  

Association areas, including the Corpus cerebelli and the telencephalon, exhibit moderate variation in size, shape, and lobation patterns.  

In the Corpus cerebelli, the response was composed of a single component, well localized at the rostromedial part, supporting previous electrophysiological and morphological findings. Dorsal light reaction (DLR), which remained after optic tectum ablation, was slightly impaired by a lesion of the visual projection area in the Corpus cerebelli, but recovered within a few days.  

We found somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the Corpus cerebelli, valvula cerebelli, eminentia granularis anterior, eminentia granularis posterior, and transitional zone.  

The DLR was not affected by the extirpation of the Corpus cerebelli, but was entirely abolished after bilateral lesions of the valvula cerebelli. As to the afferent connections of the Corpus cerebelli, many findings have been reported.  

Labeled perikarya were also found in the tegmentum mesencephali, the Corpus cerebelli, and the medulla oblongata.  

We observed no differences in labeling between brains collected at different time points, except in the preoptic area where binding was high at 20.00 and 24.00 h, but low at 08.00 h, and in the Corpus cerebelli, where labeling in the molecular layer was higher at 24.00 and 08.00 h than at 20.00 h..  

Molecular layers with basally (or apically) located granule cells as encountered in the teleostean Corpus cerebelli, are probably involved in the analysis of specific spatio-temporal input waves directed centripetally towards different Purkinje cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).  

In the adult gymnotiform teleost Eigenmannia, Purkinje cells in the Corpus cerebelli (CCb), lateral valvula cerebelli (VCbl), and eminentia granularis anterior (EGa) are zebrin II+.  

FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity was demonstrated to occur extensively in various regions of the dogfish brain, except for the Corpus cerebelli.  

In contrast to the dorsal column nuclei of higher vertebrates, the Fl2 nuclei do not project to the diencephalic thalamus but to the caudal lobe and the second lobe (C2) of the Corpus cerebelli.  

Injections into the optic tectum retrogradely labeled neurons bilaterally in the central zone of area dorsalis telencephali and ipsilaterally in the torus longitudinalis, various thalamic, pretectal, and tegmental nuclei, some nuclei in the torus semicircularis, the nucleus of the locus coeruleus, the nucleus isthmi and the superior reticular formation, basal cells in the ipsilateral valvula cerebelli, and eurydendroid cells in the contralateral lobe C4 of the Corpus cerebelli.  

Immunocytochemistry of apteronotid brains reveals that zebrin II immunoreactivity is confined exclusively to Purkinje cells in the Corpus cerebelli, lateral valvula cerebelli, and the eminentia granularis anterior.  

In all species the tectum opticum decreases in relative size during growth, whereas the Corpus cerebelli increases.  

A high proportion of both kinds of units in the Corpus cerebelli are sensitive to such stimulation. Purkinje cells responding with initial excitation are located along the lateral edges and along the midline of the Corpus cerebelli; units responding with initial inhibition are more often found in an intermediate zone.  

In addition, Carassius has ipsilateral valvulopetal projections from the eminentia granularis, the prae-eminential nucleus, and the isthmic primary sensory trigeminal nucleus, whereas Lepomis has bilateral (stronger ipsilaterally) valvulopetal projections from the nucleus of the locus coeruleus and the rostral Corpus cerebelli. Finally, the present study indicates that the rostral part of the Corpus cerebelli, but not the valvula cerebelli, in teleosts is the homologue of the anterior lobe of the Corpus cerebelli in cartilaginous fishes.  

In the brain [ 3H]AVP binding was found to occur in the pars lateralis and the pars ventralis of the ventral telencephalon, in the pars centralis of the dorsal telencephalon, in the hypothalamic region (especially in the nucleus preopticus, in the tuberal hypothalamus and around the posterior recess), in the tectum opticum and in the noncellular layer of the Corpus cerebelli.  

The Corpus cerebelli increases in relative size, whereas chemosensory and acousticolateral centers grow isometrically with the brain as a whole..  

Only a few fibres were found in the Corpus cerebelli, while an intensely immunostained medullary bundle occurred laterally to the pacemaker nucleus, connecting to the spinal medulla.  

The ventricular bulge develops in the alar areas of Rh 1 and the isthmic segment, and develops into the Corpus cerebelli.  

The anabolic reaction of the Corpus cerebelli and contralateral vestibular nuclear complex is only partially non-specific and ascribable to the surgical trauma (comparison between sham-operated and unoperated frogs).  

vagus, central acustic area, Crista cerebellaris, Bulbus olfactorius, Eminentia granularis, Stratum opticum (of the optic tectum), Torus longitudinalis, Nucleus habenularis, Valvula cerebelli, Corpus cerebelli, Telencephalon, Tectum opticum, Diencephalon, Torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum.  

FMRFamide-containing perikarya were found in the frontoventral telencephalon, in the valvula and Corpus cerebelli, and in the rostral and caudal medulla oblongata.  

Examination of the connections of the Corpus cerebelli in one perciform (Lepomis cyanellus) and one cypriniform teleost (Carassius auratus) reveal that ipsilateral afferent connections in both species arise from an anterior group of nuclei in the diencephalon and mesencephalon, and a posterior group of nuclei in the rhombencephalon. In a second step, a phyletic analysis of teleostean corpopetal organization revealed that while teleosts share with all other vertebrates a group of corpopetal connections from the rhombencephalon, they evolved many new, more anteriorly located afferent inputs to the Corpus cerebelli.  

The cerebellum, the beginning of which was already noted at stages 13 and 14, consists of (1) a rostral part that arises from the alar plate of the isthmic segment and will form the superior medullary velum and part of the Corpus cerebelli; and (2) a caudal part that develops from rhombomere 1.  

Following injections of HRP into the Corpus cerebelli, neurons in two retinal recipient nuclei, the area pretectalis pars dorsalis (APd) and area pretectalis pars ventralis (APv), were labeled retrogradely. Thus, APv receives retinal and tectal projections, and in turn projects to Corpus cerebelli, nIII and nVI.  

Type B neurons, observed in both the valvula and Corpus cerebelli, have two or three primary dendrites running along the ganglion cell layer, and the distal dendritic branches are distributed in molecular layer perpendicularly to the cerebellar surface.  

Labeled parallel fibers were always found to project along the entire mediolateral extent of the Corpus cerebelli, regardless of the location of the injection site.  

Considerably fewer fibres occurred in the Corpus cerebelli and in the dorsal parts of the hindbrain lobes.  

This nucleus receives fibers from the ipsilateral telencephalon (area dorsalis pars centralis), contralateral retina, contralateral VM, ipsilateral optic tectum, ipsilateral torus semicircularis, contralateral Corpus cerebelli, contralateral sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, bilateral bulbospinal reticular formation, contralateral obex region, and contralateral dorsal portion of upper spinal segments.  

The present paper is devoted to the extrinsic connections of lobe C3 of the highly differentiated Corpus cerebelli of the electric fish Gnathonemus petersi. The connections of lobe C3, as revealed by the present study, are compared with those of other parts of the mormyrid cerebellum and with those of the Corpus cerebelli of other teleosts, with emphasis on the homology and functional significance of pretectocerebellar connections, the topical order in the cerebellar projections of the nucleus lateralis valvulae, and the relations between the cerebellum and torus longitudinalis.  

In the premetamorphic Corpus cerebelli, the stained Purkinje cells corresponded to the precociously developed Purkinje cells described previously.  

Projecting fibers were observed in the reticular formation, vagal lobe, octaval nuclei, a dorsomedial portion of the descending nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, Corpus cerebelli and nucleus ventromedialis thalami..  

The primary vestibulo-cerebellar fibers terminate mainly among the granular cells of the lobus auricularis and of the Corpus cerebelli on the ipsilateral side.  

The distribution pattern of the Feulgen-DNA values (nuclear cytochemical heterogeneity) which provides information on the functional state of Purkinje neurons was investigated in the lobus vestibularis and in the Corpus cerebelli in active and hibernating frogs. In the Corpus cerebelli, hibernation does not change greatly the nuclear heterogeneity of Purkinje neurons, while in the lobus vestibularis this neuron population becomes more homogeneous and shows more condensed chromatin. These data suggest a nerve conduction in the two areas which responds differently to the phenomenon of hibernation, entailing a lower activity of Purkinje neurons in the lobus vestibularis with respect to the Corpus cerebelli.  

A lesion in the Corpus cerebelli causes this wave to start at the head and move towards the tail, though it is otherwise the same as in normal fish, i.e.  

Visual and somatosensory areas are the largest and they occupy the bulk of the Corpus cerebelli and the valvula.  

However, there was an increase in the number of units responsive to somesthetic stimulation within the dorsal half of the Corpus cerebelli (including the dorsal rim), a region experimentally deprived of vestibular afferents, neck responsive units were 33% of the total in acutely and 61% in chronically labyrinthectomized animals (compared to 5% in normal).  

Somesthetic responses were recorded throughout most of the Corpus cerebelli proper but the strongest input was to rostral regions.  

Muscarinic binding sites were found in the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELLL) and vestibulo cerebellum (LC) of certain gymnotid fish; these binding sites were not present in significant numbers in the Corpus cerebelli. We did not find any evidence for nicotinic receptors (alpha-bungarotoxin binding) in ELLL, LC, or Corpus cerebelli..  

Among the major brain territories in Galeomorph sharks, the nucleus centralis is prominently enlarged, and the Corpus cerebelli is much swollen and fissured. In archaic species such as Scapanorhynchus, Heterodontus, and Chlamydoselachus, the cerebral pallium and Corpus cerebelli are less developed than those of taxonomically close species.  

The rostral part of this central body represents the valvula cerebelli, whereas its caudal part represents the Corpus cerebelli.  

In order to clarify telencephalo-cerebellar connections in teleosts, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into the telencephalon and the Corpus cerebelli of 6 species which belong to Cyprinidae, Holocentridae, Scorpaenidae and Balistidae. HRP injections into the ipsilateral side of the Corpus cerebelli resulted in labeled cells in the nucleus paracommissuralis.  

An extensive set of efferents is present to the torus longitudinalis, nucleus rotundus, Corpus cerebelli and the various levels of the reticular formation. This area receives afferent information from Corpus cerebelli, vestibular nucleus and reticular formation, and has efferent connections to Corpus cerebelli, preoptic nucleus and a major projection to the various parts of the reticular formation. Several injections in the Corpus cerebelli resulted in retrograde labeling in the nucleus of the posterior commissure, which suggests the involvement of cerebellar circuits in optic related respiratory reflexes..  

Cholinesterase was demonstrated in the caudal lobe of the cerebellum but not the Corpus cerebelli of weakly electric gymnotid fish. Choline acetyltransferase was also found in far greater amounts within the electrosensory region and caudal lobe of the cerebellum than within the Corpus cerebelli itself..  

Response of neurones in the Corpus cerebelli of Scyliorhinus canicula (Elasmobranchii) have been recorded in decerebrate unanaesthetized fish during the performance of pectoral fin reflexes (p.f.r.) evoked by electrical stimulation of the fins.2.  

After injection of horseradish peroxidase solution into the lateral line nerves of a poeciliid fish the afferent fibres can be followed up to their termination fields in the medulla, lobus vestibulolateralis, Corpus cerebelli and valvula cerebelli.  

The first negativity (N1) has 1 msec latency and is largest in the lateral regions of the Corpus cerebelli where Purkinje cells and white matter are most densely congregated.  

In addition, regenerating fibers also grew into non-optic centers/pathways such as the habenula, the fasciculus retroflexus, the forebrain, the torus semicircularis, the valvula and Corpus cerebelli, the hypothalamus, and the medulla.  

The onset of the cerebellar output occurs on the average simultaneously on either side of the Corpus cerebelli.  

Special attention was given to the trilobed Corpus cerebelli (C1, C2, C3), the lobi transitorii et caudales, the valvula, the crista cerebelli, the eminentia granularis and the lobus lineae lateralis. Cortical stratification first begins on the 8th to the 11th day in the Corpus cerebelli and in the valvula from day 21 to 23 onwards.  

Degenerating terminals were also seen in the torus longitudinalis when lesions were made in the optic tectum, tectal commissure, torus semicircularis, and in the area between the valvula and the Corpus cerebelli.  

Synaptogenesis has been studied in the Corpus cerebelli of the trout Salmo gairdneri, Richardson, 1836.  

the massive Corpus cerebelli, the folded valvula cerebelli and the transversely oriented lobus vestibulolateralis. The migration paths of granule cells show variable directions, namely (a) tangential followed by radial, for granule cells in the Corpus cerebelli and in the medial parts of the valvula cerebelli and the lobus vestibulolaterialis, (b) tangential, for granule cells in the lateral parts of the valvula and (c) radial, for granule cells in the lateral parts of the lobus vestibulolateralis.  

The cell mass beneath the floor of the lateral recess and bordering its lateral wall that has been reported to form the auricular lobe in other species is absent, the auricular lobe abutting the medial wall of the lateral recess instead and is continuous with the Corpus cerebelli. The Corpus cerebelli, although immature and yet to acquire an external granular layer, is already massive and displays an incipient molecular, Purkinje cell and granular layers. Cytodifferentiation in the auricular lobe and Corpus cerebelli is similar, their constituent cells being in various stages of development. Fully mature cells are absent, but a small population of Purkinje cells and glia in the auricular lobe and along the marginal zone of the Corpus cerebelli show advanced development. In the ventral part of the Corpus cerebelli, developing climbing fibers are present but Purkinje cells are poorly developed..  

The brain develops very rapidly: the Corpus cerebelli (c.cer) and associated cerebellar structures, i.e.  

The horizontal sinusoidal frequency response and the problem of vestibular receptor convergence in Purkinje cells (P-cells) of the auriculum, dorsal rim and Corpus cerebelli were studied in curarized frogs with natural stimulation.  

The paraflocculus of the rabbit is uniquely situated within the temporal bone and connects with the Corpus cerebelli via a stalk passing through a bony foramen.  

CA neurons in the medulla oblongata might innervate the vestibulo-lateral lobe and Corpus cerebelli. In the tailless amphibian which is devoid of the lateral-line nerves, cerebellar CA especially in the Corpus cerebelli is supplied mainly by the rhombencephalic CA neurons which still remain in less developed stage in phylogenetic scale.  

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