Projections from the entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex, presubiculum, and parasubiculum to the medial thalamus in macaque monkeys: identifying different pathways using disconnection techniques. Exp Brain Res. 2005 Nov;167(1):1-16. Epub 2005 Oct 29.

Saunders RC, Mishkin M, Aggleton JP.

The projections from the perirhinal cortex, entorhinal cortex, parasubiculum, and presubiculum to the thalamus were examined using both anterograde and retrograde tracers. Attention focused on the routes taken by these projections, which were delineated by combining surgical tract section with the placement of a tracer. Projections to the anterior thalamic nuclei almost exclusively used the fornix. These relatively light projections, which arose from all areas of the entorhinal cortex, from the presubiculum, parasubiculum, and area 35 of the perirhinal cortex, terminated mainly in the anterior ventral nucleus. In contrast, the projections to the lateral dorsal nucleus from the entorhinal cortex, presubiculum and parasubiculum were denser than those to the anterior thalamic nuclei. The projections to the lateral dorsal nucleus used two routes. While nearly all of the projections from the subicular complex used the fornix, many of the entorhinal cortex projections passed caudally in the temporopulvinar bundle to reach the lateral dorsal nucleus. The perirhinal cortex, as well as the entorhinal cortex, also projects to nucleus medialis dorsalis. These projections exclusively used the external capsule and thence the inferior thalamic peduncle. Other temporal-thalamic projections included those to the medial pulvinar, via the temporopulvinar bundle, from the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices, and those to the paraventricular nucleus from the entorhinal cortex. By identifying these routes, it is possible to appreciate how different lesions might disconnect temporal-diencephalic pathways and so contribute to memory disorders.

Neuroanatomical Connectivity References