Zona Incerta

Contacts for chronic stimulation were located in the area between the red and subthalamic nuclei, including Raprl, zona incerta, and substantia Q.  

Administration of the blocker Bcl-2 has been revealed to decrease functional activity both of dopaminergic neurons (zona incerta) and of dopaminergic neurosecretory cells (arcuate nucleus), in which a decrease of the tyrosine hydroxylase content was observed.  

The experiments reported here identified no topical features in the organization of these projections in dogs, as application of marker to different areas of the zona incerta yielded similar distributions of labeled neurons in the basal ganglia.  

the substantia nigra, zona incerta and Forel's fields.  

The results indicated that 1) the neural tissue surrounding active and nonactive contacts responds similarly, with a thin glial capsule and foreign-body giant cell reaction surrounding the leads as well as piloid gliosis, hemosiderin-laden macrophages, scattered lymphocytes, and Rosenthal fibers; 2) there was evidence of separate tracts in the adjacent tissue for intraoperative microelectrode and semimacroelectrode passes together with reactive gliosis, microcystic degeneration, and scattered hemosiderin deposition; and 3) the active contacts used for approximately 6 years of effective bilateral DBS therapy lie in the zona incerta, just dorsal to the rostral STN.  

Moderate levels were observed in some amygdaloid nuclei, CA2 area and dentate gyrus of hippocampus, endopiriform nuclei, globus pallidus, striatum, molecular layer of cerebellum, and locus coeruleus, whereas no expression was detected in hypothalamic nuclei, CA1 and CA3 areas of hippocampus, zona incerta.  

Studies performed using the Nissl and Kluver-Barrera methods for analysis of the organization of fibers, morphological neuron types, and neuron density distribution were undertaken to map the zona incerta of the diencephalon of the dog brain; five individual sectors were identified, whose boundaries were further identified by histochemical detection of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons..  

The reticular nucleus, zona incerta, and lateral habenular nucleus held numerous DAT-ir axons in both species.  

Neurons that utilize melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) as a neuromodulator are localized within the postero-lateral hypothalamus and zona incerta.  

Approximately 15%, 14% and 16% of the CTB-positive neurons in the zona incerta and the dorsal and lateral hypothalamic areas are, respectively, CTB/GAD-positive neurons.  

Stimulation contacts were located within the STN in all patients except the one who remained apathetic in spite of ropinirole treatment (zona incerta).  

c-Fos expression was significantly elevated in neglectful relative to nurturing mothers in the CNS, particularly within dopamine associated areas, such as the zona incerta (ZI), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and nucleus accumbens.  

The ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus is the most common DBS target for tremor disorders, but more recent studies have demonstrated benefits in tremor from DBS of the subthalamic area, primarily the zona incerta.  

Contacts for chronic stimulation were located in the area between the red and subthalamic nuclei, including Raprl, zona incerta, and substantia Q.  

Immunoreactive multipolar or spindle-shaped neurons form clusters with bilateral symmetry, localized predominantly in the lateral hypothalamic area, with extensions into the zona incerta and the dorso-medial and ventro-medial hypothalamic region.  

Orexin B immunoreactive neurons were mainly localized in the perifornical area (PeF), dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), zona incerta (ZI) and the posterior hypothalamic area (PH), with a sparser distribution in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamic area.  

MCH is also abundantly present in mammalian neurons and expressed in the lateral hypothalamus and zona incerta, brain regions that are known to be at the center of feeding behavior.  

In contrast to the restricted receptive field (RF) properties of the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM), neurons of the ventral thalamus zona incerta (ZI) have been shown to exhibit multiwhisker responses that vary from the ventral (ZIv) to the dorsal (ZId) subdivision.  

Output from the entopeduncular nucleus, the feline equivalent of the internal segment of the globus pallidus, provides a modest direct input to the red nucleus as well as a more substantial indirect input via projections to the zona incerta and the fields of Forel.  

zona incerta (area A13) neuron number was unchanged among phenotypes and treatments.  

We performed bilateral stimulation of the caudal or motor part of the zona incerta nucleus (cZI) to determine its safety and efficacy in alleviating tremor.  

INTRODUCTION: We hypothesise that parkinsonian tremor arises when the caudal zona incerta (cZI) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) are deprived of dopamine and become increasingly responsive to motor cortical alpha and beta frequency oscillations.  

In the rodent, the ventral division of the zona incerta (ZIv) serves as a relay station within the paralemniscal thalamocortical projection pathway for whisker-driven motor activity.  

The anterior pretectal nucleus (APT) and the zona incerta (ZI) are diencephalic nuclei that exert a strong inhibitory influence selectively in higher order thalamic relays.  

High-frequency electrical stimulation possibly resulted in unilateral activation of the efferent sympathetic pathways in the zona incerta.  

Using the method of the retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase, it was determined that in dog, the projections from globus pallidus, nucleus entopeduncularis, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus were directed to all the regions of zona incerta. In the present study, no topical features were detected in the organization of these projections in dog, since after the injections of the marker in different regions of zona incerta, similar distribution of labeled neurons was observed in basal ganglia. The projections from the striatum to zona incerta were not found..  

OBJECT: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the topographical distribution of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) in the subthalamic area, including the zona incerta (ZI).  

zona incerta in dog diencephalon was studied by the methods of Nissl and Kluver-Barrera. The mapping of zona incerta was performed, and the borders of the sectors were accurately determined by histochemical demonstration of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons..  

An optical probe constructed to fit in the Leksell Stereotactic System was used for measurements along the trajectory and in the targets (globus pallidus internus, subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, thalamus) during the implantation of deep brain stimulation leads (n = 22).  

The incerto-hypothalamic area (IHy) is a poorly defined diencephalic region located at the junction of the medial hypothalamus and zona incerta (ZI). Even though IHy presents a singular neurochemistry, it has long been assumed that it is also part of the zona incerta.  

The post-implantation MRI confirmed that the electrode contacts used for stimulation were inserted in RAPRL, a group of fibers located between the red nucleus and subthalamic nucleus, above the substantia nigra, medially to the zona incerta and below the thalamus.  

In male rats, neurons expressing MCH are found in the lateral hypothalamic area and medial zona incerta, as well as, sparsely, in the olfactory tubercle and pontine reticular formation.  

Anatomical structures possibly involved in tremor suppression include cerebello-thalamic projections, the prelemniscal radiation, and the zona incerta..  

In this study, we identified three adrenoceptors on GABAergic neurons in the peri-PVN region, focusing on the anterior hypothalamic area (AHA) and rostral zona incerta (ZIr).  

In addition, FosB expression was noted in the pedunculopontine nucleus and the zona incerta, structures previously not examined in the setting of LID.  

SMAP8 immunoreactivity (irSMAP8) was detected in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular, supraoptic, and supraoptic retrochiasmatic nuclei; a few irSMAP8 cells were scattered in the zona incerta as well as the cerebral cortex.  

Most effective contacts clustered within the subthalamic area (STA) covering the posterior zona incerta and prelemniscal radiation.  

Using neuroanatomical tracing we identified four pathways ascending from the MPTA that are positioned to mediate electroencephalographic synchronization and loss of consciousness: (i) projections to the intralaminar thalamic nuclei that, in turn, project to the cortex; (ii) projections to several pontomesencephalic, diencephalic and basal forebrain nuclei that project cortically and are considered parts of an ascending "arousal system"; (iii) a projection to other parts of the subcortical forebrain, including the septal area, hypothalamus, zona incerta and striato-pallidal system, that may indirectly affect cortical arousal and hippocampal theta rhythm; and (iv) modest projections directly to the frontal cortex. Several of these areas have prominent reciprocal projections back to the MPTA, notably the zona incerta, lateral hypothalamus and frontal cortex.  

Eight cases with severe essential tremor and 18 of tremor-dominant Parkinson disease were treated with unilateral DBS of the area including the zona incerta and the prelemniscal radiation (Zi/Raprl).  

The remaining eight contacts (22%) were located more dorsally in the zona incerta, close to the upper border of the STN.  

The model included the subthalamic nucleus (STN), substantia nigra (SN), zona incerta (ZI), fields of Forel H2 (FF), internal capsule (IC) and Medtronic 3387/3389 electrode.  

The majority of PRV-ir cells exhibited either AR or ER immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, median preoptic nucleus, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and zona incerta, areas known to play roles in male rat mating behavior.  

The zona incerta (ZI) is at the crossroad of almost all major ascending and descending fiber tracts and targets numerous brain centers from the thalamus to the spinal cord.  

Of the active contacts used for chronic stimulation, 96.5% are located in a well-defined anatomical region, which includes subthalamus, zona incerta, and FF.  

Additionally, stimulation through electrode contacts that improved bradykinesia and rigidity generated VTAs that overlapped the zona incerta/fields of Forel (ZI/H2).  

VAMP1 is selectively expressed in the retina and in discrete areas of the brain including the zona incerta and rostral periolivary region, although no gross histological abnormalities were observed in these tissues.  

The goal of this study was to determine whether the input-output characteristics of the zona incerta (ZI) are appropriate for it to serve as a conduit for cortical control over saccade-related activity in the superior colliculus.  

NPB-immunoreactivity was enriched in many regions within the hypothalamus which also contained high levels of GPR7 mRNA including the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, supraoptic retrochiasmatic nucleus, and in the area ventral to the zona incerta.  

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic 19-amino acid neuropeptide exclusively synthesized in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and the zona incerta (ZI) that has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance.  

At subcortical levels, we observed a similar correspondence of retrogradely labeled cells and anterogradely labeled axons and terminals in visual (posterior limitans thalamic nucleus) and multisensory thalamic nuclei (dorsal and medial division of the medial geniculate body, suprageniculate nucleus, posterior thalamic cell group, zona incerta), and in the multisensory nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus.  

In males, the localization of NEI is almost identical to that of MCH, the cell bodies of both being located primarily in the lateral hypothalamic area and zona incerta, projecting fibers throughout the brain. We found that ovariectomized females with no steroid treatment showed an increased number of NEI-immunoreactive neurons in the medial zona incerta.  

In this study, we explore Fos expression (a measure of cell activity) in three nuclei associated with locomotion, namely the zona incerta, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and cuneiform nucleus (the latter two form the mesencephalic locomotor region) in hemiparkinsonian rats. By contrast, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the number of strong-labelled Fos+ cells in the zona incerta and pedunculopontine nucleus of 6OHDA-lesioned rats compared to controls at any survival period.  

In contrast, PKR1 mRNA is found in fewer brain regions, with moderate expression in the olfactory regions, dentate gyrus, zona incerta, and dorsal motor vagal nucleus.  

The latter were recorded from the zona incerta (n = 5) and subthalamic nucleus (n = 26) in 10 parkinsonian patients.  

MCH is also found abundantly in mammalian neurons, and has been detected in the lateral hypothalamus and zona incerta, brain regions that are at the center of feeding behavior.  

In an effort to understand better the neurochemical changes that occur in Parkinson disease, we have examined the expression patterns of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin in the zona incerta in parkinsonian rats. In the 3 to 84 days post-lesion cases, there was an overall 50% reduction in the number of parvalbumin(+) cells in the zona incerta on the 6OHDA-lesioned side when compared to control. In the 2 hrs post-lesion cases, there was no substantial loss of parvalbumin(+) cells in the zona incerta after 6OHDA lesion, although in these cases (unlike the longer survival periods), there was limited loss of TH(+) cells in the midbrain on the lesion side. The loss of parvalbumin(+) cells from the zona incerta was due to a loss of antigen expression rather than a loss of the cells themselves, since the number of Nissl-stained cells in the zona incerta was similar on the control and 6OHDA-lesioned sides. In summary, our results indicate that a loss of the midbrain dopaminergic cells induces a major change in parvalbumin expression within the zona incerta.  

This study demonstrated that there is a pathway from the zona incerta to the thalamic reticular nucleus. The results show that the different regions of the thalamic reticular nucleus have distinct patterns of connections with the sectors of the zona incerta. In terms of the relative strength of the connections, injections made into the rostral regions of the thalamic reticular nucleus showed the highest number of labelled cells within the rostral and ventral sectors of the zona incerta; injections made into the intermediate regions of the thalamic reticular nucleus showed labelled cells in the dorsal and ventral sectors; while injections to the caudal regions of the thalamic reticular nucleus showed only a few labelled cells in the caudal sector of the zona incerta. Previous studies have shown that the zona incerta projects to the higher order thalamic nuclei but not first order thalamic nuclei. The labelling observed in the present study may represent collaterals of zona incerta to higher order thalamic nuclei projections..  

We previously showed that the GABAergic nucleus zona incerta (ZI) suppresses vibrissae-evoked responses in the posterior medial (POm) thalamus of the rodent somatosensory system.  

The role of some thalamic and subthalamic nuclei in the generalized spike-wave electrical pattern patophysiology is discussed, with emphasis on the possible role of the inhibitory system from the zona incerta..  

This suggests that HFS-STN could influence not only STN but also the dorsal adjacent structures (zona incerta and/or Fields of Forel)..  

We have previously shown that the GABAergic nucleus zona incerta (ZI) suppresses vibrissae-evoked responses in the posterior medial (POm) thalamus of the rodent somatosensory system.  

Although, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the commonly chosen target, a number of groups have reported that the most effective contact lies dorsal/dorsomedial to the STN (region of the pallidofugal fibres and the rostral zona incerta) or at the junction between the dorsal border of the STN and the latter. During this period we moved our target from the STN to the region dorsomedial/medial to it and subsequently targeted the caudal part of the zona incerta nucleus (cZI).  

CTb/CART neurons were also found in the lateral hypothalamus, zona incerta, and periventricular hypothalamus.  

These results were consistent with the literature, revealing the implication of neighboring structures, especially the zona incerta and Forel's Field, in the clinical benefit..  

The objective of this study was to describe the firing characteristics of the zona incerta (ZI) in Parkinson's disease patients.  

Gamma band oscillations in the LFP are therefore likely to represent synchronous activity in populations of neurons in the upper STN and bordering zona incerta of patients with PD..  

When comparing with the transected group, the repaired group showed: (1) lower elevation of mean arterial pressure during colorectal distension; (2) retrogradely labeled neurons in the hypothalamus, zona incerta, subcoeruleus nuclei and rostral ventrolateral medulla following application of FG below the repair site; (3) the presence of TH- and DBH-labeled axons below the lesion site; (4) higher numbers of ChAT-positive neurons in ventral horn and intermediolateral column near the lesion site.  

LH release was stimulated when MCH was injected bilaterally into the rostral preoptic area (rPOA) or medial preoptic area (mPOA), but not when injected into the zona incerta (ZI), of oestrogen-primed ovariectomised rats.  

All PMC regions also receive projections from the claustrum and the basal forebrain and project to the caudate, the basis pontis, and the zona incerta.  

We report that the afferent projections to the subparafascicular nucleus and area include the medial prefrontal, insular, and ectorhinal cortex, the subiculum, the lateral septum, the anterior amygdaloid area, the medial amygdaloid nucleus, the caudal paralaminar area of the thalamus, the lateral preoptic area, the anterior, ventromedial, and posterior hypothalamic nuclei, the dorsal premamillary nucleus, the zona incerta and Forel's fields, the periaqueductal gray, the deep layers of the superior colliculus, cortical layers of the inferior colliculus, the cuneiform nucleus, the medial paralemniscal nucleus, and the parabrachial nuclei.  

There was no significant sex difference or effects of gonadectomy on the number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the anteroventral preoptic area (AVP), periventricular anterior hypothalamus (caudal A14), arcuate nucleus (A12), zona incerta (A13), or posterodorsal hypothalamus (A11).  

Both controls and pilocarpine-treated animals presented neo-Timm staining in the anterodorsal nucleus, laterodorsal nucleus, reticular nucleus, most intralaminar nuclei, nucleus reuniens, and rhomboid nucleus of the thalamus, as well as in the zona incerta.  

It is shown that in lightly anesthetized rats posterior group cells are tonically inhibited by GABAergic neurons of the ventral division of zona incerta.  

zona incerta at the subthalamus or nerve terminals surrounding thalamic neurons).  

Loss of p53 and Bcl-2 significantly reduced VP synthesis in paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and TH expression in arcuat, periventricular and zona incerta nuclei of the hypothalamus.  

Here we show that sensory transmission in this nucleus is impeded by fast feedforward inhibition mediated by GABAergic neurons of the zona incerta. Whisker-evoked EPSPs with fast rise time and longer onset latency are unveiled only after lesioning the zona incerta.  

Consistent with a global role of DJ-1 in the brain, we found immunoreactivity, for example, in cortical areas, hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, the reticular nucleus of the thalamus, zona incerta, and locus coeruleus.  

Most cholera toxin beta-subunit-labeled cells were detected in the medial zona incerta and sub-incertal zone, with few observed in the lateral hypothalamus. Melanin-concentrating hormone cells were also abundant in the medial zona incerta, in close proximity to cholera toxin beta-subunit-labeled cells, but ventral to them.  

Strychnine lacked effects on monosynaptic, GABAergic IPSPs from zona incerta.  

In the hypothalamus, irNPB cells were present in the medial preoptic area and nucleus, ventromedial preoptic nucleus, retrochiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, accessory neurosecretory nuclei, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic retrochiasmatic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, posterior hypothalamic area, dorsal hypothalamic area, and zona incerta.  

ID males also had a 20-30% reduction in 5-HT transporter binding in several areas (nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, colliculus) while in ID females there was 15-25% increased serotonin transporter binding in the olfactory tubercle, zona incerta, anteroventral thalamic nucleus and vestibular nucleus.  

Double immunocytochemistry/in situ hybridization demonstrated that CART-IR and NOP1 mRNA are colocalized throughout the hypothalamus, in particular in the paraventricular nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, zona incerta, and ARC, providing an anatomical basis for N/OFQ action on CART release.  

Moreover, in situ hybridization experiments in brain demonstrated that GPRg1 is abundantly expressed in the ventrolateral region of caudate putamen, the habenular nucleus, the zona incerta, and the medial mammillary nucleus.  

Distinct clusters of CRF-BP-ir neurones were identified in the anterior and posterior parvocellular and dorsal cap subdivisions of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as well as in the dorsal hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMN), ventral premammillary nucleus and zona incerta. CRF-ir fibre innervation was moderate to high within the anterior and posterior parvocellular subdivisions of the PVN, the dorsal cap of the PVN, DMN and the zona incerta; all regions that contained CRF-BP-ir cell populations.  

The results show that the vocalization-eliciting sites receive a widespread input, with the heaviest projections coming from the surrounding PAG, dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamus, medial preoptic region, substantia nigra pars diffusa, zona incerta and reticular formation of the mesencephalon, pons, and medulla.  

In situ hybridization analysis with brain revealed that PLC-eta was abundantly expressed in various regions including cerebral cortex, hippocampus, zona incerta and cerebellar Purkinje cell layer, which are neuronal cell-enriched regions.  

Changes in plasma prolactin concentrations correlated with the numbers of c-Fos-positive CA neurons within the area postrema, the medullary CA cell groups, the medial posterior division of the arcuate, and the zona incerta.  

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of unilateral deep brain stimulation on the posterior subthalamic white matter, including the zona incerta (ZI) and the prelemniscal radiation (PRL), for tremor-dominant parkinsonian patients and to determine the exact location of electrodes that were most effective.  

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript-(55-102)-immunoreactive perikarya co-expressed melanin-concentrating hormone-immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, zona incerta and posterior hypothalamic area.  

Immunoreactive fibers of varying density were noted in bed nucleus of stria terminalis, septal nuclei, nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, zona incerta, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, raphe nuclei, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, spinal trigeminal tract, rostral ventrolateral medulla, and medullary reticular nucleus.  

The zona incerta (ZI), first described over a century ago by Auguste Forel as a "region of which nothing certain can be said," forms a collection of cells that derives from the diencephalon.  

In these cases, labeled cells were also found in either the periaqueductal gray or zona incerta, depending on the specific case.  

Pre-training injections of serotonin into the nigra of rats produced strong amnesia of an aversively-motivated task (inhibitory avoidance) compared to similar injections into the cerebral cortex and zona incerta.  

In view of the recent focus on the zona incerta (and surrounding regions) as a target for deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson Disease, we have explored incertal cyto and chemoarchitecture in normal and MPTP (methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-treated macaque monkeys. We show four main sectors in the zona incerta, namely rostral, dorsal, ventral and caudal, each with a largely distinct cytoarchitecture. Each of the antibodies screened had signature distribution patterns across the zona incerta; TH+ cells were localised within the rostral sector, NOs+ cells were concentrated in the dorsal sector, Pv+ cells were found mainly in the ventral sector and Cal+ cells were distributed uniformly across all sectors. We found no major differences in the distribution and shape of labelled cells in the zona incerta of MPTP-treated monkeys when compared to control. In conclusion, we report that the primate zona incerta shows considerable cyto and chemoarchitectonic heterogeneity; that it forms a nucleus with distinct sectors presumably associated with diverse functions--from generating arousal to shifting attention, and from controlling visceral activity to influencing posture and locomotion. These functions have been proposed for the zona incerta of non primates. Our results have clinical implications, in that deep brain stimulation of the zona incerta (or parts thereof) could manifest in signs and symptoms other than those associated with the motor system.  

The main sources of input to nucleus reuniens were from the orbitomedial, insular, ectorhinal, perirhinal, and retrosplenial cortices; CA1/subiculum of hippocampus; claustrum, tania tecta, lateral septum, substantia innominata, and medial and lateral preoptic nuclei of the basal forebrain; medial nucleus of amygdala; paraventricular and lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus; zona incerta; anterior, ventromedial, lateral, posterior, supramammillary, and dorsal premammillary nuclei of the hypothalamus; and ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray, medial and posterior pretectal nuclei, superior colliculus, precommissural/commissural nuclei, nucleus of the posterior commissure, parabrachial nucleus, laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, nucleus incertus, and dorsal and median raphe nuclei of the brainstem.  

However, when we suppressed inhibitory inputs from the subthalamic nucleus zona incerta (ZI), POm responses were of significantly higher magnitude and shorter latency, with many POm neurons responding at latencies consistent with ascending driving inputs from trigeminal nuclei.  

Labeled cell bodies were also observed in most amygdaloid nuclei, anterior olfactory nuclei, claustrum, tenia tecta, endopiriform region, lateral ventricle, lateral septum, zona incerta, superior colliculus, and periaqueductal gray.  

In a series of 25 electrodes, best clinical results with least energy consumption were found in contacts located in the dorsolateral border zone, whereas contacts within the subthalamic white matter, e.g., zona incerta, were significantly less effective.  

Brains of normal (DW/?) and dw(j)/dw(j) mice were examined at 7, 14, 21, 30, and > or = 60 postnatal days (d) by catecholamine fluorescence and quantification of neuron number after tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining in dopaminergic (DA) areas A12, A13 (medial zona incerta), and A14 (periventricular nucleus).  

The main diencephalic targets of the Sp5O are the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM), the posterior thalamic nuclei (Po) and the ventral part of the zona incerta (ZIv), contralaterally, and the parvicellular part of the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus (VPpc), bilaterally.  

Isolated terminations occasionally occurred in other sites (e.g., suprageniculate, zona incerta, hypothalamic paraventricular n.).  

The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the interaction between the glutamatergic/NMDA and dopaminergic systems in the medial zona incerta on the control of luteinizing hormone and prolactin secretion and the influence of reproductive hormones. 2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, an NMDA receptor antagonist, and dopamine were injected in the medial zona incerta.  

The spatial expression of the Php protein was in the neuronal fibers of the medial part of lateral habenula nucleus, thalamus, hypothalamus, stria terminalis, zona incerta, amygdaloid body and cingulum, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum.  

No dual-labelled cells were found for either group in the posterodorsal hypothalamus (A11 group), zona incerta (A13 group), retrorubral field (A8 group), ventral tegmental area (A10 group) or substantia nigra (A9 group) because little or no progestin receptor-ir was found in these sites.  

We also identified previously undescribed populations of MCH-immunoreactive cells in the lateral septum, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, lateral zona incerta, and ventral lateral geniculate nucleus that may play a specific role in the development of these regions.  

The highest density of hFF1-stained cells was found in the posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the zona incerta.  

In all of the stained preparations the STN appeared as a distinct lens-shaped structure located in the caudal diencephalon, medial to the internal capsule and ventrolateral to the zona incerta.  

The stimulation of the dorsalmost region, which includes the zona incerta and the dorsal pole of the subthalamic nucleus, produced autonomic responses that were constant over time. These data suggest that the dorsal subthalamic nucleus and/or the zona incerta are involved in autonomic control, whereas the ventral subthalamic nucleus and/or the substantia nigra reticulata are involved in associative/limbic-related autonomic activity.  

To this aim, the effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC, 5 mg/kg/day; i.p.) were examined after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of repeated administration on regions containing mu-opioid receptors: (i) forebrain [ caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens (core and shell) and piriform cortex]; (ii) amygdala (medial pars and cortical posteromedial pars), hypothalamus (ventromedial and dorsomedial nuclei, zona incerta), hippocampal regions (CA1, CA2, CA3, dentate girus), hindbrain (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area); and (iii) thalamus, including 12 thalamic nuclei.  

5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the 5-HT(1A/7) receptor agonist (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralinHBr (8-OH-DPAT), injected into the zona incerta (an area in the dorsal hypothalamus) of the female rat, inhibit the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and the effects of both are blocked by the 5-HT(2/7) receptor antagonist, ritanserin. As both 8-OH-DPAT and ritanserin have moderate activity at the 5-HT7 receptor subtype, the possibility that this subtype might mediate their effects in the zona incerta has been investigated. 5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), a potent but non-selective agonist at 5-HT7 receptors, like 5-HT and 8-OH-DPAT, inhibited the LH surge at 5 and 1.25 nmol injected bilaterally into the zona incerta. The non-selective 5-HT(2/7) receptor antagonist ritanserin and the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, (R)-3-(2-(2-(4-methyl-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrrolidine-1-sulfonyl)-phenol (SB-269970-A) at 0.5 microg/side blocked all three receptor agonists when injected concurrently into the zona incerta. These data demonstrate that 5-HT7 receptors play a role in the regulation of LH by the zona incerta in rat brain..  

The shape of the activation volume was dependent on the strong dorsal-ventral anisotropy of the internal capsule, and the moderate anterior-posterior anisotropy of the region around zona incerta.  

Sleep deprivation also significantly increased the number of cells expressing NF-kappa B-dependent beta-galactosidase in the magnocellular lateral hypothalamus, zona incerta dorsal, as well as the adjacent subthalamus in the transgenic mice.  

In addition, the Cxcr4 gene is expressed in some differentiating neuronal populations at E12.5, E14.5 and E17.5, such as scattered cells in the reticular formation, cranial nerve nuclei, peripheral ganglia, cerebellar external granule cells, zona incerta, ventral lateral geniculate thalamic nuclei, olfactory glomerular layer, hippocampal primordium and telencephalic preplate.  

Our recent results showed that angiotensin II or III (AII, AIII) microinjected into the zona incerta (ZI) significantly increased water intake.  

However, we also found labelled terminals in several other brain areas, including the zona incerta, the medial geniculate nucleus, the lateral posterior-pulvinar complex, the lateral habenular nucleus, and the anterior and lateral hypothalamic regions.  

Quantification of immunoreactivity by image analysis revealed that the number and mean staining intensity of MCH-immunoreactive neurones in the lateral hypothalamic area and the zona incerta were significantly decreased by both types of lesions compared to sham controls, whereas circulating MCH concentration was not significantly different on day 7 postlesion. By contrast, in lactating rats on days 11-12 postpartum, the expression of MCH in the lateral hypothalamic area and the zona incerta was significantly increased compared to nonlactating controls. These results suggest that hyperphagia induced by lactation, but not hypothalamic lesion, might be induced by excessive expression of MCH in the lateral hypothalamic area and the zona incerta..  

Besides the dorsolateral STN (sensorimotor part) this may include projections from/to STN, the zona incerta, and pallidofugal projections in the fields of Forel..  

The DCLK-short-B variant shows stronger expression in the cortex, the ventromedial and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei, the arcuate nucleus, the zona incerta and the subincertal nucleus.  

The most prominent groups of double-labeled cells were identified in the retrochiasmatic area, arcuate nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, perifornical area, zona incerta, C1-3 regions, and the medial subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). By triple-labeling immunofluorescence, CART/CTB neurons in the perifornical area, zona incerta complex, and more medial portions of the lateral hypothalamus were found to co-contain melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), whereas CART/CTB neurons of the C1-3 regions of the brainstem but not medial subnucleus of the NTS were observed to express phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT).  

Similar results were observed with microinjections of other 5-HT receptor agonists: quipazine (a 5-HT2B/C/3 agonist), MK-212 (a 5-HT2B/C agonist) and m-chlorophenylbiguanidine (a 5-HT3 agonist), while microinjections of 5-HT into the zona incerta or in the previously lesioned STN were ineffective.  

High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) alleviates dramatically motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, and recently it has been suggested that zona incerta (ZI) stimulation might be as beneficial to patients.  

This study explores the organisation and neurochemical nature of the projections from the zona incerta (ZI) to the basal ganglia.  

Isolated terminal fibers were occasionally seen in the zona incerta, the dorsomedial hypothalamus, and other locations.  

The electrode on the left was within the inferior STN, whereas the right electrode was marginally superior and lateral to the intended STN target within the Fields of Forel/zona incerta. This case provides new evidence supporting cortical segregation of motor and nonmotor cortico-basal ganglionic systems that may converge in close proximity at the level of the STN and the adjacent white matter tracts (Fields of Forel/zona incerta)..  

Breathing period and expiratory time were also increased when the stimulations involved the intralaminar wing surrounding the mediodorsal nucleus, the rostral central gray, zona incerta, and ventral tegmental area.  

Most of the contacts associated with remarkable improvement were located in the posterior part of the subthalamic white matter (the zona incerta and prelemniscal radiation).  

Other activated mesodiencephalic structures are the midbrain lateral central tegmental field, zona incerta, subparafascicular nucleus, and the ventroposterior, midline, and intralaminar thalamic nuclei.  

At 38.5 degrees C, Fos-positive neurons further increased in the regions mentioned above and appeared in the lateral septal nucleus, medial preoptic area, lateral hypothalamic area and zona incerta, which were thought to be involved in thermoregulation and/or fluid regulation, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus and supraoptic nucleus in the retrochiasmatic part, which were known to be involved in neuroendocrine effector systems.  

BACKGROUND: Peptidergic neurons containing the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and the hypocretins (or orexins) are intermingled in the zona incerta, perifornical nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area.  

This led in 1877 to his seminal work on the organization of the tegmental region in which he provides the first description of the zona incerta and the so-called H (Haubenfeld) fields that still bear his name.  

Scattered neurons expressing PRL-SR mRNA were also found in the cortex, habenula, zona incerta, and thalamus.  

CONCLUSIONS: Subthalamic nucleus stimulation appears to be most effective in the border area between the upper subthalamic nucleus (sensorimotor part) and the subthalamic area containing the zona incerta, fields of Forel, and subthalamic nucleus projections..  

In the early groups, metabolic rates were bilaterally increased over control values in the periaqueductal gray, zona incerta and in several thalamic nuclei (anteroventral, centrolateral, lateral dorsal, parafascicular, posteromedial, submedius, ventromedial, and ventrobasal complex), as well as in the habenulae and in the parietal, cingulate, antero-dorsal insular, and anterior piriform cortex. However, metabolic rates were higher than controls in the periaqueductal gray and zona incerta and in two other structures not previously active: the prerubral area/field of Forel and the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus.  

Therapeutic contacts located in other structures (zona incerta, lenticular fasciculus, or midbrain reticular formation) were also linked to a significant positive effect. In addition, they have confirmed that although the STN is the main target during DBS treatment for PD, stimulation of surrounding regions, particularly the zona incerta or the lenticular fasciculus, can also improve symptoms of PD..  

Different doses of angiotensin II (AII) or angiotensin III (AIII) microinjections into the zona incerta have been studied on drinking of rats in separate experiments during the consequent 60-min-daily-drinking period. Since, the effects of AII, AIII and angiotensin antagonists have not been tested in the zona incerta, the finding that water intake increased after AII or AIII injections and it could be blocked only by either of the antagonists suggests that AT(1) and AT(2) receptors play partially different roles in the regulation of water intake..  

Recordings were made in the perifornical hypothalamic area where orexin-immunoreactive neurons are distributed (PFH), and in the area dorsal to the PFH, including the zona incerta and subincertal nucleus (collectively referred to as ZI).  

GABA neurons of ventral thalamus (reticular nucleus, ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, zona incerta, and nucleus of the fields of Forel) and of epithalamus appear at least 14 days before those intrinsic to dorsal thalamus.  

These initial neurons express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and become the PAX6-expressing A13 dopaminergic neurons of the zona incerta.  

In SRIF KO mice, a significant increase in binding levels was observed in olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, frontal cortex upper layers, lateral septum, CA1 field, zona incerta and lateral hypothalamus, substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey and parabrachial nucleus.  

Subcortical projections could be traced within the forebrain to the putamen, caudate nucleus, claustrum, zona incerta, field H of Forel and a number of thalamic nuclei, with the heaviest projections to the nuclei ventralis lateralis, ventralis posteromedialis, including its parvocellular part, medialis dorsalis, centralis medialis, centrum medianum and reuniens.  

zona incerta (ZI) is a controversial diencephalic area with a variety of cytoarchitectonic subdivisions, neurotransmitters and related functions.  

Nineteen of the 21 lesions extended beyond the STN to involve pallidofugal fibres (H2 field of Forel) and the zona incerta (ZI).  

Total numbers of TH-immunostained cells were counted in area A12 (TIDA neurons) and in A13 (medial zona incerta).  

After vascular injections of the retrograde tracers fluorogold or fastblue, melanin-concentrating hormone neurons are retrogradely labeled in the rostromedial zona incerta and adjacent perifornical region.  

Results from these experiments demonstrated that four catecholaminergic cell groups project to the septum: (1) the group related to the zona incerta in the ventral thalamus, (2) the posterior tubercle/mesencephalic group, (3) the locus coeruleus, and (4) the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

We explore the patterns of connectivity between the zona incerta (ZI) and major centres of the somatosensory system in rats.  

Such neurons could be detected in well-defined cell groups of the spinal cord (intermediolateral cell column), brain stem (vagal nuclei, area postrema, parapyramidal nucleus, caudal raphe nuclei, A1, A5, A7 noradrenergic cell groups, locus coeruleus, Barrington's nucleus, periaqueductal gray), hypothalamus (paraventricular nucleus, anterior hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, zona incerta), and, at longer survival time, in some telencephalic structures (amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis).  

One patient with a small lesion confined to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) developed persistent hemiballism; the other with a larger lesion involving the STN and also the zona incerta presented with a transient dyskinesia in a single limb.  

Apart from a dense afferent projection from the retina- and the contralateral leaflet, there were ipsilateral projections from other structures: layer V and VI of the prefrontal cortex, the zona incerta, the magnocellular part of the subparafascicular nucleus, the dorsal raphe nucleus, the locus coeruleus, and the cuneiform nucleus.  

In the diencephalon, PITX2 is expressed in neurons of the zona limitans intrathalamica and mammillary region and in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing neurons of the zona incerta.  

Nociceptive neurones responding to noxious stimulation of the face and oral structures were recorded in the ventral posteromedial nucleus, posterior group and zona incerta. The percent inhibitory effects on the nociceptive neurones of each area were 68.0+/-14.8% (n = 6) in the ventral posteromedial nucleus, 72.8+/-12.4% (n = 4) in the posterior group and 61.5+/-7.5% (n = 4) in the zona incerta.  

The neurosurgical procedures used, which were guided by combined neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods, resulted in the consistent placement of DBS electrodes in the subthalamus and mesencephalon such that the electrode contacts passed through the STN and dorsally adjacent fields of Forel (FF) and zona incerta (ZI).  

Double-labeled neurons were observed in the lateral hypothalamic area, rostromedial zona incerta and dorsal tuberomammillary nucleus. The afferents from the lateral hypothalamic area, rostromedial zona incerta and dorsal tuberomammillary nucleus to the medial mammillary nucleus were confirmed using implant of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin.  

The origin of this pathway was localized to zona incerta (ZI), known to receive collaterals from corticothalamic fibres.  

This study explores the patterns of connections between the zona incerta (ZI) of the thalamus and the major auditory centres of the rat brain.  

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a cyclic nonadecapeptide, is predominantly expressed in mammalian neurons located in the zona incerta and lateral hypothalamus.  

Subthalamically, weak projections could be traced into the zona incerta and lateral hypothalamus.  

The zona incerta (ZI), located dorsally to the STN, is also reported to be overactive after nigrostriatal denervation.  

We have examined the general ultrastructure of the posterior thalamic (Po) and parafascicular (Pf) nuclei of the dorsal thalamus, together with the ultrastructure of afferents to these nuclei from the zona incerta (ZI).  

In an effort to understand better the function of the zona incerta of the thalamus, this study has examined the organisation of its connections with the red nucleus of the midbrain. Injections of the tracers biotinylated dextran (BD) or cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) were made into either the zona incerta or red nucleus of Sprague Dawley rats and the resultant labelling was examined. The results indicate that there are strong connections between the zona incerta and red nucleus; further, that these connections make distinct patterns in each nucleus. After rubral injections, labelling is seen across all of the four distinct sectors of the zona incerta, but with a concentration within the medial region of each. Overall, the results indicate that the zona incerta is in a position to influence the motor related functions of the parvocellular lamina of the red nucleus. It is suggested that these results, when taken together with recent reports of a large interpositoincertal pathway, render the zona incerta as a synaptic interface between cerebellar and rubral circuits..  

In this study, the lamination patterns of spinal cells projecting to the zona incerta (ZI), intralaminar nuclei and ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus have been explored.  

In diencephalons a small number of dually labeled neurons was observed in the rostromedial zona incerta.  

STN neurons were easily distinguished from cells of the overlying zona incerta and the underlying substantia nigra. During a typical exploratory track, we can observe a very low background noise in the zona incerta and almost complete absence of single cell recording.  

In recent years, the role of the area around the upper brainstem, particularly the pedunculopontine (PPN) region and the zona incerta (ZI), in the initiation and control of movement has generated much clinical interest.  

Recent experiments have suggested that the zona incerta might be regarded as a highly sensitive structure for seizure induction. Here we have decided to investigate the participation of the GABAergic system of the zona incerta, one of its major neurotransmitters with widespread projections to the neocortex, in the pilocarpine (Pilo) model of epilepsy. Stereotaxic administration of a GABA(A) agonist (muscimol), antagonist (bicuculline) or saline (controls) bilaterally into the zona incerta of adult male Wistar rats was performed 30 min prior to the systemic injection of pilocarpine. Our results contribute to the further characterisation of the regulatory role of the zona incerta in seizure-related phenomena, suggesting that its modulation might be a relevant target for anticonvulsant strategies..  

Significant subcortical sources for afferents to the NRTP and basal pontine nuclei were the zona incerta, ventral mesencephalic tegmentum, dorsomedial hypothalamic area, rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, red nucleus, and subthalamic nucleus.  

Using retrograde dextran amine tracing in combination with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunohistochemistry, we showed that only four brain centers contribute to the CA innervation of the adult spinal cord: (1) the ventrolateral component of the posterior tubercle, (2) the periventricular nucleus of the zona incerta, (3) the locus coeruleus, and (4) the nucleus of the solitary tract (except for gymnophionans). At stage 43, spinal projections were found from the periventricular nucleus of the zona incerta and the locus coeruleus, whereas spinal projections from the nucleus of the solitary tract were not observed before stage 53.  

Already at embryonic stages (stage 40), spinal projections from the reticular formation, raphe nuclei, Mauthner neurons, vestibular nuclei, the locus coeruleus, the interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the posterior tubercle, and the periventricular nucleus of the zona incerta are well developed. Subsequently, at stage 43, new projections arise in the periventricular nucleus of the zona incerta and the locus coeruleus.  

Paraventricular thalamic nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet and zona incerta directly innervate SCN.  

Typical trajectories passed through the anterior thalamus, zona incerta/fields of Forel, STN, and substantia nigra-pars reticulata.  

We detected weak but significant mRNA levels for DAT in Arc, SO, zona incerta (ZI) and periventricular hypothalamic nucleus (Pe).  

Anatomical correlates may be the pallidothalamic bundle (including Field H of Forel and the thalamic fascicle), the pallidosubthalamic tract, and/or the zona incerta..  

The tip of the left electrode was located medially and posteriorly in the left STN and the tip of the right electrode entered the base of the thalamus/zona incerta immediately above the right STN.  

Here, we describe the localization of preproorexin mRNA in the ovine lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and zona incerta (ZI) using in situ hybridization.  

Extracellular single-unit recordings were made from neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) or zona incerta (ZI) of conscious sheep.  

Prominent efferent projections of the MPFC were observed in the contralateral MPFC: ipsi- and contralateral amygdala and hypothalamus; ipsilateral septal area, diagonal band, and zona incerta.  

The rat homologue was later also found to be expressed in the lateral hypothalamus and the zona incerta.  

We describe a patient with MS with disabling proximal and distal involuntary arm movements in whom we were able to obtain sustained control of contralateral arm tremor and achieve functional improvement of the affected arm by chronic DBS of the region of the zona incerta.  

ORX immunoreactive cells were distributed in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, zona incerta and perifornical area; a few cells were also observed in the anterior hypothalamic area.  

OB-Rb-like immunoreactivity was widespread within cells localized to the periventricular, paraventricular, supraoptic, dorsomedial hypothalamic, ventromedial hypothalamic and arcuate nuclei, as well as the median eminence, perifornical, anterior hypothalamic and lateral hypothalamic areas and the zona incerta.  

However, placement of the stimulating electrode tip at the junction of the zona incerta and subthalamic regions caused abolition of the movement disorder, and the pulse generator was not required.  

PHA-L-immunoreactive (IR) fibers showing preterminal and terminal-like arborization that contained proTRH were identified in the dorsolateral and lateral PAG, deep layer of superior colliculus (CS), parafascicular nucleus (PF), ventromedial zona incerta (ZI) and at the border of the locus coeruleus (LC) and Barrington's nucleus.  

We review the evidence that suggest a possible role in BA for the following brain structures: entopeduncular nucleus, medullary and pontine reticular zones, parabrachial region, pedunculopontine nucleus and nearby areas, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, ventromedial thalamic nucleus, and zona incerta.  

No VIP fibers or VIP2R were found on dopaminergic neurons in the zona incerta.  

Extracellular single unit recordings were made in the medial and lateral ventroposterior nucleus, posterior thalamic nucleus, zona incerta, lateral posterior nucleus, laterodorsal nucleus, ventrolateral nucleus and reticular nucleus.  

In the caudal hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (A11), arcuate nucleus (A12) and zona incerta (A13), the distribution was partially overlapping.  

We have examined the organisation of connections between the zona incerta (ZI), a small diencephalic nucleus deriving from the ventral thalamus, and the interposed nucleus (Int) of the cerebellum.  

The antidromic activation foci were localized to these sites (and occasional projections to other sites were also observed, such as the parafascicular nucleus and zona incerta).  

However, in scrapie-infected mice, a few silver stained neurons (differing from the dark degenerating neurons observed following neurotoxic exposure) were found in layer II of cortex, cingulate cortex, zona incerta, thalamus and hypothalamus.  

Our findings suggest a volume, encompassing the zona incerta, Forel's fields and the lowermost part of anterior thalamus, functionally homogeneous to Stn.  

Postoperative MRI scans demonstrated that tremor could be attenuated by lesions centred on the thalamus in seven cases, on the zona incerta in five cases and in the subthalamic nucleus in one case.  

Here we examine the patterns of connections between the zona incerta (ZI) of the thalamus and the major visual centers of the rat brain, namely the retina, dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd), superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SCs), and occipital cortex (Ocl).  

After visualization with a standard ABC method, nuclear immunoreactivity was seen in neurons throughout the brain, including the olfactory nuclei, laminae IV-VI of the cerebral cortex, medial septum, preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, zona incerta, medial and cortical amygdaloid nuclei, cerebellum, nucleus of the solitary tract, ventral tegmental area, and spinal trigeminal nucleus.  

We have shown previously that the zona incerta (ZI), a small nucleus deriving from the ventral thalamus, has extensive ipsilateral connections with the higher order and intralaminar nuclei of the dorsal thalamus and that there are many ipsilateral interconnections between the different cytoarchitectonic sectors of the ZI.  

Levels of mRNAs for NPY and galanin in the arcuate nucleus, and for MCH and CART in the zona incerta did not change significantly after LPS treatment.  

Within the hypothalamus, MCHR mRNA was moderately expressed in the ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus, and zona incerta, all of which serve key roles in the neuronal circuitry of feeding.  

Systematic mapping by electrical microstimulation of the thalamus and subthalamus revealed that elevations in rCBF were elicited only from a limited area, which encompassed medial pole of zona incerta, Forel's field, and prerubral zone.  

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