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Mesencephalic


Exposure to psychostimulants results in neuroadaptive changes of the mesencephalic dopaminergic system including morphological reorganization of dopaminergic neurons. Increased dendrite arborization and soma area were previously observed in primary cultures of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons after 3-day exposure to dopamine agonists via activation of D3 autoreceptors (D3R). These observations were corroborated in vivo by morphometrical assessment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of P1 newborns exposed to cocaine from E12.5 to E16.5.  

INTRODUCTION: The acetogenin, annonacin, from the tropical annonaceous plant Annona muricata, is a lipophilic, mitochondrial complex I inhibitor reported to be more toxic than rotenone to mesencephalic neurons.  

In the present work we analyze the cerebellum of chronic parkinsonian monkeys in order to clarify whether chronic mesencephalic depletion is associated with long term activation of the cerebellar neurons in chronic Parkinsonism.  

The neurons in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MeV) play essential roles in proprioceptive sensation of the face and oral cavity.  

Recently, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) has been reported to prevent cell death under some pathophysiological conditions.  

L-DOPA is the gold standard medication of Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder consequent upon the degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.  

It decreased in the sequence from the paranigral nucleus of the ventral portion of mesencephalic tegumentum to the medial portion of the accumbence nucleus (field 24b, layer III of field la, layer V of field 1) depending on the initial severity of acute damage in the brain region being examined.  

Yet apart from these known mesencephalic lesions, we found several more brainstem signs and symptoms resulting from overdrainage.  

In contrast to in situ hybridization in rodents, we detected only low levels of ErbB4-immunoreactivity in mesencephalic dopaminergic nuclei but a diffuse pattern of immunofluorescence that was medium in the dorsal striatum and high in the ventral forebrain, suggesting that most ErbB4 protein in dopaminergic neurons could be transported to axons.  

Such inhibition would be coming from PS-off GABAergic neurons localized in the vlPAG and the adjacent deep mesencephalic reticular nucleus.  

Interestingly, cannabinoids protected DA neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium neurotoxicity in cocultures of mesencephalic neurons and microglia, but not in neuron-enriched mesencephalic cultures devoid of microglia.  

We found that the gait transition from walking to trotting can be induced by increased activity of the descending drive coming from the mesencephalic locomotor region and is helped by the sensory inputs at the hip and scapula regions detecting the late stance phase.  

Thalamo-mesencephalic neuroepithelial cysts are rare lesions of the central nervous system.  

In the mesencephalon, S100 IR was observed in the longitudinal tori, in the optic tectum, and along the mesencephalic ventricle.  

In the present study, "transwell" assays of chick embryo mesencephalic (cranial) NCC migration and ex ovo whole embryo "bead implantation" assays were utilized to determine whether SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling mediates mesencephalic NCC migration. Results from this study demonstrate that attenuation of SDF-1 signaling, through the use of specific CXCR4 antagonists (AMD3100 and TN14003), disrupts the migration of mesencephalic NCCs into the orofacial region, suggesting a novel role for SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling in the directed migration of mesencephalic NCCs in the early stage embryo..  

In the present study, we elucidated that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participates in the gliogenic specification of mouse mesencephalic neural crest cells. This observation supports our notion that the interaction between NF-κB signaling and Notch signaling plays an important role in the gliogenic specification of mouse mesencephalic neural crest cells..  

The authors present the case of a 10-month-old boy with a mesencephalic DVA compressing the aqueduct and causing occlusive hydrocephalus.  

Cells in the anterior DON project to the contralateral tectum, whereas cells in the posterior DON project bilaterally to the torus semicircularis and lateral mesencephalic nucleus.  

In contrast to unipolar depression, sonographic findings of bipolar patients may generally indicate structural integrity of mesencephalic raphe structures.  

Method of anterograde and retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase was used to study the organization of projections of different substructures of zona incerta (ZI), pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) complex, and functionally distinct structures of the pallidum of dog brain (n=20).  

Our main question was whether a spinal border (SB) subpopulation of ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT) neurones monitor actions of reticulospinal neurones with input from the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) as well as from pyramidal tract (PT) neurones.  

In the present study, we used primary cultures of ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons from E13.5 Balb/C mice to investigate whether there were any gender differences in gene expression and cell sensitivity to oxidative stress in sex segregated cultures.  

This case shows that upper paramedian mesencephalic and/or thalamic structures play a major role in the regulation of body temperature and that infarctions involved these structures could present with central hyperthermia.  

In this study, we transplanted murine foetal ventral mesencephalic cells into rats rendered hemiparkinsonian by 6-hydroxydopamine injection.  

As a result, mesencephalic homotopic and homochronic transplants generated cellular migratory streams moving from the grafted epithelium into the host cerebellum, crossing the isthmus mainly through the velum medullare and invading the central white matter. From here, these mesencephalic cells invaded all the layers of the cerebellar cortex except the granular layer.  

We briefly summarize the lessons learned from the early clinical trials with grafts of human fetal mesencephalic tissue, and discuss recent findings suggesting susceptibility of these grafts to the disease process long-term after implantation. The rationale for the new clinical trial with transplantation of fetal mesencephalic tissue is described.  

The findings suggest a neostriatal and mesencephalic structural basis for the clinical features of PSP leading to frontostriatal and mesocortical-striatal circuit disruption..  

In addition, we observed the expression in another sensory neuron in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus.  

Mice heterozygous for the homeobox gene Engrailed-1 (En1) display progressive loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons.  

To explore the functional consequences of cannabinoid withdrawal in the rat mesolimbic dopamine system, we investigated the anatomical morphology of the mesencephalic, presumed dopaminergic, neurons and their main post-synaptic target in the Nucleus Accumbens.  

In the present study, we sought to investigate the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against apoptotic cell death in a mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cell culture model of MA neurotoxicity.  

Using primary cortical and mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we found that clozapine was protective against inflammation-related neurodegeneration induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pretreatment of cortical or mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures with clozapine (0.1 or 1 μM) for 24 h attenuated LPS-induced neurotoxicity.  

In these experiments, intrastriatal transplantation of human embryonic mesencephalic tissue reinnervated the striatum, restored dopamine levels and showed motor improvements.  

Recently, several studies using transcranial sonography (TCS) have resulted in the alteration of the mesencephalic midline in patients with depression. Based on these results, the use of TCS with respect to the mesencephalic midline may be useful in detecting depression, a risk factor for the development of PD..  

In line with the specific expression pattern of Ap-2δ in the mesencephalic tectum and the dorsal midbrain, Ap-2δ-deficient mice failed to maintain the colliculus inferior, a derivative of the dorsal midbrain, as a consequence of increased apoptotic cell death.  

Primary mesencephalic neuron exposure to Mn nanoparticles induced loss of TH positive dopaminergic neurons and neuronal processes.  

The endoscope's tip was positioned at the level of the mamillary bodies and the previously defined anatomical target structures; anteriorly, the optic chiasm, anterior commissure, infundibulum, tuber cinereum and posteriorly, the entrance to the mesencephalic aqueduct and posterior commissure were inspected.  

The striatum is essentially composed of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) that are output neurons giving rise to the so-called direct and indirect pathways and are targets of the cerebral cortex and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.  

Treatment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal N27 cells with 6-OHDA (100 μM) for 24h significantly reduced mitochondrial activity and increased cytosolic cytochrome c, followed by sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3.  

To visualize living neurons transduced with foreign genes in vitro, we used cultured mesencephalic tissue harboring living dopaminergic (DA) neurons and examined cellular tropism of serotype-1 and serotype-2 AAV vectors in a culture system.  

Here, we describe detailed methods for culturing primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and examining the activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein Kinase (JNK) in these cultures.  

Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies have demonstrated the coexistence of both receptors within single neurons of the CNS, including those in the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG), a region that is implicated in the opioid control of nociception.  

Despite the severe defects of neurogenesis in null mutants, the mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons were specified at the midline of the ventral mesencephalon in close proximity to two important signal centers - floor plate and mid/hindbrain boundary (i.e., the isthmic organizer).  

I show that the early lateral evagination of the eye cups and of the mesencephalic plate is a consequence of a sudden change in boundary conditions of the initial cell flow occurring in these embryos.  

The cytotoxicity of paraquat was examined in an immortalized human mesencephalic neuron-derived cell line. To further understand the effect of paraquat exposure on human mesencephalic neuron-derived cells, the cells were differentiated and similar experiments were carried out. These results confirm that GDNF confers protection against paraquat-mediated cytotoxicity and show that immortalized human mesencephalic neuron-derived cells are an adequate in vitro system for evaluating the cytoprotective effects of GDNF on oxidative injury caused by xenobiotics..  

Secondary degeneration of the mesencephalic substantia nigra after cerebral infarction is widely known to occur in animal experiments, but has yet to be sufficiently investigated in human cerebral infarction. This study investigated the background and features of patients exhibiting secondary degeneration of the mesencephalic substantia nigra. The subjects comprised 43 patients admitted to our hospital for cerebral infarction between April 2007 and October 2010 showing secondary degeneration of the mesencephalic substantia nigra on cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Hyperintense regions in the mesencephalic substantia nigra were observed in all patients after 7-28 days (mean, 13.3 days) on diffusion-weighted imaging or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T2-weighted MRI.  

Therefore, loss of ALDH1A1 expression could be predicted to alter DA metabolism and potentially increase neurotoxicity in ventral mesencephalic DA neurons.  

Here we review recent data concerning the electrophysiological effects of TAs on the activity of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.  

Heavy P2Y(4) receptor immunostaining was observed in the magnocellular neuroendocrine neurons of the hypothalamus, red nucleus, pontine nuclei, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, motor trigeminal nucleus, ambiguous nucleus, inferior olive, hypoglossal nucleus, and dorsal motor vagus nucleus.  

The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) plays an important role in the control of locomotion, but there is ongoing debate about the anatomy of its connections with the spinal cord.  

In this unit, we describe a primary culture method for mouse mesencephalic neural crest cells. Therefore, this primary culture method is useful for analyzing the development of mouse mesencephalic neural crest cells..  

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH  mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures and reconstituted cultures were used to investigate neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of SAHA. KEY RESULTS  In two different experimental designs, we demonstrated that SAHA displayed dose-and time- dependently potent neuroprotective effects: 1) prolonged the survival of DA neurons, 2) protected DA neurons against neurotoxin-induced neuronal death in mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures.  

Transplantation of dopaminergic neurons can potentially improve the clinical outcome of Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder resulting from degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.  

Intriguingly, the dlx6a 5'-flanking fragment has a major impact on transgene expression in the mesencephalic tectum.  

Dopaminergic and RN neurons have been shown to arise from ventral mesencephalic precursors that express Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). However, Shh expression, which is initially confined to the mesencephalic ventral midline, expands laterally and is then downregulated in the ventral midline.  

Interestingly, EP was found to protect DA neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium neurotoxicity in cocultures of mesencephalic neurons and microglia but not in neuron-enriched mesencephalic cultures devoid of microglia.  

To evaluate the disruption of neurodevelopmental programming, we previously established an in vitro neurosphere assay system, using rat mesencephalic neural stem cells (mNSC).  

Radial glial cells lining the mesencephalic and rhombencephalic ventricles showed immunoreactivity to all three Trks.  

In this study, we examined whether dopamine mediates 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced toxicity in primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons, an in vitro model of PD, and if so, whether the protective effects of COX-2 inhibitors on dopamine mediated MPP(+)-induced VM neurotoxicity and VM dopaminergic cell apoptosis result from the reduction of ROS.  

Bite strength is regulated by the trigeminal motor nucleus and the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5).  

Cerebral angiography demonstrated that the AVM was fed by the paramedian mesencephalic arteries and was drained via the vein of Galen.  

Minor terminal nerve projections were also traced ipsilaterally to diencephalic and mesencephalic levels. In these experiments labeled neurons and fibers were observed from telencephalic to caudal mesencephalic regions.  

In the midbrain, strong immunostaining was seen in the periaqueductal gray, the dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus, and the isthmo-optic nucleus.  

To address this issue, we generated primary neurospheres from the dopaminergic niche of the ventral mesencephalon and then transplanted these cells to their original niche within mesencephalic explant cultures. Primary neurosphere cells showed poor capacity to generate dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalic niche of dopaminergic neurogenesis. Further, neurospheres cells were largely unable to acquire the endogenous positional identity within the Nkx6.1(+), Nkx2.2(+), and Pax7(+) domains of mesencephalic explants. Finally, we demonstrate that our observations are not specific for embryonic mesencephalic cells, as NPCs in the adult subventricular zone also showed an intrinsic fate switch from neuronal to glial potential upon neurosphere amplification.  

During early development, midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuronal progenitors (NPs) arise from the ventral mesencephalic area by the combined actions of secreted factors and their downstream transcription factors.  

Primary cell cultures from mesencephalic tissue were exposed to LPS in vitro; LPS was stereotaxically injected into the substantia nigra, striatum, or globus pallidus of brain or injected into the peritoneal cavity of the animal in vivo.  

The ventrolateral division of the periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and the adjacent deep mesencephalic reticular nucleus have been implicated in the control of sleep.  

Retigabine is an anti-epileptic drug that inhibits neuronal firing by stabilizing the membrane potential through positive modulation of voltage-dependent KCNQ potassium channels in cortical neurons and in mesencephalic dopamine (DA) neurons.  

Neurones close to the dorsal midline of the mesencephalon establish the descending tract of the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminus.  

MPP(+) caused a specific increase of COX IV-2 transcript and protein levels in male mesencephalic astrocytes, accompanied by decreased ATP and increased reactive oxygen species levels and elevated apoptotic cell death, which were more pronounced in mesencephalic than in cortical astrocytes from male than from female mice.  

In early chick embryo brain, only the mesencephalic-rombencephalic isthmus (IsO) is able to synthesize RA.  

Pretreatment with ASA reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures in a dose-dependent manner.  

Here we report the identification of the zinc finger-like doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 5 (Dmrt5) as a marker for mammalian ventral-medial mesencephalic neuroepithelium that give rise to dopamine neurons. Genome-wide analysis of Dmrt5-mediated transcriptome changes and expression profiling of ventral-medial and ventral-lateral mesencephalic neuroepithelium revealed suppressive and inductive regulatory roles for Dmrt5 in the transcription program associated with the ventral-medial neural progenitor fates. Together, these data identify Dmrt5 as an important player in ventral mesencephalic neural fate specification..  

Here we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and FGF8 on expansion and dopaminergic differentiation of rat embryonic ventral mesencephalic neuroblasts cultured at high (20%) and low (3%) oxygen tension.  

Although transplantation of human fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue has been reported as one of the most effective reparative therapies in Parkinson's disease patients to date, different studies have shown inconsistent results causing a paucity of new trials over the last decade.  

The loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons is the cause of Parkinson's disease.  

Preliminary cell adhesion tests were also carried out by seeding NIH-3T3 and mesencephalic cells on lab-glass slides printed with concentration profiles of collagen and poly-lysine, respectively..  

To test the hypothesis that the mesencephalic ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a role in autonomic control of the cardiovascular system, we examined the cardiovascular effects of electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic ventral areas in anesthetized, paralyzed cats and rats.  

mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons (mDA) and serotonergic (5-HT) neurons are clinically important ventral neuronal populations.  

In mesencephalic culture, EGF and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) similarly promoted survival and neurite elongation of dopaminergic neurons and dopamine uptake. The EGF-promoted dopamine uptake was not inhibited by GDNF-neutralizing antibody or TrkB-Fc, whereas EGF-neutralizing antibody fully blocked the neurotrophic activity of the conditioned medium that was prepared from EGF-stimulated mesencephalic cultures.  

Three days after successful IVH removal and improvement of her consciousness, the patient lapsed into a comatose state due to hydrocephalus caused by obstruction of the mesencephalic aqueduct by a small remnant clot.  

The present study addressed the role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 1C (CYP1C) genes in association with a decrease in mesencephalic vein (MsV) blood flow.  

To describe a patient with diencephalic and mesencephalic presentation of a Ma1 and Ma2 antibody-associated paraneoplastic neurological disorder..  

The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPTg) is constituted by a heterogeneous cluster of neurons located in caudal mesencephalic tegmentum which projects to the thalamus to trigger thalamocortical rhythms and the brainstem to modulate muscle tone and locomotion.  

The high CO activity is also characteristic of the mesencephalic structures (EM, isthmus nuclei: IMc, IPc, SLu) modulating transduction of visual information in tectum, Rot and GLd.  

The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) plays an important role in mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal development, particularly coupled with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. We analyzed the effect of Wnt5a on dopaminergic neuron development in mesencephalic primary cultures from wild-type (WT) and D2R knock-out (D2R(-/-)) mice. Treatment with Wnt5a increased the number and neuritic length of dopamine neurons in primary mesencephalic neuronal cultures from WT mice, but not from D2R(-/-) mice. Wnt5a-mediated ERK activation in mesencephalic neuronal cultures was inhibited by treatment of D2R antagonist and EGFR inhibitors in WT mice.  

We performed patch-clamp recordings from dopaminergic neurons in mesencephalic-striatal co-cultures obtained from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter.  

The tumor had compressed the mesencephalic aqueduct, leading to obstructive hydrocephalus.  

Previous research has shown that allelic variations in three LMX1A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related to risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that these SNPs may influence the number of mesencephalic DA neurons.  

ABSTRACT: We characterized phenotype and function of a fetal human mesencephalic cell line (LUHMES, Lund human mesencephalic) as neuronal model system.  

In utero electroporation with Gata2 small hairpin RNAs at E16 into cells along the dorsal mesencephalic ventricle interferes with their normal migration into the SC and maintains them in a state characterized by retention of Pax3 expression and the absence of mature neuronal markers.  

In primary mesencephalic cultures both the cell bodies and the neuronal processes of TH immunopositive (TH+) neurons from NL embryos were significantly (p<0.001) more resistant to 10 μM MPP+ compared to WT.  

Rat mesencephalic cells (MES 23.5) overexpressing human α-synuclein show enhanced susceptibility to Mn exposure as evidenced by increased apoptosis and NF-κB nuclear translocation.  

Only in these subjects did opioid infusion and withdrawal induce a rise in activity in the mesencephalic-pontine reticular formation (MPRF), an area of the DPMS that has been previously shown to be involved in states of CS in humans, which became significant during the withdrawal phase compared with nonresponders.  

SCA2 is caused by the abnormal expansion of cytosine-adenine-guanine triplet repeats in the encoding region of the ATXN2 gene and therefore the expression of toxic polyglutamine expansions in the ataxin 2 protein, which cause progressive neuronal death of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and several pontine, mesencephalic, and thalamic neurons among other cells.  

A precise understanding of the ambient cistern and its associated arachnoid membranes is helpful for accessing perimesencephalic lesions.  

Treatment with piericidin A, a complex I inhibitor, does not induce selective dopamine neuron death in either Ndufs4(+/+) or Ndufs4(-/-) mesencephalic cultures.  

Liliequist's membrane is mostly described as having a diencephalic leaf, mesencephalic leaf, and diencephalic-mesencephalic leaves in the literature.  

Moreover, GM-CSF blunted the paraquat induced reduction of brain derived neurotrophic factor within the hippocampus, as well as in cultured mesencephalic neurons. Although paraquat reduced mesencephalic levels of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, GM-CSF had no effect in this regard.  

We quantitatively compared relative merits of lateral approaches to the pontomesencephalic junction (PMJ): anterior petrosectomy, subtemporal transtentorial, posterior petrosectomy, and retrosigmoid transtentorial. In dissected cadaveric heads, lengths of exposure were measured anteriorly from CN V along the pontomesencephalic sulcus (PMS); posterosuperiorly along the lateral mesencephalic sulcus (LMS); and posteroinferiorly along the interpeduncular sulcus (IPS).  

The mesencephalic segment of superior cerebellar artery (SCA) and the caudal loop of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were made from artificial blood vessels and glued on the brain.  

In recent years, there have been major advances in the analysis of GDNF signaling pathways in peripheral neurons and embryonic dopamine mesencephalic cells.  

A key role is played by the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG), which maintains strong specific projections to the nucleus retroambiguus located laterally in the most caudal medulla.  

One such locomotor control center in the brainstem is the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), first discovered in cats and later found in all vertebrate species tested to date.  

In a few experiments, we stimulated the mesencephalic locomotor region or selected peripheral nerves during fictive locomotion and both could alter the phase/cycle period relationship.  

After ipsilateral BDA application to the central nucleus of the amygdala (AmCe), widespread ipsilateral projections emerging from its medial subnucleus were traced to the trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex, including the principal sensory (Pr5) and mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5), and their premotoneurons and interneurons, located in the supratrigeminal, intertrigeminal and peritrigeminal nuclei. The medial amygdaloid nucleus sparsely innervates Me5 neurons, specifically those located in its mesencephalic portion, while basomedial and basolateral efferents do not target the trigeminal nuclear complex.  

The objective of this study was to determine whether the iron chelator, phytic acid (IP6) can protect against 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced apoptosis in immortalized rat mesencephalic dopaminergic cells under normal and iron-excess conditions.  

The purposes of this study were to assess the neuroprotective effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) on dopaminergic neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in organotypic mesencephalic slice culture and to elucidate the possible mechanism underlying neuroprotection.  

Low dose Mn (3-10μM) exposure to differentiated mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells for 3h induced a significant increase in TH activity and phosphorylation of TH-Ser40.  

mesencephalic-diencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons play a relevant role in the control of movement, behavior, and cognition. This review will focus on the role exerted by Otx genes in early decisions regulating sequential steps required for the neurogenesis of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons.  

Experiments were performed on paralyzed, precollicular-postmamillary decerebrate cats, in which locomotion was induced by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region.  

In this study, an anti-CD200R blocking antibody (ACDR) selectively and significantly enhanced the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to neurotoxicity induced by rotenone (Rot) and iron (Ir) in mesencephalic neuron/glia cultures.  

Rats with Pain & Disability showed: (i) pro-apoptotic ratios of Bax:Bcl-2 mRNAs; (ii) decreased HSP60 mRNA; (iii) increased iNOS and MEK2 mRNAs; (iv) TUNEL-positive profiles in the lateral and ventrolateral PAG; and (v) caspase-3 immunoreactive neurons in the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve.  

Interestingly, fluoxetine was found to protect DA neuronal damage from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP(+)) neurotoxicity in co-cultures of mesencephalic neurons and microglia but not in neuron-enriched mesencephalic cultures devoid of microglia.  

Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of unclear etiology, is primarily an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, while the normal process of aging is also known to decrease the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In this study, we examined mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of klotho mice and identified tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the SNc and VTA, and found that levels of striatal dopamine were significantly decreased with aging in klotho mice.  

Therefore, Fgf8 from the MHB may signal the nearby mesencephalic cells to impart distinct cell surface characteristics or induce local cell-cell signaling, which consequently prevents cell movements across the MHB.  

DA exposure significantly upregulated MT-1/-2 in cultured striatal astrocytes, but not in mesencephalic neurons. Quinone formation and reduction of mesencephalic DA neurons after DA exposure were ameliorated by preincubation with conditioned media from DA-treated astrocytes.  

From the isolation, for the first time, of the encoding sequence for GABA(A) R α₁, α₄ , and α₅ subunits in Protopterus annectens, qPCR and in situ hybridization levels of α₄ transcript in thalamic (P < 0.001) and mesencephalic (P < 0.01) areas proved to be significantly higher during long aestivating maintenance states.  

We examined 7 patients with mesencephalic lesions and 8 patients with medullary lesions. Study of the SBR can be helpful in the neurophysiological assessment of patients with mesencephalic lesions..  

Because mesencephalic weights also include the valvula cerebelli, the relatively large value for Pleuragramma may be attributable to its role in integration and sensorimotor coordination of information from the highly cellular duplex retina and to integration of signals from thewell-developed octavolateralis system.  

Post-mortem analyses of brains from patients with Parkinson disease who received fetal mesencephalic transplants show that α-synuclein-containing (α-syn-containing) Lewy bodies gradually appear in grafted neurons.  

The levels of mRNA for the selected neuropeptides: galanin (GAL), vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OT), substance P (SP), somatostatin (SOM), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), endomorphin-2 (EM-2), and opioid receptors: MOR, DOR and KOR in mesencephalic, hypothalamic and thalamic tissues were determined by real-time PCR.  

The distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was examined in the rat mesencephalic trigeminal tract nucleus after transection and crush of the masseteric nerve. In the intact mesencephalic trigeminal tract nucleus, brain-derived neurotrophic factor was detected in small cells with fine processes. As a result, the density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-immunoreactive profiles in the mesencephalic trigeminal tract nucleus at 7 days after the injury was significantly higher compared with the intact nucleus. These findings indicate that the nerve injury increases expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in microglia within the mesencephalic trigeminal tract nucleus.  

By means of DWI, we repeatedly measured in the same rats apparent diffusion coefficient ADC in different brain areas (motor cortex (MCx), somato-sensory cortex (SCx), caudate-putamen (CPu), hippocampus (Hip), mesencephalic reticular formation (RF), corpus callosum (CC) and cerebellum (Cb)) after 1 week, 4 and 12 weeks of lead acetate exposure via drinking water (50 or 500 ppm).  

We focused our attention on two particular chemokines, the Stromal cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) and the Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and their cognate receptors CXCR4 and CCR2, as they are expressed constitutively in nearly all DA mesencephalic neurons.  

From the isolation, for the first time, of the encoding sequence for GABA(A)R α(1), α(4), and α(5) subunits in Protopterus annectens, qPCR and in situ hybridization levels of α(4) transcript in thalamic (P < 0.001) and mesencephalic (P < 0.01) areas proved to be significantly higher during long aestivating maintenance states.  

Lack of reelin causes not only disorganized lamination of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex but also malpositioning of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons.  

Neuronal differentiation from expanded human ventral mesencephalic neural precursor cells (NPCs) is very limited.  

Interestingly, mitochondrial damage also occurs in mesencephalic glia of mice carrying mutated asyn controlled by the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. However, we found strong overexpression of endogenous asyn in mesencephalic astrocytes from these mice. Cultivated mesencephalic astrocytes from newborn transgenic mice display various functional defects along with the morphological damage of mitochondria. First, the mitochondrial Ca(2+)-storage capacity is reduced in asyn transgenic mesencephalic astrocytes, but not in astrocytes from PaKO. Third, the neurotrophic effects exerted by control astrocytes, stimulating cortical neurons from healthy mice to develop longer processes and larger neuronal areas, are lacking in co-cultures with transgenic mesencephalic astrocytes.  

The olfactory input was relayed in the medial part of the olfactory bulb, in the posterior tuberculum, in the mesencephalic locomotor region, to finally reach reticulospinal cells in the hindbrain.  

DA exposure significantly upregulated MT-1/-2 in cultured striatal astrocytes, but not in mesencephalic neurons. Quinone formation and reduction of mesencephalic DA neurons after DA exposure were ameliorated by preincubation with conditioned media from DA-treated astrocytes.  

Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) constitute a novel, evolutionarily conserved family of neurotrophic factors (NTF) expressed in vertebrates and invertebrates.  

Analyses of lmx1b mutant mice have revealed the role of Lmx1b in the development of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and the serotonergic system; these areas have been linked with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The co-occurrence of these symptoms may be related to mesencephalic dopaminergic neurologic pathway abnormalities that are a consequence of LMX1B loss of function..  

Practicing mental repetition of "OM" has been shown to cause significant changes in the middle latency auditory-evoked potentials, which suggests that it facilitates the neural activity at the mesencephalic or diencephalic levels..  

However, such organization only exists in the mesencephalic, but not in the diencephalic auditory regions of amphibians. To gain insights into how this core-shell organization developed and evolved, we injected a small dose of [ (3)H]-thymidine into tadpoles of Xenopus laevis at peak stages of neurogenesis in the mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory areas. Following different survival times, the germinal sites and migrating routes of cells were examined in the shell (laminar nucleus, Tl; magnocellular nucleus, Tmc) and core (principal nucleus, Tp) regions of the mesencephalic auditory nucleus, torus semicircularis (Ts), as well as in the diencephalic auditory areas (posterior thalamic nucleus, P; central thalamic nucleus, C).  

We discuss the relation to adjacent regions of the pedunculopontine nucleus, such as the cuneiform nucleus and the subcuneiform nucleus, which together with the pedunculopontine nucleus are the main areas of the mesencephalic locomotor region and play a major role in the initiation of gait.  

Studies of TCS report alterations of the mesencephalic raphe in patients with depression.  

Some researchers have hypothesized that the mesencephalic locomotor region, which is a functionally defined area in the brainstem playing an important role in locomotion, is involved in the development of gait disturbance in iNPH. The hypothesis that the mesencephalic locomotor region is involved in the manifestation of gait disturbance in iNPH needs to be reconsidered..  

During motor imagery of gait, patients with freezing of gait showed more activity than patients without freezing of gait in the mesencephalic locomotor region. Furthermore, patients with freezing of gait had grey matter atrophy in a small portion of the mesencephalic locomotor region. The gait-related hyperactivity of the mesencephalic locomotor region correlated with clinical parameters (freezing of gait severity and disease duration), but not with the degree of atrophy. These results indicate that patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait have structural and functional alterations in the mesencephalic locomotor region. We suggest that freezing of gait might emerge when altered cortical control of gait is combined with a limited ability of the mesencephalic locomotor region to react to that alteration.  

Subsequently, new PINK1-positive neurons were found in the midbrain within the floor and the periventricular layers of the ventral wall of the mesencephalic vesicle (stage E17) as well as in the neopallial cortex, the tegmentum of the midbrain and the periventricular region of the caudal part of the rhombencephalon (stage E19).  

The findings from this study showed serotonergic hyperinnervation in the grafted striatum of two patients with Parkinson's disease who exhibited major motor recovery after transplantation with fetal mesencephalic tissue but later developed graft-induced dyskinesias.  

In normal conditions, the glutamate excitation would be blocked by the simultaneous excitation by the hypocretins of the PS-off GABAergic neurons localized in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray and the adjacent deep mesencephalic reticular nucleus, gating the activation of the PS-on SLD neurons..  

mesencephalic and diencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) progenitors generate two major groups of neurons corresponding to the A9 neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the A10 neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA).  

It was also found that proprioceptive mvCN projection cells sent ipsilateral collaterals to the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis and the mesencephalic locomotor region, and had slower antidromic conduction speeds than cutaneous fibers from the more dorsally located cluster region.  

This study was aimed to investigate in rats whether the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (TMnu), which provides proprioceptive feedback for chewing muscles, may be also involved in whisker pad proprioception..  

Telencephalic NPCs isolated from midgestation mouse embryos (E10.5) and transplanted to age-matched mesencephalic explants efficiently differentiated into neurons but were largely unable to produce midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. In contrast, E8.5 telencephalic NPCs were able to differentiate into Lmx1a(+)/Foxa2(+)/TH(+) neurons in the dopaminergic niche of the mesencephalic explants. In addition, these early telencephalic NPCs showed region-dependent expression of Nkx6.1, Nkx2.2 and site-specific differentiation into gabaergic neurons within the mesencephalic tissue. Significant dopaminergic differentiation of E8.5 telencephalic NPCs was not observed after transplantation to E12.5 mesencephalic explants, suggesting that inductive signals in the dopaminergic niche rapidly decay after midgestation.  

mesencephalic-diencephalic dopaminergic neurons control locomotor activity and emotion and are affected in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases.  

Blocking Wnt/Fzd signaling with Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) counteracted astrocyte-induced neuroprotection against MPP(+) toxicity in primary mesencephalic astrocyte-neuron cultures, in vitro.  

Nurr1 is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and is a regulatory factor of differentiation, migration and maturation of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.  

The following catecholaminergic cell nuclei have been detected: A1, C1, A2, C2 and area postrema in the medulla oblongata; A5, A6d, A7sc and A7d in the pons; as have several mesencephalic groups: A8, A9l, A9m, A9v, A9pc, A10, A10c, A10d and A10dc.  

mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) protects neurons and repairs the Parkinson disease-like symptoms in a rat 6-hydroxydopamine model.  

Analyses of lmx1b mutant mice have revealed the role of Lmx1b in the development of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and the serotonergic system; these areas have been linked with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The co-occurrence of these symptoms may be related to mesencephalic dopaminergic neurologic pathway abnormalities that are a consequence of LMX1B loss of function.  

In the present study, we treated neurospheres of rat mesencephalic precursors with inhibitors of the NADPH oxidase complex and mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channel blockers during the proliferation and/or the differentiation periods to study the effects on generation of dopaminergic neurons.  

The stimulation sites were the mesencephalic reticular formation (two patients) and centromedian-parafascicularis nucleus complex (19 cases).  

The mechanism by which PSH influences patient outcomes has yet to be defined, but we believe that it may be mediated by diencephalic-mesencephalic dysfunction or disconnection..  

(9) The sequence of appearance of afferent constituents is: cranial ganglia (stage 12), mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (stage 15), vestibular nuclei (stages 18-22), and cochlear nuclei (stage 19).  

The subject of this review is the cardiomyokine, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF).  

The administration of relatively high doses of AII (100 nm) decreased the expression of AT1, and the increased expression of AT2 and p47(phox) in primary mesencephalic cultures.  

Using rat primary mesencephalic neuron/glia cultures, we report that verapamil significantly inhibited LPS-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in both pre- and post-treatment experiments.  

In the substantia nigra of Macaca fascicularis and in rat primary mesencephalic cultures, double immunofluorescence analysis revealed PRR immunoreactivity in neurons (including DA neurons) and microglia, but not in astrocytes.  

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent factor for the ventral mesencephalic dopamine neurons.  

Spindle unit discharges recorded from the left mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus were correlated with the simultaneous recording of jaw movements and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the left masseter (jaw-closing) muscle during chewing soft and hard foods.  

Functional imaging has provided objective evidence that human fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue implanted in the striatum of Parkinson's disease patients can survive, grow, release dopamine, normalize brain metabolism, and restore striatal-cortical connections.  

Double immunohistofluorescence staining revealed that catecholaminergic cells generally do not stain for DARPP-32, except for some cells in the ventral mesencephalic tegmentum of Xenopus and cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract of Rana.  

Intercompartmental collaterals were observed from ventral AcbC axons into AcbSh, and likewise, interconnections at pallidal and mesencephalic levels were also observed, although mostly from AcbC axons toward AcbSh targets, possibly supporting crosstalk between the two subcircuits at several levels.  

The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DPSCs against MPP+ (2.5, 5, and 10 μM) and rotenone (0.25, 0.5 and 1 μM) in an in vitro model of PD, using an indirect co-culture system with mesencephalic cell cultures. When mesencephalic cultures were challenged with MPP+ or rotenone, in the presence of DPSCs a statistically significant protective effect was observed at all the tested doses in terms of DA uptake. DPSCs protective effect on DA neurons was also confirmed by immunocytochemistry: an increased number of spared tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+ cells was observed in co-culture conditions compared to controls, and neurons showed longer processes in comparison with mesencephalic cells grown without DPSCs. In conclusion, the co-culture with DPSCs significantly attenuated MPP+ or rotenone-induced toxicity in primary cultures of mesencephalic neurons.  

Specifically, identification of Lewy bodies in fetal mesencephalic neurons transplanted in patients with Parkinson's disease raised the hypothesis that α-synuclein, the main component of Lewy bodies, could be transmitted from the host brain to a graft of healthy neurons.  

Primary mesencephalic neuronal cells and cultured dopaminergic cells were treated with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active metabolite of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and mice were used for testing the efficacy of Mito-Q(10).  

The present study analyzed the neuroprotective effects of topiramate on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in primary dopaminergic mesencephalic neuronal cell cultures..  

The authors present single-unit discharge characteristics in the external and internal globus pallidus (GPe and GPi) in an awake patient with PD undergoing microelectrode-guided surgery for pallidal deep brain stimulation, 10 years following bilateral intraputamenal fetal mesencephalic allografting in an NIH-funded protocol..  

Generation of mesencephalic dopamine (mesDA) neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) requires several stages of signaling from various extrinsic and intrinsic factors.  

After treatment with cyanide and cobalt, female cortical and mesencephalic astrocytes, respectively, revealed an up-regulation of COX IV-2 which was accompanied by increased ROS production and necrotic cell death.  

A distinct mesenchymal structure, the so-called plica ventralis encephali, is sandwiched by the fetal mesencephalic flexure.  


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