Nucleus Subthalamicus

Dopamine replacement therapy dependence (DRTD) and pathological gambling (PG) were reported in conjunction with DBS of the Nucleus subthalamicus (STN).  

Neither 6-OHDA-lesioning nor L-DOPA/benserazide treatment had any effect on 5-HT2AR mRNA in cortex or on 5-HT2CR mRNA in Nucleus subthalamicus.  

Mainly bilateral DBS of the Nucleus subthalamicus is now an established surgical treatment for PD.  

The group results showed significant brain activations within the thalamus, Nucleus subthalamicus, nucleus ruber, the brainstem, and the Brodmann areas 40 and 22 for the acupuncture condition.  

Various nuclei in the basal frontal lobe (21.4 +/- 3.19 in the basal forebrain and 32.3 +/- 2.39 in the nucleus accumbens), the temporal lobe (22.2 +/- 1.74 in the corpus amygdalae), the hippocampus (25.7 +/- 2.11), the diencephalon (23.1 +/- 3.33 in the corpus geniculatum laterale, 20.2 +/- 2.87 in the corpus geniculatum mediale, and 25.2 +/- 3.29 in the Nucleus subthalamicus), and the brain stem (24.4 +/- 2.47 in the colliculus superior, 31.4 +/- 3.63 in the colliculus inferior, 31.0 +/- 3.10 in the nucleus ruber, and 22.8 +/- 2.35 in the substantia nigra) could be identified, and the metabolic rate was assessed in these structures.  

Up to now, the appearance of apraxia of lid opening was observed only as a side effect after deep brain stimulation in the Nucleus subthalamicus. We suggest that these differences may be due to the region of the Nucleus subthalamicus that is influenced by the stimulation..  

This study aimed to clarify whether these subcortical SEP bursts reflect evoked axonal volleys running in the thalamocortical radiation or a locally restricted intrathalamic response.METHODS: During deep brain electrode implantation, median nerve SEP were recorded in 7 patients sequentially along the subcortical stereotactic trajectory at sites +20 and +10 mm above the respective target nucleus (ventral intermediate thalamus or Nucleus subthalamicus).  

We report a patient with idiopathic Parkinson's disease who underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the Nucleus subthalamicus (STN) and developed visual hallucinations (VH) while taking no medications only when the DBS was turned on.  

Both the ZI and Nucleus subthalamicus Luysi contained scattered calbindin and calretinin immunoreactive cells with well-defined dendritic processes.  

In two studied areas: Nucleus subthalamicus (STN) and zona incerta (ZI) three types of neurons were distinguished.  

METHODS: We recorded the SEPs in 6 PD patients undergoing bilateral functional neurosurgery in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) (4 patients) and in the Nucleus subthalamicus (STN) (two patients) during ineffective and effective bilateral BDS.  

The internal globus pallidus (Gpi) is an essential player as it connects to thalamocortical projections and can be disinhibited by overactivity of the Nucleus subthalamicus (Nst).  

High levels of hybridization were also seen in the anterior olfactory nucleus, pyriform cortex, amygdala, some thalamic nuclei, especially the lateral habenula, the CA3 area of the hippocampal formation, the cingulate cortex, some components of the basal ganglia and associated areas, particularly the Nucleus subthalamicus and the substantia nigra.  

Many labelled terminals were observed in the ipsilateral Nucleus subthalamicus in the monkey, but in cats no terminals were found.  

Other areas were affected only in one of these cases (striatum, Nucleus subthalamicus or hippocampus, nuclei pontis, and cerebellar cortex).  

Although the clinical history and symptoms were classical, the regional distribution of the cerebral involvement differed from the classical picture: the corpora mamillaria, the Nucleus subthalamicus, and the nucleus ruber, which are normally reported to be spared, contained multiple Lafora bodies, whereas the lateral geniculate body, which is usually involved, was intact.  

Reduction of GAD activity, a GABA-synthesizing enzyme, in three specific brain areas (substantia nigra, medial globus pallidus, and Nucleus subthalamicus) was related to the development of neuroleptic induced dyskinesias; these reductions were not seen in treated animals who did not develop movement disorders.  

The blood supply of the Nucleus subthalamicus receiving contributions from the carotid and vertebral arterial system as well would explain transient hemiballism as a symptom of the insufficiency of both arterial systems and would further be one of the possible explanations for the low frequency of this symptom.  

Furthermore, the lesions seemed more pronounced in the substantia nigra, the globus pallidus and the Nucleus subthalamicus, giving the appearance of a systematic pallido-luyso-nigral atrophy.  

In the subthalamus, the Nucleus subthalamicus enlarges progressively in size, and shows a very close relationship to the zona incerta, the fields of Forel and the pregeniculate body. The zona incerta is observed to consist of two parts the ventral part relating to the Nucleus subthalamicus and the dorsal part ot the nucleus reticularis.  

It originates at the level of the transition from the Nucleus subthalamicus to the substantia nigra.  

High densities of autoradiographic grains were found in all areas known to have a dopaminergic innervation, including the olfactory tubercles, nucleus accumbens, nucleus caudate-putamen, lateral septum, zona incerta, Nucleus subthalamicus, arcuate nucleus, nucleus of the central amygdala, areas in the ventral tegmentum and the claustrum.  

Some fibers appeared to terminate in the ipsilateral nucleus ventralis lateralis pars caudalis, the nucleus lateralis posterior and the Nucleus subthalamicus..  

The Nucleus subthalamicus occupied 0,027% of the volume of the hemisphere. The fresh volume and the absolute numbers of nerve cells of the Nucleus subthalamicus were better correlated with the pallidum laterale than with the pallidum mediale..  

The Nucleus subthalamicus and the fields of Forel, though small in size, are comparatively well developed; the zona incerta appears to be differentiated cytoarchitectonically into two parts.  

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