Cortical Area 4

CONCLUSIONS: Intracortical inhibition, which was impaired in one-third of the patients, reflects gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity within cortical area 4.  

One major mechanism may be a dysfunction of the interneurons mediating the level of excitation within cortical area 4. Levodopa restores these and other TMS alterations, thus demonstrating that cortical area 4 is sensitive to dopamine modulation.  

Additional effects of thalamic DBS were detected in motor-related regions (the globus pallidus, cortical area 4, and the cerebellum) and visual and association cortical areas.  

The predictions of the model were compared with in vivo recordings from neurons in cortical area 4 and thalamic ventrolateral nucleus of anesthetized cats.  

Averaged field potentials recorded from motor cortex and triggered by EPSPs and/or action potentials of intracellularly recorded VL cells demonstrated that both spontaneous and BC-evoked fast depolarizations in VL relay neurones were coherent with fast rhythms in cortical area 4.  

In the present study, we compared the distribution of thalamocortical afferents of cortical area 4 to that of cortical area 6 in the dog, using fluorescent tracers.  

Seven adult rhesus monkeys ranging in age from 5 to 35 years were studied in an ultrastructural investigation of cortical area 4.  

Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated an age-related decline in the size of Betz cell somata in cortical area 4 of the adult rhesus monkey brain.  

Furthermore, the dorsolateral part of the caudate that receives input from the lateral part of VA also receives afferents from cortical area 4.  

The strong interconnection of the cell-sparse zone with cortical area 4 is confirmed.  

Cortex and brainstem reconstructions of the distributions of filled neurons demonstrate a well-defined, discrete projection from cortical area 4 to spinal cord segments C3 to C8, both in mature and immature (20 and 24 days postnatal) animals.  

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