Area Postrema

In Experiment 3, rats with cannulas in the third ventricle (3V) received dorsal medullary lesions centered on the Area postrema (APX) or sham procedures (SHAM), and licking for water, 0.1M and 1M sucrose was evaluated after 1nM 3V ORXA/aCSF injections. These findings suggest that the Area postrema and subjacent nucleus of the solitary tract are necessary for increases in consummatory (meal size) but not appetitive (meal frequency) responses to 3V ORXA.  

In animals injected with recombinants of PRV into the CD and the LES, distinct labeling was found in various brainstem nuclei including: Area postrema, DMV, nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), medial reticular formation (MRF) and nucleus ambiguous (NA).  

Administration of both GLP-1 and OXM resulted in a significant increase in signal intensity (SI) in the Area postrema of fasted mice, reflecting an increase in neuronal activity within the brainstem.  

These include, but are not limited to, the hypothalamic arcuate, ventromedial, dorsomedial, and paraventricular nuclei and the Area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract in the hindbrain.  

The Area postrema (AP) represents the sensory circumventricular organ lacking endothelial blood-brain barrier function in direct vicinity to the 4th cerebral ventricle.  

During activation of the renin-angiotensin system, hindbrain circumventricular organs such as the Area postrema have been implicated in modulating the arterial baroreflex.  

Heavy P2X5 receptor immunostaining was observed in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb; cerebral cortex; globus pallidum, anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, amygdalohippocampal area of subcortical telencephalon; anterior nuclei, anteroventral nucleus, ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus; supraoptic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus; substantia nigra of midbrain; pontine nuclei, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, motor trigeminal nucleus, ambiguous nucleus, inferior olive, hypoglossal nucleus, dorsal motor vagus nucleus, Area postrema of hindbrain; Purkinje cells of cerebellum; and spinal cord.  

In an additional three rats with retrograde tracers injected into the XII nucleus and ChAT immunohistochemistry, 5-11% of IRt XII premotor neurons located at, and caudal to, the Area postrema were ChAT positive, and 27-48% of ChAT-positive caudal IRt neurons were retrogradely labeled from the XII nucleus.  

Using c-fos immunoreactivity (FOS-IR) as a marker of neuronal activation in rats, we observed that mCPP significantly and dose-dependently activated a discrete population of caudal NTS neurons at the level of the Area postrema (AP).  

RESULTS: The following anatomical structures were identified in all cases: median sulcus, superior and inferior vela medullare, choroid plexus, inferior fovea, hypoglossal and vagal triangles, Area postrema, obex, canalis medullaris, lateral recess, and the foramina of Luschka and Magendie.  

Acute phase vomiting induced Fos-IR in the solitary tract nucleus (NTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX), and Area postrema (AP), whereas in the delayed phase Fos-IR was not induced in the AP at all, and was induced at lower levels in the other nuclei when compared to the acute phase.  

RECENT FINDINGS: Neurokinin-1 antagonists compete with substance P, an endogenous ligand with a high density of receptors in the Area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarii, believed to be involved in terminal emetic pathways.  

It is the main site of termination of vagal afferents and is adjacent to the Area postrema, a circumventricular organ allowing blood-borne action of circulating IL-1beta.  

Animals treated with a hyperphagic dose of ghrelin had greater levels of Fos expression in the NTS at the level of the Area postrema than animals injected with vehicle.  

Systemic GR73632 increased Fos expression in the enteric nerve plexi, the medial subnucleus of nucleus tractus solitarius, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, but not the Area postrema.  

Furthermore, capillaries in the medulla were of the continuous type, whereas those in the Area postrema were fenestrated.  

In obese rats, amylin pretreatment partially restored hypothalamic leptin signaling (pSTAT3 immunoreactivity) within the ventromedial, but not the arcuate nucleus and up-regulated basal and leptin-stimulated signaling in the hindbrain Area postrema.  

The highest dose of CCK-58 increased Fos-LI more than an equimolar dose of CCK-8 in the myenteric plexus and the Area postrema. The different patterns produced by the two peptides at higher doses, in areas open to the circulation (myenteric plexus and Area postrema) may reflect endocrine actions not observed at lower doses..  

A high density of calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive perikarya was found in the superior colliculus, the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the trochlear nucleus, the lateral division of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the motor trigeminal nucleus, the facial nucleus, the pons reticular formation, the retrofacial nucleus, the rostral hypoglossal nucleus, and in the motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, whereas a high density of fibers containing calcitonin gene-related peptide was observed in the lateral division of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the parvocellular division of the alaminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, the external cuneate nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, and in the Area postrema.  

Some circulating peptides, such as angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic peptide and relaxin, influence central neural pathways subserving cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis by acting on neurons in the subfornical organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and Area postrema, all of which lack a blood-brain barrier.  

ATP-induced inward currents and increases in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([ Ca](in)) were investigated in neurons acutely dissociated from rat Area postrema using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and fura-2 microfluorometry, respectively.  

A distinct diffusion barrier between the Area postrema (AP, a CVO) and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) was illustrated by immunohistochemistry at both the light and electron microscopic levels.  

The IL-6, which appeared in the blood after injection of MALP-2 into the air pouch was sufficient to cause a direct activation of brain cells in areas which lack a complete blood-brain barrier, namely in the sensory circumventricular organs (sCVOs), the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT), the subfornical organ (SFO), and the Area postrema (AP).  

Moreover, pretreatment with a beta-adrenergic blocker, propranolol (5 mg kg(-1), iv), blocked all responses elicited by either icv or iv administration of amylin, whereas ablation of the Area postrema in the hindbrain did not influence the effects of icv-administered amylin.  

The DVC includes vagal afferent terminations in the solitary nucleus, neurons in the solitary nucleus (NST) and Area postrema, and visceral efferent motor neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus (DMN) that are responsible for the neural regulation of digestive functions from the oral cavity to the transverse colon.  

The number of Fos positive neurons was determined in the DMH, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ARC, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and in the Area postrema (AP) in non-fasted Sprague-Dawley rats in response to intraperitoneally (ip) injected ghrelin (3 nmol/rat) or vehicle (0.15 M NaCl).  

surgery near the Area postrema at the floor of the fourth ventricle with the vomiting centre located nearby), recommendations based on trials in post-craniotomy patients may be flawed.  

This pattern of activity is different from that produced by peripherally administered CCK which is short acting and primarily activates neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract and Area postrema, as well as the PVN and DMH.  

Detailed in situ hybridization analysis in the mouse brain showed abundant expression in feeding-related nuclei of the brainstem and hypothalamus, such as the nucleus of the solitary tract, Area postrema, and arcuate, paraventricular, and supraoptic nuclei as well as in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

LTBP-1 has a high expression level in several brain regions including choroid plexus, cerebral cortex, medial amygdaloid nucleus, anteromedial and midline thalamic nuclei, medial preoptic area, arcuate and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei, superior olive, and Area postrema. Both are abundant in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, amygdala, brainstem motor nuclei, and Area postrema.  

The P2X7 hybridization signal was also very strong in the Area postrema (AP).  

MSG treatment also reduced Area postrema (AP) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-ir fibers compared with controls.  

The anorectic and dipsogenic effects of the pancreatic hormone amylin are mediated by the Area postrema and the subfornical organ. We tested the effectiveness of a new amylin antagonist, a so-called RNA Spiegelmer, by electrophysiological in-vitro recordings from the rat subfornical organ and by immunohistological c-Fos studies in the Area postrema. Peripheral administration 5 h prior to amylin also suppressed the amylin-induced activation (c-Fos expression) in the Area postrema.  

Rats received an anorexigenic dose of PYY(3-36), and the number of neurons expressing Fos, an indicator of neuronal activation, was determined in anterior hypothalamus (AH), arcuate nucleus (ARC), dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), lateral hypothalamus (LH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), Area postrema (AP), and caudal medial nucleus tractus solitarius (cmNTS), commissural NTS (cNTS), and gelatinosus NTS (gNTS).  

The Area postrema is a medullary structure lying at the base of the fourth ventricle. The Area postrema's privileged location outside of the blood-brain barrier make this sensory circumventricular organ a vital player in the control of autonomic functions by the central nervous system. However, the Area postrema is not simply a conduit through which signals flow into the brain, but it is now being recognized as the initial site of integration for these signals as they enter the circuitry of the central nervous system..  

Zebrafish lmx1b.1 is expressed in noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus and medulla oblongata, but knock-down reveals that it is specifically required for tyrosine hydroxylase expression only in the medulla oblongata Area postrema noradrenergic neurons.  

In addition, immunoreactive neurons were observed mostly in the medulla oblongata, including the reticular formation, glossopharyngeal-vagal motor complex, commissural nucleus of Cajal, and Area postrema (AP).  

administration, significant amounts of radioactive materials were rapidly (<30 min) detected in the blood circulation and various tissues including the kidneys, liver, lung, heart, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, and thyroid gland, whereas in the brain, low but significant amounts of radioactive materials were detected at the level of the Area postrema. Fifteen minutes post injection, autoradiograms revealed positive signals only in the Area postrema after the injection of [ 125I]-hPP and [ 125I][ Leu(31), Pro(34)]pPYY. Whereas the presence of [ 125I]pPYY(3-36)-related labeling was detected in the Area postrema, subfornical organ, and median eminence. These data suggest that the inhibition of food intake observed after peripheral injections of pPYY(3-36) and hPP could involve receptor activation preferentially located at the level of the Area postrema, a structure well-known to be involved in the modulation of food intake..  

In immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization experiments, we observed the transient appearance of PrRP-producing cells in the Area postrema (AP), in which PrRP-producing cells do not exist in the normal adult rat.  

The fenestrated microvasculature of the Area postrema shows a less restrictive blood-brain barrier than is found in other areas of the CNS. We have studied the expression and relationship of vascular endothelial tight junctional proteins, astrocytes, macrophages, and the extracellular matrix with the extravasation of fluorescently tagged dextrans and sodium fluorescein in the rat Area postrema. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) -positive astrocytes were present within the Area postrema which was surrounded by a dense zone of highly GFAP-reactive astrocytes. Three-kilodalton dextran diffused into the parenchyma, but was retained within the boundary of the Area postrema at the interface with the highly reactive GFAP-astrocytes, while sodium fluorescein (0.3 kDa) passed from the Area postrema into surrounding CNS areas. Our observations suggest that despite the absence of a tight blood-brain barrier, a size selective barrier restricting the movement of blood solutes into the parenchyma is present in the Area postrema. We suggest that the rapid uptake by CD163 and CD169 macrophages together with the non-fused laminin immunoreactive layers of the extracellular matrix plays a size selective role in restricting movement of serum proteins and other blood borne macromolecules over 10 kDa in to the Area postrema..  

To determine if the hypothalamus and brainstem were involved in the anorexigenic effect, chicks were centrally and peripherally injected with amylin, and c-Fos immunoreactivity was quantified in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), Area postrema (AP) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).  

The clock gene expression was determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular and dorsomedial nuclei, dorsal vagal motor nucleus, caudal ventrolateral medulla, nucleus ambiguus, Area postrema, and anteroventral third ventricle. We found robust differences in the clock gene expression between the TGR and control rats in the Area postrema. TGR rats exerted changes in the clock gene expression in the nucleus ambiguus which receives direct innervation from the Area postrema. The Area postrema seems to play a key role in the transmission of signals from the periphery to the CNS..  

Sensory elements of this circuit (i.e., nucleus of the solitary tract [ NST] and Area postrema) are activated by TNF alpha.  

Circulating ANG II modulates the baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate (HR), at least partly via activation of ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptors on neurons in the Area postrema. The modulatory effects of circulating ANG II on the cardiac baroreflex were significantly reduced by microinjection of candesartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist, into the Area postrema and virtually abolished by microinjections of candesartan into the medial NTS. After acute ablation of the Area postrema, a background infusion of ANG II still caused an upward shift of the cardiac baroreflex curve, which was reversed by subsequent microinjection of candesartan into the medial NTS. The results indicate that AT1 receptors in the medial NTS play a critical role in modulation of the cardiac baroreflex by circulating ANG II via mechanisms that are at least partly independent of AT1 receptors in the Area postrema..  

In mice killed 24 h later (3 d after injection), GFP-expressing cells were identified (in order of density) in the raphe nuclei, periaqueductal grey, locus coeruleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, and Area postrema.  

The effect of estradiol on intraduodenal Intralipid-induced satiation was mirrored by selective increases in the number of cells expressing c-Fos immunoreactivity in a circumscribed region of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), just caudal to the Area postrema (cNTS) but not elsewhere in the NTS or the hypothalamic paraventricular or arcuate nuclei.  

We have studied P-glycoprotein expression in the inferior colliculus after a temporary loss of blood-brain barrier integrity following chemically induced astrocyte loss and at the fenestrated vascular endothelium of the Area postrema. The Area postrema showed GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes but which made limited contact with the vasculature, while the platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule immunoreactive vasculature showed no expression of P-glycoprotein.  

We evaluated long-term dynorphin A-immunoreactivity in the rat Area postrema (AP) after the administration of cisplatin.  

Results The slow down of weight-gaining, rise of serum corticosterone level, occurrence of psychological behavioral manifestations of unpeaceful restlessness such as exploring and attacking, enhance of c-Fos expression in the subfornical organ (SFO), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), Area postrema (AP), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), medial (MeA) and central (CeA) amygdaloid nucleus and ventrolateral septum (LSV) were noticed in both EB and WR groups, except the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) in which the Fos expression was decreased.  

The pancreatic hormone amylin decreases food intake via activation of Area postrema (AP) neurons.  

The P2X(3) homomer and.or P2X(2/3) heteromer in the Area postrema could be responsible for the emetic response.  

Then, 1-2 hours after sodium-deprived rats ingested salt (a hypertonic 3% solution of NaCl), c-Fos immunoreactivity within the HSD2 neurons was virtually eliminated, despite a large increase in c-Fos activation in the surrounding NTS (including the A2 noradrenergic neurons) and Area postrema.  

The circumventricular organs are small sized structures lining the cavity of the third ventricle (neurohypophysis, vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, subfornical organ, pineal gland and subcommissural organ) and of the fourth ventricle (Area postrema). Their particular location in relation to the ventricular cavities is to be noted: the subfornical organ, the subcommissural organ and the Area postrema are situated at the confluence between ventricles while the neurohypophysis, the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis and the pineal gland line ventricular recesses.  

Whereas immunohistochemical studies show P2X receptors in the Area postrema, the responsiveness of Area postrema neurons to extracellular ATP has not been studied. To investigate the effects of purinoceptor activation on Area postrema neuronal excitability, we performed whole-cell recordings from Area postrema neurons in rat brain slices. Most Area postrema neurons responded to ATP application, and most responses were excitatory. Finally, the present study suggests that purinoceptor activation may contribute to the control of several autonomic functions by Area postrema neurons..  

In SHR(S) (versus WKY(S)) AT(1A) and Aogen mRNA expression were significantly increased within the NTS and Area postrema (average of +67% and +41% for AT(1A) and Aogen, respectively; P<0.05) but unchanged in the gracilis nucleus. Training did not change AT(1A) expression but reduced NTS and Area postrema Aogen mRNA densities specifically in SHR(T) (P<0.05 versus SHR(S), with values within the range of WKY groups).  

We attempted to relate the signal pathway to the hypotension induced by arginine vasopressin (AVP) injection into the Area postrema (AP) in urethane-anesthetized and ventilated rats with vagotomy.  

The results showed that anorexia and retarded body weight growth were associated with Fos protein expression in the Area postrema, the general visceral region of the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the external lateral parabrachial nucleus, structures that also display Fos after peripheral administration of satiating or anorexigenic stimuli.  

Amylin and CCK activate the Area postrema (AP)/nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) - lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) - central amygdala (CeA) pathway.  

The decrease in the number of c-Fos positive nuclei occurred particularly in the caudal ventrolateral medulla, the medial, intermediate and central parts of the nucleus tractus solitarius, Area postrema, parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventromedial preoptic area, central amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and to a lesser extent in the ventrolateral part of the nucleus tractus solitarius and rostral ventrolateral medulla.  

The Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-li) in the Area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract that predominantly characterizes other 2DG-induced responses was absent during 2DG-induced torpor in the present experiment.  

In cold MKS, a 600-700 microm single transverse slice was cut, which was rostral to the edge of Area postrema and retained the hypoglossal nerve roots and some parts of the ventral respiratory group.  

Most cell bodies and dendrites of neurons that were retrogradely labeled from the stomach occurred at the level of the Area postrema.  

These structures include the circumventricular organs (organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, subfornical organ, Area postrema), some of the ependymal cells along the wall of the ventricles, tanycytes in the third ventricle's ependyma and the median eminence, as well as in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus in the lateral, third and fourth ventricles.  

Dense SPL-IR areas included the periaqueductal grey, trigeminal nuclei, dorsal raphe, and emesis-related brainstem nuclei including the Area postrema and solitary tract nucleus.  

By contrast, Fos expression decreased in the Area postrema and locus coeruleus compared to controls.  

The brain targets for circulating Ang II are neurons in the Area postrema (AP), subfornical organ (SFO), and possibly other circumventricular organs.  

Amylin is a pancreatic hormone that is considered to be a satiating signal acting on neurons of the Area postrema (AP) in the hindbrain.  

In the brainstem, irGPR30 cells were noted in the Area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus; a cluster of cells were prominently labeled in the nucleus ambiguus.  

This work confirms that many rat NTS pump cells are located in and around the interstitial subnucleus at Area postrema level.  

TRPV1 immunoreactivity was largely restricted to the nucleus of the solitary tract of the ferret, with faint labeling in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and sparse distribution in the Area postrema.  

The area subpostrema (ASP) is a V-shaped area, ventral and ventrolateral to the Area postrema. The capillaries here, in contrast to the capillaries of the Area postrema are not fenestrated but establish a specific staining for acetylcholinaestherase (AChE).  

Isop significantly increased Fos-IR in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), Area postrema (AP), rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN); however, EB significantly attenuated the increase in the AP and in the lPBN.  

However, when FG was injected into one hemidiaphragm, in addition with ipsilateral PMNs, a less intense artifactual labeling was observed in the spinal cord (mainly in contralateral PMNs) and in the medulla oblongata (mainly in the Area postrema and cranial motor nuclei).  

Neurons with double crossing axons were twice as many in the caudal part of the rVRG (38%) compared to the part located rostrally to the Area postrema (20%), which further argues in favour of a subdivision of this nucleus.  

By 15 weeks, three subnuclei (dorsal intermediate, centrointermediate and ventrointermediate) were clearly discernible at the open medulla level with caudal and caudointermediate subnuclei visible at the level of the Area postrema.  

The Area postrema (AP) is the most caudal circumventricular organ in the central nervous system and contains arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptors.  

the sensory circumventricular organs (Area postrema, vascular organ of laminae terminalis, subfornical organ), the astrocytes and a population of still undetermined cellular phenotype also showed marked STAT3 activation in response to PIPC.  

Neurons located in the amygdala and Area postrema were activated transiently after acute infusion of angiotensin II but were not responsive by days 3 or 14.  

We conclude that 1) leptin-responsive neurons in the hindbrain are primarily located in the mNTS at the level of the Area postrema, a key vagal afferent projection zone of the GI system; 2) a significant proportion of leptin-responsive neurons in the mNTS are activated by stomach distension; and 3) leptin delivered to the hindbrain is sufficient to potentiate the intake-suppressive effects of an otherwise ineffective volume of gastric distension.  

Acute hypoglycemia significantly increased mean counts of Fos-ir-positive neurons in the PVH, DMH, and LHA, as well as the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and Area postrema (AP) in E- and oil-treated animals to an equivalent extent.  

We identified a novel NMO lesion in the spinal cord and medullary tegmentum extending into the Area postrema, characterized by AQP4 loss in foci that were inflammatory and oedematous, but neither demyelinated nor necrotic.  

It is thought that released serotonin stimulates vagal afferent fibers through 5-HT3 receptors located in the vagal afferent terminals in the gastrointestinal tract and initiates sensory signals to the Area postrema and the emetic center, thereby initiating nausea and vomiting.  

Expression of Fos was increased in the Area postrema and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius by using immunohistochemistry after icv and iv injection of ghrelin.  

Muscimol (GABA-A agonist) injection in or next to the solitary tract at Area postrema level desynchronized PND from ventilation, eliminated the lung inflation-synchronous inhibition of RTN neurons and their steady inhibition by PEEP but did not change their CO(2) sensitivity.  

The dorsal vagal complex (DVC), an integrative center of autonomic functions located dorsally in the caudal brainstem, comprises the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the Area postrema (AP), and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNX).  

Hyperosmotic NaCl greatly elevated Fos-ir in the Area postrema, but even glucose and urea caused moderate elevations that may be related to volume expansion rather than osmolality.  

Hypertension of 1 or 4 weeks did not alter the number of Fos immunoreactive neurons in the Area postrema, the supraoptic nucleus, and the median preoptic nucleus.  

Each group received either an intravenous (IV) or an intracerebroventricular V1 receptor antagonist, saline, Area postrema removal, or sham surgery. Intracerebroventricular V1 antagonist and Area postrema removal enhanced their pressor effects. It was concluded that FEL depends on V1 receptors to induce pressor and bradycardic effects, and that it produces a high relationship between bradycardia and mean arterial pressure variation depending on Area postrema and central V1 receptors.  

Inhibitory synaptic transmission and its modulation in neurons of the Area postrema (AP), one of autonomic nuclei in the medulla, were studied using whole-cell patch-electrodes applied to slices from rats on postnatal days 10-24. Most of the evoked synaptic currents were blocked by bicuculline, while the remaining currents were sensitive to strychnine, indicating that the major inhibitory transmission in the Area postrema was GABAergic. These results indicate that nicotinic receptors are expressed at GABAergic presynaptic terminals in the Area postrema and induce Ca2+ influx to trigger vesicular release.  

As expected, Ex4 induced expression of c-Fos protein, a marker of neuronal activation, in hindbrain areas that process afferent input from satiety signals, including the nucleus of the solitary tract and Area postrema.  

The primary results indicate: 1) increasing the dose of cisplatin increased the magnitude and duration of brain Fos expression, 2) most excitatory effects on hindbrain nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and Area postrema (AP) Fos expression occurred within 24 h after cisplatin injection, 3) 6 and 10 mg/kg cisplatin treatment produced large increases in Fos expression in the central amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), including 48 h after injection, and 4) cisplatin treatment produced little effect on Fos expression in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus.  

Compared with saline treatment, LiCl increased Fos only slightly in the Area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, and lateral parabrachial nucleus on P0.  

Our study describes for the first time distribution of Pax-5 in adult brain tissue, including periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain, Area postrema of the medulla oblongata, and occasional cells of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (caudal nucleus).  

The Area postrema has been implicated in the mediation of inhibition of pancreatic secretion by the gut hormones peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide.  

The Area postrema (AP) showed significant increases in Fos staining after dehydration and rehydration (Fos: Con 4+/-1; Dehyd 28+/-3; Rehyd 24+/-3).  

It is known that emesis can be triggered by neural activity in brain regions including Area postrema (AP) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS).  

Food ingestion was critical for Fos expression in noradrenergic and non-noradrenergic cells in the nucleus tractus solitarii and Area postrema and in the supraoptic nucleus, as well as in melanocortin-containing cells of the arcuate nucleus.  

The fibers of these cells extend to circumventricular organs (CVOs) and to astrocytes located inside the parenchyma of key autonomic regulatory hypothalamic areas, with highest densities in the supraoptic nucleus (SO), arcuate nucleus (Arc), Area postrema (AP), median eminence (ME), medial preoptic nucleus, tuber cinereum, and accessory neurosecretory nuclei.  

Area postrema (AP) lacks a blood-brain barrier and is a critical homeostatic integration center for humoral and neural signals.  

It has been shown that the Area postrema (AP) plays a role in the development of certain types of chronic angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension in the rat but is not of great importance in the salt sensitivity of arterial pressure. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ablation of the Area postrema (APx, n = 6) or sham operation (sham, n = 6).  

Putative afferent input to RTN originated from spinal cord, caudal NTS, Area postrema, VRC, dorsolateral pons, raphe nuclei, lateral hypothalamus, central amygdala, and insular cortex.  

To assess the cellular sites of relevance to these actions, we examined the light and electron microscopic immunolabeling of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the rat dorsomedial nucleus of the solitary tract at the level of the Area postrema (dmNTS-AP), a region crucial for cardiovascular regulation involving vagal baroreceptor afferents.  

Rats were challenged with a supraphysiologic dose of CCK-8 (40 microg/kg) or physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.5 mL) administered IP; after 90 minutes, rats were euthanized, and Fos-LI was quantified in the DVC (at the levels of the Area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarii, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus) and the myenteric neurons of the duodenum and jejunum by use of a diaminobenzidine reaction enhanced with nickel.  

PKR2 mRNA is detected throughout the brain, with prominent expression in olfactory regions, cortex, thalamus and hypothalamus, septum and hippocampus, habenula, amygdala, nucleus tractus solitarius, and circumventricular organs such as subfornical organ, median eminence, and Area postrema.  

In the hindbrain, IRS-2 staining was detected in the Area postrema (AP), medial nucleus of the solitary tract (mNTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) and the hypoglossal nucleus (HN).  

Consistent with the emetic effects of PDE4 inhibitors such as PMNPQ and rolipram, these compounds elevated FLI in caudal brainstem nuclei such as the Area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract.  

The afferent inputs to these neurons have not yet been defined, but one source may be neurons in the Area postrema, a neighboring circumventricular organ that innervates the NTS and exerts a powerful inhibitory influence on sodium appetite [ Contreras RJ, Stetson PW (1981) Changes in salt intake after lesions of the Area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract in rats. After an anterograde axonal tracer was injected into the Area postrema in rats, sections through the NTS were immunolabeled for the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2), a marker for aldosterone-sensitive neurons, and examined by confocal microscopy. We found that some of the aldosterone-sensitive neurons received close appositions from processes originating in the Area postrema, suggesting that input to the HSD2 neurons could be involved in the inhibition of sodium appetite by this site. Axonal varicosities originating from the Area postrema also made close appositions with other neurons in the medial NTS, including the neurotensin-immunoreactive neurons in the dorsomedial NTS. A local microcircuit involving the Area postrema, HSD2 neurons, and neurotensinergic neurons may play a major role in the regulation of sodium appetite..  

The median eminence and Area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood-brain barrier.  

Atropine methyl nitrate (AMN, 0.05, 0.5 and 25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) in the myenteric plexus, but not the dorsal vagal complex (DVC, the Area postrema (AP), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV)) in adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats.  

Some of the structures showing prominent mMOR-1B4-LI include the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, habenular nucleus, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, medium eminence, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, oculomotor nucleus, red nucleus, raphe nuclei, periaqueductal gray, locus coeruleus, trigeminal nucleus, reticular formation, Area postrema and Purkinje cell layer and deep nuclei of cerebellum.  

TH and AADC co-positive, but VMAT2-negative neurons, are termed "nonexocytotic catecholaminergic TH neurons." These were found in striatum, olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, Area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarius, and in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.  

Cell size distribution and numerical density of cNTS neurons were examined in subregions at levels of the Area postrema.  

The described actions of amylin all seem to depend on a direct effect of amylin on the Area postrema (AP).  

The Area postrema functions as one interface between the immune system and the brain. Immune cells within the Area postrema express immunoreactivity for the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta following challenge with immune stimulants, including lipopolysaccharide (from bacterial cell walls). As a circumventricular organ, the Area postrema accesses circulating immune-derived mediators, but also receives direct primary viscerosensory signals via the vagus nerve. Neurons in the Area postrema contribute to central autonomic network neurocircuitry implicated in brain-mediated host defense responses. These experiments were directed toward clarifying relationships between immune cells and neurons in the Area postrema, with a view toward potential mechanisms by which they may communicate. We used antisera directed toward markers indicating microglia (CR3/CD11b; OX-42), resident macrophages (CD163; ED-2), or dendritic cell-like phenotypes (major histocompability complex class II; OX-6), in Area postrema sections from lipopolysaccharide-treated rats processed for light, laser scanning confocal, and electron microscopy. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that some immune cells, including interleukin-1beta-positive cells, evinced membrane apposition with neuronal elements, including dendrites and terminals, that could derive from inputs to the Area postrema such as vagal sensory fibers, or intrinsic Area postrema neurons. This arrangement provides an anatomical substrate by which immune cells could directly and specifically influence individual neurons in the Area postrema, that may support the induction and/or maintenance of brain responses to inflammation..  

Likewise, ondansetron attenuated Fos-LI by gastric distension in the DVC, specifically within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and Area postrema (AP) nuclei.  

Compared with sham distension, isovolumetric phasic distension of the proximal colon (10 ml, 30 s on/off for 10 min) increased significantly Fos expression 1 h after distension in selective brain areas, most prominently, the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus (13-fold and 80-fold, respectively), the locus coeruleus-Barrington's nucleus complex (2-fold), Area postrema (7-fold) and the nucleus tractus solitarius (4-fold).  

In the dorsomedial medulla, hybridization signal was modestly increased (tripled) in A2 but was not increased in the Area postrema.  

In the DVC, demedullation and sympathectomy-demedullation increased Fos-LI by CCK in the Area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract, but sympathectomy-demedullation increased it only in the Area postrema.  

In fact, like nausea and emesis in humans, it is accompanied by serotonin release from the enterochromaffin cells, increased c-fos labelling in the Area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarius, and a delay in gastric emptying.  

Among these TH-immunoreactive nuclei, the Area postrema (AP) and the commissural nucleus of Cajal (NCC) appeared to project to the GVC morphologically.  

HCN1-IR neurons in the brainstem included neurons in sensory pathways such as the dorsal column nuclei, the Area postrema, the spinal trigeminal nucleus as well as identified motor neurons in motor nuclei.  

There may additionally be autonomic extrapancreatic effects of amylin on insulin secretion that derive from its action at the Area postrema.  

An intact vagus nerve (Jodka et al., 1996) and an intact Area postrema (Edwards et al., 1998) are required for the effect. In rats that underwent total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or surgical ablation of the Area postrema, amylin was no longer effective at inhibiting gastric emptying (Edwards et al.,1998). It seems likely that amylinergic control of gastric emptying is mediated via neurons in the Area postrema shown in brain slices to be activated by amylin, and inhibited by low glucose (Riediger et al., 1999).  

The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the Area postrema/nucleus tractus solitarius, and is not merely a consequence of gastric fullness, for example. This disposgenic effect is likely mediated via amylin-sensitive neurones in the subfornical organ, a circumventricular structure, that like the Area postrema does not present a blood-brain barrier.  

Binding sites at Area postrema appear to be composed of CTa + RAMP3 [ amylin3 (a) receptors]. Dense amylin binding is present at the circumventricular organs, including the subfornical organ, the organum vasculosum lateralis terminalis (OVLT), and the Area postrema.  

Selective ablation of the Area postrema abolished pancreatic protein secretion stimulated by intravenous infusion of ghrelin but did not alter the increase in pancreatic protein secretion evoked by diversion of bile-pancreatic juice. Immunohistochemical staining showed a marked increase in the number of c-Fos-expressing neurons in the Area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus after an intravenous infusion of ghrelin in sham-lesioned rats; selective ablation of the Area postrema eliminated this increase. Circulating ghrelin gains access to the brain stem vagovagal circuitry via the Area postrema, which represents the primary target on which peripheral ghrelin may act as an endocrine substance to stimulate pancreatic secretion..  

Strong L-proline-like immunoreactivity was confined to several groups of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (n) and supraoptic n in the hypothalamus and Area postrema.  

A possible mechanism to explain the sympathetic hyperactivity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla is an action of the Area postrema. Area postrema seems to be the region where a shift of the set-point to a higher operating pressure occurs resulting in hypertension. But, how can a shift occur in the Area postrema. We propose that melatonin-induced epigenetic modifications in the neurons of Area postrema plays a role in this shift. Area postrema is reported to contain high levels of melatonin receptors that play a role in the epigenetic modifications in certain cells. Environmental stressors cause epigenetic modifications in the neurons of Area postrema via the pineal hormone melatonin and these changes lead to a shift in the set-point to a higher operating pressure.  

At 95 h, additional virus-labeled cell groups included the solitary, Area postrema, pontine reticular, prepositus, dorsal raphe, tegmental, the subcoeruleus nuclei, the nucleus of Darkschewitsch, and the inferior olivary beta and ventrolateral subnuclei.  

The ventricular ependyma (especially in the third one), the subfornical organ, the Area postrema, the rat pineal body (in part), and the vascular organ of lamina terminalis were marked by intense immunopositivity.  

The hypoglossal nucleus showed higher AM expression than that of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve (P < 0.05), solitary tract nucleus (P < 0.05), nucleus intercalatus (P < 0.05), and Area postrema (P < 0.05).  

Interestingly, the latter effect was completely abolished in rats lesioned in the Area postrema (AP).  

Additionally, we found GHSR mRNA within all three components of the dorsal vagal complex, including the Area postrema, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.  

Fos staining was significantly increased in the median preoptic nucleus, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, supraoptic nucleus (SON), and magnocellular and parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as well as the Area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL).  

Within the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) of PBG-injected mice, we detected an increased number of c-Fos-positive nuclei in the dorsolateral and gelatinous parts at the level of the Area postrema (-7.48 mm bregma) but not at more rostral or caudal levels (-7.76, -7.20, -6.84 and -6.36 mm bregma) relative to vehicle-injected control mice.  

Whole-cell recordings were performed to examine the morphological properties of electrophysiologically classified Area postrema (AP) neurons in rat brain slices.  

It is concluded that peripherally administered CRF reaches the Area postrema and activates the dorsal nucleus of vagi via central CRF receptors, resulting in stimulation of the vagal efferent and cholinergic transmission of the proximal colon..  

In six cases, MRI detected linear medullary lesions involving the pericanal region, the Area postrema, and the nucleus tractus solitarius.  

GAD67-ir cells were localized in regions known to contain high GABA content, including the ventrolateral medulla, raphe nuclei, and Area postrema, but were absent from all motor nuclei, although dense terminal labeling was discerned in these regions.  

Almost all double-labeled neurons were found in the half of the DMV caudal to the Area postrema.  

METHODS: We performed an extensive immunohistological study on the Area postrema (AP), the subfornical organ (SFO), the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and the median eminence (ME) in frozen brain sections from healthy SJL mice and mice suffering from EAE.  

In addition, SD rats expressed more Fos-LI in the Area postrema and myenteric neurons than SLE and LETO rats.  

The subfornicial organ and organum vasculosum lamina terminalis appear to be more vulnerable to the effects of SAH than the median eminence or Area postrema.DISCUSSION: Considering the fact that the experimental SAH model we have used is very similar to the momentary rupture of an aneurysm with secondary reflex spasm to seal the hole, it will not be unrealistic to consider that similar effects may also take place in the clinical setting..  

Levels of NE in the raphé nuclei and Area postrema, and epinephrine in raphé became elevated following restraint stress, and returned to control levels following forced physical activity to 50% or 100% exhaustion. In the Area postrema, exhaustion reversed a decline in epinephrine levels that followed forced physical activity.  

Forty-micrometer brainstem sections containing the Area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and myenteric neurons of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum underwent a diaminobenzidine reaction enhanced with nickel to reveal Fos-LI.  

A discrete number of c-Fos protein immunoreactive nuclei could be observed in some circumventricular organs, including the vascular organ of terminal lamina (OVLT) and subfornical organ (SFO) and in the nucleus of solitary tract near the Area postrema, but only in specimens from sensitized rats.  

FOS positive neurons were induced by hypoxia and mainly existed in the nucleus of solitary tract, Area postrema, hypoglossal nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus, nucleus raphe pallidus, facial nucleus, trapezoid nucleus, but in the group of hypoxia plus TMP, the level of FOS immunoreactivity decreased remarkably, compared with the group of hypoxia (P<0.05).  

Peripherally administered PYY3-36 activates neurons in the Area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarius, brainstem areas known to mediate effects of certain aversive stimuli.  

Central HS (0.3, 0.67, or 1.0M NaCl, 1 microl/min for 20 min) significantly increased the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus, the Area postrema (AP), the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), and the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) in both Tg and control rats.  

Immunocytochemical processing of the hindbrain for the inducible c-fos gene product Fos revealed that 4CIN enhanced Fos immunoreactivity in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), e.g., the nucleus of the solitary tract and dorsal vagal motor nucleus, and adjacent Area postrema, sites where cells characterized by unique sensitivity to diminished glucose and/or glycolytic intermediate/end product levels reside, and in the medial vestibular nucleus (MV), and that CV4 L-lactate infusion increased Fos labeling within the DVC and MV after insulin-induced hypoglycemia.  

Compared to vehicle injection, CCK administration resulted in significant increases in the number of Fos-immunopositive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract, Area postrema, and dorsal vagal motor nucleus of control, LETO rats.  

Pre-treatment with naloxone methiodide decreased (15%) IL-1beta-induced Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in medial parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (mPVN) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons but increased responses in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) C1 (65%) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) A2 (110%) catecholamine cell groups and Area postrema (136%). Similar comparisons also detected decreases in Fos-IR neurons induced by IL-1beta in the VLM A1, VLM C1 and NTS A2 catecholamine cell groups, Area postrema, and parabrachial nucleus.  

We studied Fos expression in the medullary dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), and Area postrema (AP) in four groups of rats with different thyroid states induced by a combination of drinking water and daily intraperitoneal injection for 1-4 wk: 1) tap water and vehicle; 2) 0.1% propylthiouracil (PTU) and vehicle; 3) PTU and thyroxine (T4; 2 microg/100 g); and 4) tap water and T4 (10 microg/100 g).  

In situ hybridization histochemistry (ISH) for c-fos mRNA revealed that the expression of the c-fos gene was not induced in the SON, the PVN, the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and the Area postrema (AP) 30 min after iv administration of CCK-8 (20 and 40 microg/kg) in OLETF rats.  

The distribution of orexin A immunoreactivity and the synaptic relationships of orexin A-positive neurons in the rat Area postrema were studied using both light and electron microscopy techniques. At the light microscope level, numerous orexin A-like immunoreactive fibers were found within the Area postrema. The present results suggest that the physiological function of orexin A in the Area postrema depends on synaptic relationships with other immunopositive and immunonegative neurons, with the action of orexin A mediated via a self-modulation feedback mechanism..  

The electrophysiological properties of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChR) were investigated in acutely dissociated Area postrema (AP) neurons of the immature rat brain using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording method.  

Rats with lesions of the Area postrema (APX) are known to exhibit an enhanced intake of highly palatable foods such as sweetened condensed milk and cookies. These results support the hypothesis that rats with lesions of the Area postrema will consistently work harder to obtain a highly palatable food reward..  

Catecholaminergic (CA) neurons in the caudal hindbrain nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS)/Area postrema (AP) complex participate in the origin and/or relay of stimuli that signal deficient glucose provision to the brain.  

Positive hybridization signals are also detected in other areas, such as cerebral cortex, Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and Area postrema.  

The central response to 2-DG and CCK are similar to Area postrema lesions.  

Sensory elements of the vago-vagal reflex circuit (i.e., neurons of the solitary tract [ NST] and Area postrema [ AP]) are activated by exposure to TNF(alpha), while the efferent elements (i.e., dorsal motor neurons of the vagus [ DMN]) cause gastroinhibition.  

Likewise, areas that due to the absence of the blood-brain barrier contain more active glial cells, such as the pituitary gland, or the Area postrema at floor of the 4th ventricle show a degree of constitutive expression.  

Associated with the pressor response, the neuronal activity marked with c-fos was enhanced significantly in the fetal anterior third ventricle (AV3V) region (including the median preoptic nucleus and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis) in the forebrain, and in the Area postrema, lateral parabrachial nucleus, nucleus tractus solitary, and rostral ventrolateral medulla in the hindbrain.  

After five days, six brain areas were externally stained blue with the dye; the saccus dorsalis (SD), the epiphysis (E), the Area postrema (AP), the posterior part of the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (PM), the pituitary (Pit), and the saccus vasculosus (SV).  

In five neurons, chemical stimulation of the Area postrema (AP) induced a TTX-sensitive inward (n = 3) or biphasic (outward and inward) current (n = 2).  

The boundaries of the Area postrema (AP), dorsal motor vagal nucleus (DMVN), solitary tract nucleus (STN), solitary tract (ST) and hypoglossal nucleus (XII) were defined, all vessels were counted and the values were divided by the areas.  

(iii) In the dorsal medulla, the predominantly inspiratory activity was detected at the rostral level of the Area postrema.  

Instead, a dramatic induction of c-Fos expression was found in Area postrema.  

The Area postrema (AP) plays a predominant role in peripheral amylin's satiating effect, involving a direct activation of AP neurons by blood-borne amylin.  

Restoration of leptin signaling to this brain area normalized the effect of CCK on the activation of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract and Area postrema, key hindbrain areas for processing satiety-related inputs.  

CTB-positive HMNs projecting to the genioglossus muscle were consistently labeled throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the hypoglossal nuclei with the greatest labeling at and caudal to Area postrema. Rostrally, the number of genioglossal motoneurons demonstrating immunoreactivity for the alpha-7 subunit was 45.85+/-10.04% compared to 34.96+/-5.11% at and caudal to Area postrema (P>0.1). The number of genioglossal motoneurons that showed immunoreactivity for the alpha-4 subunit was 55.03+/-4.83% at and caudal to Area postrema compared to 42.98+/-3.90% in rostral areas (P=0.074).  

Changes in plasma prolactin concentrations correlated with the numbers of c-Fos-positive CA neurons within the Area postrema, the medullary CA cell groups, the medial posterior division of the arcuate, and the zona incerta.  

Dense labeling was seen in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, as reported previously, but also in several other areas, including the locus coeruleus, the Area postrema, and the commissural part of the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

Administration of four doses of insulin on as many days significantly diminished or extinguished Fos immunostaining within the parvocellular hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, thalamic paraventricular nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, and Area postrema, but did not modify labeling of other metabolic loci.  

Noxious challenge of gastric mucosa alters the sodium currents in gastric sensory neurons and induces cfos mRNA expression in nucleus tractus solitarii and Area postrema.  

Its localization in the Area postrema region led us to hypothesize that it may be derived from this circumventricular organ..  

Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were performed to investigate the serotonergic modulation of neurotransmitter release onto rat Area postrema neurons in vitro. These results suggest that glutamate release is increased in the Area postrema by presynaptic 5-HT3 receptor activation. Such a mechanism may contribute to the chemosensitive function of Area postrema neurons..  

On the other hand, CpG-DNA increased c-FOS-positive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and the Area postrema.  

Fos-ir was expressed mainly in the midcoronal and caudal parts of the Area postrema of sham-cut rats, and this expression was greatly reduced in knife-cut rats. They also demonstrate that the Fos-ir in the Area postrema after intragastric osmotic loading is heavily dependent on the intact connectivity of the SFO..  

Abundant expression was found in the brain, with highest densities in the nucleus accumbens, lateral arcuate nucleus, lateral substantia nigra, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, locus coeruleus, Area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, and some of the nuclei of the reticular formation.  

The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) encompasses the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMX) and the Area postrema (AP), that altogether provide the major integrative center for the mammalian autonomic nervous system.  

Immunocytochemical and retrograde tracing studies verified that the Area postrema, A2, A5, ventrolateral medulla and locus coeruleus regions are sources of catecholaminergic input to the NST.  

The aim of this study was to assess the neuronal activation in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the Area postrema (AP) following nutritional and non-nutritional stimulations.  

In the CNS, the 5-HT3 receptor has been localized in the Area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarii, nucleus vaudatus, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, entorhinal, frontal, cingulate cortex, and in the dorsal horn ganglia.  

AMY inhibits food intake through its action in the Area postrema of the brain.  

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