Temporal Polar Cortex

Although the human temporal polar cortex (TPC), anterior to the limen insulae, is heavily involved in high-order brain functions and many neurological diseases, few studies on the parcellation and extent of the human TPC are available that have used modern neuroanatomical techniques.  

Extrahippocampal regions may be affected in MTLE/HS, association with cortical dysplasia is common and temporal polar cortex is frequently involved in seizure onset. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of histopathological finding in the temporal polar cortex: HS associated with malformation of cortical development (group HS+, n = 19) and a group with isolated HS (group HS, n = 19).  

In marked contrast, prefrontal connections in temporal polar cortex were found mostly in the deep layers, showing mismatch with the predominant upper laminar distribution of interneurons.  

Normal subjects activate the left temporal polar cortex when they name persons, and subjects with damage to the left temporal pole due to left anterior temporal lobectomy are impaired in the retrieval of the proper names of persons.  

Region of interest analyses on the above areas showed correlations with performance: (1) only rCBF in the right midfusiform correlated positively with encoding during the FaceMemory and FaceWatching conditions; (2) in the right temporal polar cortex rCBF decreased during FaceMemory and correlated positively with performance, whereas rCBF increased during FaceWatching and correlated negatively with incidental performance; and (3) activity in the anterior fusiform gyri remained constant across the conditions of FaceMemory, FaceRepeat, FaceWatching, and Scrambled and was uncorrelated with performance. These data suggest an expanded mnemonic role for the right midfusiform in depth of processing/encoding of face information, temporal polar cortex in face perception and recognition, and anterior fusiform activity in featural visual feature processing..  

Caudal to the PFC, projections to the PAG also arise from the posterior cingulate cortex, the dorsal dysgranular, and granular parts of the temporal polar cortex, the ventral insula, and the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus.  

The MRI studies indicated that the lesion was bilaterally symmetrical and included the medial temporal polar cortex, most of the amygdaloid complex, most or all of the entorhinal cortex, and approximately half of the rostrocaudal extent of the intraventricular portion of the hippocampal formation (dentate gyrus, hippocampus, and subicular complex).  

Thus, in the present study, direct projections from the non-laminated portions of the medial geniculate nucleus to the temporal polar cortex and amygdala were examined in the cat by retrograde and anterograde tract-tracing techniques. The temporal polar cortex is the ventral polar region of the posterior sylvian and posterior ectosylvian gyri, which is located dorsal to the posterior rhinal sulcus and includes the ectorhinal area. After injection of cholera toxin B subunit into the temporal polar cortex, retrogradely labeled neurons were seen in the caudal two-thirds of the medial geniculate nucleus ipsilateral to the injection; they were distributed in the non-laminated portions of the MG (the dorsal and medial divisions and the ventromedial part of the ventral division), but not in the laminated portion (the principal part of the ventral division). After the injection into each non-laminated division, terminal labeling was observed in the temporal polar cortex. Then, cholera toxin B subunit was injected into the lateral amygdaloid nucleus; retrogradely labeled neurons were observed ipsilaterally in the non-laminated portions of the MG, as well as in the temporal polar cortex. The results indicate that the non-laminated portions of the MG send projection fibers to the temporal polar cortex and lateral amygdaloid nucleus, and that the non-laminated portions of the MG and temporal polar cortex give rise to overlapping projections to the lateral amygdaloid nucleus.  

OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of neuropathologic changes in temporal polar cortex in Alzheimer's disease (AD) in comparison with changes in Pick's disease (PD) and normal elderly cytoarchitecture. Neural systems that interconnect temporal polar cortex with sensory association areas and memory-related limbic structures are, therefore, disrupted, and it is likely that these lesions play a role in the multifaceted cognitive and behavioral changes of AD and PD..  

ITR differs from ITC by receiving little if any input from DLC; projecting to inferior temporal polar cortex, the rostral Sylvian fissure, and medial orbital cortex; and having a less distinct layer IV.  

In the monkey, HRP-labeled neurons were observed in the entorhinal cortices after injections of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (area TA or 22); the temporal polar cortex (area TG or 38); the inferior temporal cortex (area TE or 20); the perirhinal cortex (area 35) and the posterior parahippocampal cortices (areas TF and TH).  

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