Putamen


RESULTS: Regional radioactivity was highest in the caudate head and putamen; mid level in the parahippocampus, cerebral cortex, and thalamus; and lowest in the cerebellum. BPND values by the indirect kinetic method were 3.15 +/- 0.36, 3.11 +/- 0.66, 1.17 +/- 0.25, and 0.46 +/- 0.14 in the caudate, putamen, parahippocampal region, and thalamus, respectively.  

Our results also reveal functional participation of the anteroventral (AV), ventral posterolateral (VPL) ventrolateral thalamic nuclei, and the posterior putamen in the response to CO(2) stimulation, suggesting that these centres may play a role in gating respiratory information to the cortex.  

The phase values were measured on the corrected phase images in the globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, substantia nigra, red nucleus, thalamus and frontal white matter.  

Tremor was associated with bilateral involvement of putamens in SPECT (p=0.039), strategic lesion with putamen involvement (p = 0.028) and lesions of periventricular white matter lesions with SPECT type 1 and 2 (p=0.045).  

Paradoxically, FAAH levels increased in the hypothalamus and, to a lesser extent, in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, but not in the caudate-putamen. By contrast, the levels of CB(1) receptors were markedly reduced in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex of these rats, although no changes were seen in the hypothalamus and the caudate-putamen.  

Neurology20076924:2256-226518071146 OBJECTIVE: The goal of this work was to evaluate the relationship between neuronal injury/loss in the hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients using (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. The spectroscopic imaging data were reconstructed using an automated voxel-shifting method based on anatomic landmarks providing four, six, and three loci for the hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen, respectively. NAA/Cr in the ipsilateral hippocampus was significantly correlated with the ipsilateral and contralateral anterior and posterior thalami, putamen, and contralateral hippocampus. The degree of injury/loss in the ipsilateral and contralateral thalamus and putamen is directly correlated with that of the ipsilateral hippocampus.  

Compared to control, vAChT was lowered (up to 50%) at each time point after trauma, with reductions in olfactory tubercle, basal forebrain, motor cortex, putamen, thalamic and hypothalamic areas and the gigantocellular reticular nucleus.  

Risperidone (at 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased NMDA binding in caudate-putamen of juvenile and adult animals. Risperidone (at 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg/day) increased AMPA receptors in medial prefrontal cortex and caudate-putamen of juvenile animals, whereas risperidone (at 3.0 mg/kg) increased AMPA receptors in caudate-putamen and hippocampus of adults.  

Adult male prairie voles were transfected with ERalpha in the MeA (MeA-ERalpha) or the caudate-putamen (ERalpha control) or luciferase (MeA-site-specific control), and 3 weeks later tested for spontaneous alloparental behavior and partner preference.  

Compared to persistent ecstasy-naives, novel low-dose ecstasy users (mean 6.0, median 2.0 tablets) showed decreased rrCBV in the globus pallidus and putamen; decreased FA in thalamus and frontoparietal white matter; increased FA in globus pallidus; and increased apparent diffusion coefficient in the thalamus.  

The globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus was not identified, and the putamen and thalamus were dysplasic.  

RESULTS: SERT levels were non-significantly decreased (-14% to -33%) in caudate, putamen and thalamus (normal in hippocampus), and, unlike the robust striatal dopamine reduction, there was marked overlap between control and MA user ranges.  

After normalization for global brain activity, PD patients showed a significantly higher nCMRGlc than controls bilaterally in the BG output nuclei (pallidum, substantia nigra) and unilateral in the caudate and putamen.  

In contrast, multiple anterior neural systems showed significantly less activity with age, including dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal, paracentral, and insula cortices bilaterally, basal ganglia, and particularly large clusters in the midline anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortex, left middle cingulate/supplementary motor cortex, left insula-putamen, and left caudate.  

Several regions of interest, including the bilateral nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, anterior insula, right cerebellar lobule VI, and left putamen, were sensitive to informative feedback regardless of valence. These included the insula, amygdala, putamen, and supplementary motor area.  

As compared with control values, SERT protein levels were markedly (-48% to -58%) reduced in striatum (caudate, putamen) and occipital cortex and less affected (-25%) in frontal and temporal cortices, whereas TPH protein was severely decreased in caudate and putamen (-68% and -95%, respectively).  

Event-related fMRI analysis time-locked to the occurrence of REMs revealed that the pontine tegmentum, ventroposterior thalamus, primary visual cortex, putamen and limbic areas (the anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala) were activated in association with REMs. On the other hand, the activation of the putamen and limbic areas accompanied REMs.  

Met-enkephalin immunoreactive neurons were labeled in the caudate-putamen, intermediated part of lateral septum, lateral globus pallidus, intermediated part of lateral septum, hypothalamus, and amygdala of WT mice.  

During low pitch generation, activations were present in the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, putamen, and cingulate gyrus in the left hemisphere.  

RESULTS: The monkey displayed significant increases in receptor binding throughout the brain during DBS relative to baseline for 130 and 50Hz, with changes in DVR of: caudate 42%, 51%; putamen 56%, 57%; thalamus 33%, 49%; substantia nigra 29%, 26%; and prefrontal cortex 28%, 56%, respectively.  

Here we examine the specific role of the caudate nucleus, and in particular, how this differs from that of the putamen. This is in contrast to the putamen, which appears to subserve cognitive functions more limited to stimulus-response, or habit, learning. This modular conception of the striatum is consistent with hierarchical models of cortico-striatal function through which adaptive behaviour towards significant goals can be identified (motivation; ventral striatum), planned (cognition; caudate) and implemented (sensorimotor coordination; putamen) effectively..  

However, a slight increase in GMV was also found in the right globus pallidus externus in sPARKIN-MC and in the right putamen in iPD.  

In this study, we show that a single cocaine administration (30 mg/kg) time-dependently increases ERK phosphorylation, c-Fos and FosB protein expression, and MKP-1 phosphorylation (p-MKP-1), in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of Fischer rats.  

There was a clear chemoarchitectural gradient visible with parvalbumin immunoreactivity of neurons and fibers, suggesting a subdivision of the echidna caudatoputamen into weakly reactive rostrodorsomedial and strongly reactive caudoventrolateral components. This may, in turn, relate to subdivision into associative versus sensorimotor CPu and reflect homology to the caudate and putamen of primates. The morphology of identified neuronal groups (i.e., parvalbumin, calbindin, and neuropeptide Y immunoreactive) in the echidna striatum and pallidum showed many similarities to those seen in eutherians, although the pattern of distribution of calbindin immunoreactive neurons was more uniform in the caudatoputamen of the echidna than in therians.  

Activity in primary visual cortex and putamen reflected learning-dependent surprise: these areas responded progressively more to unpredicted, and progressively less to predicted visual stimuli.  

Regions of interest (ROIs) included mesencephalon, corpus callosum and left and right superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP), thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidus, posterior limb of internal capsule, frontal and parietal white matter.  

Novel surface-based anatomical modelling methods were applied to magnetic resonance imaging data to examine regional changes in the shape and volume of the caudate, the putamen and the nucleus accumbens in 21 patients (19 males/2 females; mean age=30.7+/-7.3) who were either antipsychotic-na├»ve or antipsychotic-free for at least 1 year and 21 healthy comparison subjects (19 males/2 females; mean age=31.1+/-8.2). Left and right global putamen volumes were significantly smaller in patients than controls; no significant global volume effects were observed for the caudate and the nucleus accumbens. However, surface deformation mapping results showed localized volume changes prominent bilaterally in medial/lateral anterior regions of the caudate, as well as in anterior and midposterior regions of the putamen, pronounced on the medial surface. A significant positive correlation was observed between right anterior putamen surface contractions and affective flattening, a core negative symptom of schizophrenia. The diagnostic effects of local surface deformations mostly pronounced in the associative striatum, as well as the correlation between anterior putamen morphology and affective flattening in unmedicated schizophrenia suggest disease-specific neuroanatomical abnormalities and distinct cortical-striatal dysconnectivity patterns relevant to altered executive control, motor planning, along with abnormalities of emotional processing..  

Unexpectedly, striatal (+)[ (11)C]DTBZ binding was increased in methamphetamine users relative to controls (+22%, caudate; +12%, putamen; +11%, ventral striatum).  

Of the structures that receive direct projections from the cortex, the thalamus, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus showed changes specific to subjects with schizophrenia, and changes in the amygdala and putamen were similar in both groups.  

The prime stereotactic target for the majority of recent gene therapy clinical trials has been the human putamen. The stereotactic delivery of therapeutic agents into putamen (or other subcortical structures) via CED remains problematic due to the difficulty in knowing what volume of therapeutic agent to deliver. Understanding more accurately the volumetric differences in striatum, especially putamen, between NHP and humans is essential in predicting convective volume parameters in human clinical trials. In this study, magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained for volumetric measurements of striatum (putamen and caudate nucleus) and whole brain from 11 PD patients, 13 aged healthy human subjects, as well as 8 parkinsonian and 30 normal NHP. However, this ratio is significantly smaller for striatum (5.7-6.5), caudate nucleus (4.6-6.6) and putamen (4.4-6.6).  

Prodynorphin mRNA increased by 30 min for over 24 h, and in situ hybridization demonstrated elevated signal in caudate/putamen and nucleus accumbens.  

In patients as compared to controls, TBM (permutation test, FDR 0.05) revealed a large coherent cluster of significant atrophy in the brain stem and cerebellar peduncles extending bilaterally through the thalamus, internal and external capsules, putamen, inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculus, corpus callosum and corona radiata.  

Correlation coefficients of the anterior cingulate-primary sensorimotor, posterior cingulate-primary sensorimotor and occipital-media frontal in both hemispheres, of the frontal-primary sensorimotor, occipital-parahippocampal, primary visual-medial frontal and parahippocampal-amygdala in the right, and the frontal-vermis, parietal-thalamus, temporal-vermis, occipital-putamen, primary visual-putamen, thalamus-vermis and thalamus-cerebellum in the left were significantly different in patients compared with controls.  

Postoperative CT scan revealed infarctions in the left caudate head and the left putamen.  

Somatostatin levels were increased after citalopram, but not DMI administration, in the caudate-putamen, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex.  

Binding studies show upregulation of high-affinity nAChRs after 21 days of treatment in cortical areas, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area, and superior colliculi.  

Patients also activated the thalamus, putamen, middle frontal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus.  

We used measures of V(T)/f(P) and estimates of nondisplaceable volume of distribution and found 25%-200% higher values in smokers than in nonsmokers for the volume of distribution for the specific binding compartment in the frontal cortex, midbrain, putamen, pons, cerebellum, and corpus callosum.  

Target areas are the nucleus caudatus caput (NCc) and the precommissural and postcommissural putamen (Pu).  

Autoradiographic studies explored the effect of l-NNA on the expression of D(1) and D(2) receptors in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) at PD60.  

In nicotine-pretreated mice, morphine-induced dopamine release in the caudate putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) was significantly augmented, as measured by microdialysis.  

RESULTS: The (123)I-labeled ioflupane single-photon emission computed tomography showed reduced radiotracer uptake in both striatum more marked in the putamen and on the left side in patient 1 and reduced radiotracer uptake in both putamen more marked on the right side in patient 2.  

Expression of the APP transgene was found in ChAT-positive neurons of motor nuclei accompanied by robust intracellular Abeta accumulation, whereas no APP expressing neurons and thus no intracellular Abeta accumulation were found in neither the forebrain or pons complexes, nor in the caudate putamen.  

For example, Mn exposure reduced GAT-1 protein expression by approximately 50% in the substantia nigra, while increasing mRNA expression approximately four-fold, while in the caudate putamen mRNA expression was decreased with no effect on protein expression.  

Gray matter was relatively increased in the right anterior hippocampus and relatively decreased in the right dorsal basal ganglia (globus pallidus/putamen) in the postmenstrual phase.  

Imitation of rehabilitated gestures activated the mirror neuron system, and also left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and putamen, and the right anterior temporal cortex.  

In the present study, we examined the relationships among cognitive function, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain metabolite indices measured in the basal ganglia, and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the caudate nucleus and the putamen in the earliest stages of HIV-related cognitive involvement. The caudate and putamen sizes were smaller among HIV-positive patients compared with controls; however, the differences did not reach statistical significance. In addition, caudate size was significantly correlated with performances on higher-order thinking tests whereas putamen size was significantly correlated with performances on motor tests.  

Sleep deprivation increased the number of c-Fos positive cells in a number of brain areas, including the caudate putamen, medial preoptic area, perifornical hypothalamus, and anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus.  

We included cortical regions as well as limbic area's (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex) basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus), thalamus and cingulated gyrus.  

putamen [ (123)I]FP-CIT SPET binding was reduced in 14 and normal in the remaining 18 patients.  

Compared with NC, the TS group showed a significant increase in lambda(1) (P = 0.003) and MD (P = 0.027) in the bilateral putamen, an increase in lambda(23) in right thalamus (P = 0.008), and a reversed asymmetry of FA (P = 0.03) in the thalamus.  

Seven HD gene positive individuals under the age of 21 years are described with clinical examination and proton-MR-spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) profiles of the putamen.  

Compared with healthy controls, pre-HD individuals exhibited lower connectivity strength in the left putamen, the right anterior cingulate and the left medial prefrontal cortex. Pre-HD individuals close to the onset of motor symptoms additionally exhibited lower connectivity strength in the right putamen and the left superior frontal cortex. The connectivity strength in the left putamen was associated with several clinical measures including CAG repeat length, Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale motor score and predicted years to manifest symptom onset.  

Using the dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor tracer [ (11)C]raclopride and positron emission tomography in seven healthy subjects, we demonstrate that THC inhalation reduces [ (11)C]raclopride binding in the ventral striatum and the precommissural dorsal putamen but not in other striatal subregions.  

Reduction in the DAT of the left putamen correlated not only with motor impairment but also with errors in emotional gesture recognition. Moreover, the less DAT present in the left putamen, the lower the activation in the left VLPFC. We conclude that reduction of DAT in the putamen results in a reduction of ventrolateral prefrontal access involved in the recognition of emotional gestures..  

Type D tumors originate from the temporal mediobasal region and invade into the adjacent structures of the temporal stem, insular cortex, claustrum, putamen, or pallidum.  

Brain sections were collected from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsolateral frontal cortex (DFC), caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, and entorhinal cortex and processed for in-vitro receptor autoradiography.  

Healthy controls showed increased activation in the left putamen during the monetary feedback condition compared to both the positive informative and meaningless feedback condition, without an effect in the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC). In contrast, PD patients showed increased activation in the left putamen during the meaningless feedback condition compared to both positive feedback conditions.  

Amygdala, nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen and hippocampus tissues were dissected 30 minutes following the last injection and analyzed for phosphorylated and total Akt and GSK3(alpha & beta) protein levels using Western blot analysis. Cocaine did not alter Akt or GSK3 phosphorylation in the caudate putamen or hippocampus.  

BACKGROUND: The neostriatum, the mouse homologue of the primate caudate/putamen, is the input nucleus for the basal ganglia, receiving both cortical and dopaminergic input to each of its sub-compartments, the striosomes and matrix. In contrast, PNNs were first seen at P10 and continued to increase in density and spread throughout the caudate/putamen with maturation. These results suggest diverse roles for CSPGs in the formation of functional corticostriatal and nigrostriatal connectivity within the striosome and matrix compartments of the developing caudate/putamen..  

After 1 year, HIV subjects showed increase in MD in frontal and parietal WM, putamen, and genu; HIV subjects also showed greater increased genu diffusion than SN controls (p = 0.005). Changes in global cognitive deficit score correlated with changes in MD in the genu and FA in the parietal and frontal WM and putamen (multiple regression, p = 0.0008). Lastly, normal age-dependent changes in frontal WM diffusion and FA in genu and putamen were not observed in HIV subjects.  

The comparative distribution of LGR8 (receptor protein) was examined by autoradiography of [ (125)I]-human INSL3 binding sites, with high densities detected in the thalamus, especially in Pf, and in the entire striatum-the caudate putamen (CPmu), islands of Calleja, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens-with lower levels in distinct layers of cerebral cortex.  

Binding Potentials (BP) at D(1) receptors were calculated for the caudate nucleus and putamen. RESULTS: The BP for [ (11)C]-SCH23390 at D(1) receptors in OCD patients was significantly reduced in both caudate nucleus (0.59+/-0.06 vs 0.88+/-0.06, p<0.05) and putamen (0.89+/-0.06 vs 1.14+/-0.06, p<0.05) compared with healthy controls.  

Visuo-spatial deficits are the most consistently reported cognitive abnormalities in Parkinson's disease (PD), and they are frequently associated to motor symptoms in the early stages of the disease when dopamine loss is moderate and still restricted to the caudate-putamen.  

RESULTS: Subjects with high genetic risk showed a loss of asymmetry of D(2) receptors in the putamen in comparison with healthy controls.  

The major findings were as follows: (1) A shift of activation to the hemisphere contralateral to the turn was found in the putamen, and-for initiation of the turn-in the caudate nucleus.  

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Striatal dopaminergic integrity assessed in sections of putamen by immunofluorescence for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), neuronal loss score in the substantia nigra, and distribution of Lewy bodies according to PD stage.  

In some brain regions discrimination training had no effect on ethanol-induced Fos-IR changes (caudate putamen, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and CA1 region of the hippocampus).  

RESULTS: Analysis of data on 14 cases and 15 controls demonstrated significant differences in the unadjusted odds of dysphagia for the following ROIs: (1) primary somatosensory, motor, and motor supplementary areas (PSSM; OR=10, P=0.009); (2) orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; OR=6.5, P=0.04); (3) putamen, caudate, basal ganglia (PCBG; OR=5.33, P=0.047); and (4) internal capsule (IC; OR=26; P=0.005).  

Induction was observed in various brain regions including those affected in Parkinson's disease (PD) such as substantia nigra (3-fold, p=0.01), putamen (2.1-fold, p=0.001) and brainstem (2.4-fold, p=0.001), with the caudate nucleus approaching significance (1.6-fold, p=0.07).  

In particular, we analyzed the gene transcripts and proteins expression of CD14 and TLR4, in the substantia nigra and caudate-putamen nuclei of these animals.  

Statistical parametric mapping confirmed a region of reduced [ (11)C]-SCH23390 binding in the right putamen in alpha4-Ser248Phe subjects compared to controls (309 voxels, local maxima 20 16 -2 mm; Z(score) 3.57, p < 0.05).  

AA injection significantly decreased the number of both necrotic and apoptotic cells in cortex, caudate putamen, thalamus and hippocampus, and also seemed to reduce the number of TUNEL-positive cells.  

Three hours after amphetamine injection, there was an increase of preprodynorphin mRNA in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens and D(3)R mRNA levels were increased in the nucleus accumbens of BDNF(+/-) and wildtype mice.  

A single template of predefined VOI 3D-drawn on right and left caudate nucleus and putamen was applied to the spatially normalized BR images.  

The formalin stimulation at the hind paw of rats resulted in significant metabolic increases in the bilateral cingulate cortex, motor cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, insular cortex, visual cortex, caudate putamen, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus.  

Rat brains were examined 24 h after injection at PND 29 (early adolescence), PND 38 (mid adolescence) and PND 50 (late adolescence) and analyzed for endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), Met-enkephalin, cannabinoid CB(1) receptors and micro opioid receptors (microOR) in the NAc, caudate-putamen and prefrontal cortex (PFC).  

RESULTS: Diffusion tensor imaging revealed significant differences of diffusion parameters in several areas of the brain, including the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, cingulum, corticospinal tracts, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi, globus pallidus, putamen, and thalamus.  

Apathy was associated with GM density loss in the anterior cingulate and frontal cortex bilaterally, the head of the left caudate nucleus and in bilateral putamen.  

HR/RET double-labeled neurons were abundantly distributed in the substantia nigra pars compacta ipsilateral to the caudate-putamen stereotaxically injected with HRP.  

RESULTS: DS individuals with AD had significantly smaller corrected volumes bilaterally of the hippocampus and caudate, and right amygdala and putamen, and a significantly larger corrected volume of left peripheral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), compared to DS individuals without AD.  

Furthermore, DOI and amperozide, but not ritanserin, reduced the haloperidol-induced catalepsy When animals were unilaterally radiofrequency lesioned in either caudate putamen (CP) or nucleus accumbens (NA), amperozide reduced both the ipsi- and contralateral turns in CP-lesioned, but reduced only ipsilateral turns in NA-lesioned rats.  

At the maximum pain syndrome 3 weeks after the deafferentation, a reorganization of the brain electrical activity was observed in the limbic structures (hippocampus, amygdale, and nucleus accumbens), frontal cortex, and the caudate putamen.  

Animals exposed to 1 and 5 hrs of xenon showed significantly reduced scores for necrotic neurons in the putamen (1.25 +/- 0.5 and 1.25 +/- 0.5 vs. 2.5 +/- 1.2; p < 0.05), accompanied by significantly lesser scores for perivascular inflammation in putamen (0.8 +/- 0.5 and 1.1 +/- 0.8 vs.  

In the PD group compared with the healthy controls, we found ReHo decreased in extensive brain regions, including the putamen, thalamus, and supplementary motor area; and increased in some other areas, including the cerebellum, primary sensorimotor cortex, and premotor area. The ReHo off medication was negatively correlated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) in the putamen and some other regions, and was positively correlated with the UPDRS in the cerebellum.  

Here, a novel automated technique of voxel-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis was applied to determine the volumes of caudate nucleus and putamen in nine patients with proven ChAc in comparison with 257 healthy controls.  

MRI showed focal destruction of both thalami and the right putamen.  

There is a general inhibition of the UPS in many brain regions (cerebellum, cortex, substantia nigra and caudate-putamen) and skin fibroblasts from HD patients.  

Neurotoxic, cell-specific lesions of the rat caudate-putamen (CPu) have been proposed as a model of human Huntington's disease and as such impair performance on many motor tasks, including skilled forelimbs tasks such as reaching for food.  

He subsequently developed an intracerebral haemorrhage in the putamen with a minimal subarachnoid haemorrhage and died.  

MDMA treatment decreased 5-HTT fibre density in posterior hypothalamus, tuberomammillary nucleus, caudate putamen and ventrolateral striatum.  

Results - DAT-scan demonstrated reduced values of presynaptic receptorial trace in the putamen, particularly on the left side, consistent with functional putaminal dopaminergic presynaptic alteration.  

RESULTS: [ 11C]DTBZ DV was decreased significantly in caudate nucleus, anterior putamen, and posterior putamen in DLB and PD compared with AD and NC. DLB and PD groups showed an anterior-to-posterior gradient of binding loss relative to NC, least in caudate nucleus and largest in posterior putamen.  

FLAIR signal intensity abnormality in the caudate or putamen nuclei demonstrated a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 91%. CONCLUSIONS: FLAIR and DWI abnormalities in the caudate nucleus and putamen offer the best sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing fCJD.  

In contrast and at all the time points of extinction, binding to DAT was significantly enhanced in CONT animals when compared to SALINE and NON-CONT rats in different forebrain and mesencephalic regions, including the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area or caudate putamen.  

Analysis of neural activation across 39 brain regions using Fos immunohistochemistry showed the following results: (1) VEHICLE-SOCIAL and VEHICLE-ALONE groups did not differ in Fos expression, indicating that a social context per se did not affect Fos expression, (2) MDMA-treated groups showed significantly increased Fos expression relative to VEHICLE treated groups in 30 brain regions, (3) the MDMA-SOCIAL group showed augmented Fos expression relative to the MDMA-ALONE group in six brain regions including the caudate-putamen (medial), medial preoptic area, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, central amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and the medial amygdala (posterodorsal), and (4) the MDMA-SOCIAL group (but not the MDMA-ALONE group) showed augmented Fos expression relative to the VEHICLE groups in the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area and periaqueductal grey.  

The ratios of striatal to occipital binding for the entire striatum, putamina, and putamen to the caudate (put/caud) index were calculated in the basal ganglia.  

Using the psychophysiological interaction (PPI) method, we found that the cerebellum, cingulate motor area, supplementary motor area, and putamen had significantly greater connectivity, whereas the precuneus had less connectivity in the motor networks at the automatic stage.  

At embryonic stages, CXCR7 and CXCR4 were codistributed in the germinative zone of the ganglionic eminences, caudate putamen, and along the routes of GABAergic precursors migrating toward the cortex.  

Conversely, in HD a selective impairment of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase, key enzyme in complex II activity was found in medium spiny neurons of the caudate-putamen.  

We measured the XO activity in following brain areas: hippocampus, regio entorhinalis, thalamus, putamen and caudate nucleus. In this study, we report a significant increase of XO activity in the thalamus and the putamen of patients with depression.  

The group of first-episode patients had a higher concentration of gray matter than healthy controls in the putamen and pallidum in both hemispheres. Patients with abnormal sequencing of movements had lower gray matter concentration than patients without such abnormalities in the left putamen, and no differences were found between the symptomatic group and healthy controls. Our study suggests the involvement of the left putamen in the movement sequencing abnormalities in schizophrenia.  

Imaging and autopsy studies have suggested involvement of the caudate and putamen in late stages.  

The other two had elevated blood manganese (2100 mug/L and 3176 mug/L) and MRIs showing bilateral symmetric hyper-intensities on T1-weighted-images in the dentate nucleus, subcortical white substance of cerebellar hemisphere, globus pallidus, and putamen.  

In the present study we used the same approach to quantify the levels of mtDNA deletions in single cells from three different brain regions (putamen, frontal cortex, SN) of patients with AD (n = 9) as compared to age-matched controls (n = 8). There were no significant differences between patients and controls in either region but in both groups the deletion load was markedly higher in dopaminergic SN neurons than in putamen or frontal cortex (p < 0.01; ANOVA).  

Of all brain structure T1-weighted SI comparisons, that of the posterior limb of the internal capsule versus the posterolateral putamen scored best for outcome prediction. If the SI in the posterolateral putamen is less than the SI in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, favorable outcome is very likely, whereas if the SI in the posterolateral putamen is equal to or greater than the SI in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, adverse outcome is very likely.  

Evidence supporting a role of the caudate and putamen nuclei in associative learning is present. We recorded the activity of 21 caudate and 26 putamen cells in one macaque monkey while performing a visuomotor task, which involved a visual stimulus and the execution of a motor response. Ninety-one percent of caudate cells and 65% of putamen cells showed changes in activity while the monkey was performing the task. Approximately half of the caudate cells and one third of the putamen cells showed changes in activity without a motor response. Our results show that caudate and putamen cells are activated regardless of the presence or absence of a motor action.  

Happy, but not neutral or sad own-infant faces, activated nigrostriatal brain regions interconnected by dopaminergic neurons, including the substantia nigra and dorsal putamen.  

Under each condition, quantitative assessment of the number of apoptotic neurons in the cerebral cortex (CC) and in the caudate/putamen (C/P) was performed by unbiased stereology.  

In the present study we investigated the effect of selectivity destroyed dopaminergic neurons of the caudate-putamen (CP) on immune reactivity in the rat.  

The combined caudate head and anterior putamen of six patients with Huntington's disease (HD) was studied by quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and the spectra compared with those from a group of six age-matched normal subjects.  

Proton spectra recorded from single voxels containing putamen and globus pallidus showed a significantly higher intensity of myoinositol and choline peaks in patients when compared with controls.  

However, postmortem studies have demonstrated that the pathological changes in aging and IP affect the dopaminergic function in putamen and caudate nuclei differently. We did not find a similar superimposed effect of age in the putamen.  

Positron emission tomography with [ (18)F]-6-fluoro-L-dopa (FD) and [ su11C]-raclopride (raclopride) of one affected subject revealed reduced striatal FD uptake particularly in putamen, and an increased raclopride striatum/background ratio. Postmortem levels of dopamine and its metabolites were greatly reduced in caudate and putamen of two patients.  

Meta-analysis of these studies identified a significant regional gray matter reduction in ADHD in the right putamen/globus pallidus region. CONCLUSION: In ADHD there is gray matter reduction in the right putamen/globus pallidus region. Right putamen lesions have been specifically associated with ADHD symptoms after closed head injuries in children..  

Controls showed greater activation during attended than ignored PPI conditions in all FST regions-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46, 9), striatum (caudate, putamen), and the thalamic mediodorsal nucleus.  

Event-related fMRI revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex and the inferior parietal cortex may be responsible for proactive inhibition, and that the primary motor cortex, the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen are the likely targeted sites of this inhibition.  

Compared with healthy controls, pre-HD individuals exhibited lower functional connectivity in left lateral prefrontal and parietal regions as well as in the bilateral putamen. Functional connectivity indices in the left putamen were negatively correlated with the CAG repeat size and the UHDRS behavioral score, and positively correlated with the predicted years to manifest symptom onset. The connectivity of the right putamen was negatively correlated with the UHDRS motor score.  

DS scores correlated positively with activations in brain regions previously associated with disgust (anterior insula, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex-temporal pole, putamen-globus pallidus, dorsal anterior cingulate, and visual cortex) and negatively with brain regions involved in the regulation of emotions (dorsolateral and rostral prefrontal cortices).  

Emotional versus neutral prosody evoked BOLD responses in right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal gyrus, insula and bilateral putamen.  

Neuropathologically, the patient showed marked atrophy and neuronal loss, particularly small and medium-sized neurons, with astrocytic gliosis in the caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus.  

Patients with VarAD had significantly higher [ (11)C] PIB uptake than the control group in the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, occipital cortex and thalamus. In the caudate and putamen [ (11)C]PIB uptake, expressed as region-to-cerebellum ratio, was on the average 43% greater than the mean of the control group.  

RESULTS: Compared to SN controls, both HIV subject groups had lower DAT in putamen (HIV+Coc: -16.7%, p = 0.003; HIV: -12.2%, p = 0.02) and only HIV+Coc showed lower DAT in caudate (-12.2%, p = 0.04). Lower DAT, but not D2R, in putamen and caudate were associated with poorer performance on multiple neuropsychological tests, corrected for the effects of age, education, intelligence, mood, and nicotine use.  

CNR1 rs1049353 G allele carriers also demonstrated weaker bilateral amygdala, putamen and pallidum activity as well as left lateralized caudate and thalamus activity in response to masked happy faces.  

Poor memory was associated with GM atrophy in the left (uncus, middle temporal and fusiform gyri) and right temporal lobes and left putamen.  

Running elevated mRNA for dynorphin in caudate putamen and BDNF in hippocampus.  

There were significantly higher DAT levels in cocaine dependent subjects compared to controls for the anterior putamen (p=0.003; Cohen's d effect size=0.98), posterior putamen (p<0.001; effect size=1.32), and caudate (p=0.003; effect size=0.97). DAT levels were unrelated to craving, severity of cocaine use, or duration of cocaine use, but DAT levels in the caudate and anterior putamen were significantly (p<0.05) negatively correlated with days since last use of cocaine..  

Very high binding occurs in brain regions associated with dopaminergic reward (nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area) and motor (substantia nigra, caudate/putamen) systems.  

Furthermore, in HoM and HeW the connections were primarily displayed with the contralateral amygdala and the anterior cingulate, in HeM and HoW with the caudate, putamen, and the prefrontal cortex.  

The results revealed a significant strain difference, with WKY rats demonstrating lower D1 binding in the caudate putamen and regions of the nucleus accumbens (p<0.05).  

BSP patients had increased activation in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen and lateral globus pallidus, whilst CD patients showed increased activation in the caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus.  

Fos-IR specific to PM self-stimulation was also observed within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and nucleus accumbens (NAS)-shell, but not within NAS-core, caudate putamen, medial prefrontal or orbital cortices.  

Both cases showed widespread GCI in the central nervous system, as well as a few neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, but no neuronal loss or gliosis in vulnerable brain regions, including the substantia nigra, putamen, inferior olive and pontine base.  

RESULTS: With ROIs essentially overlapping the entire VOI volume (obtained with RC(zmin) = 50%), the binding potential (BP(ND)) of (11)C-raclopride was found to be around 2.2 for caudate and 2.9 for putamen, an underestimation by 35% and 28%, respectively, according to PVC values. At increased RC(zmin), BP(ND) estimates of (11)C-raclopride were increased by 12% and 21% for caudate and 8% and 15% for putamen when the associated ROIs decreased to around 65% and 43% of total tissue volume (VOI) for caudate and 67% and 31% for putamen. After PVC, we observed relative increases in BP(ND) variance of 12% for caudate and 20% for putamen, whereas estimated BP(ND) values all increased to 3.4 for caudate and 4.0 for putamen, regardless of ROI size. Dopamine receptor concentrations appeared less heterogeneous in the normal human striatum after PVC than they did without PVC: the 25%-30% difference in BP(ND) estimates observed between caudate and putamen remained significant after PVC but was reduced to slightly less than 20%.  

Wfs1-positive nerve fibers were found in the medial forebrain bundle, reticular part of the substantia nigra, globus pallidus, posterior caudate putamen, lateral lemniscus, alveus, fimbria, dorsal hippocampal commissure, subiculum, and to a lesser extent in the central sublenticular extended amygdala, compact part of substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area.  

We used the PET tracer 6-[ (18)F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine to measure dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum (caudate, putamen), and event-related fMRI to measure brain activation during different epochs (cue, delay, probe) of a WM task. Caudate (but not putamen) dopamine correlated positively with WM capacity, whereas putamen (but not caudate) dopamine correlated positively with motor speed.  

Our results show that motivation to learn correlates with bilateral activity in the putamen, and that the higher the reported motivation, as derived from a questionnaire that each subject filled prior to scanning, the greater the change in the BOLD signals within the putamen. Monetary motivation also activated the putamen bilaterally, though the intensity of activity was not related to the monetary reward. We conclude that the putamen is critical for motivation in different domains and the extent of activity of the putamen may be pivotal to the motivation that drives academic achievement and thus academic successes..  

Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received injections of CTAP into the caudate putamen, the rostral or caudal ventral tegmental area (VTA) or the medial shell or core of the nucleus accumbens prior to cocaine to determine the role of mu opioid receptors in cocaine-induced reward and hyperactivity. Results demonstrate that animals pre-treated with CTAP into the nucleus accumbens core or rostral VTA, but not the caudal VTA, caudate putamen or medial nucleus accumbens shell, during conditioning with cocaine showed an attenuation of the development of cocaine-induced place preference. Intra-nucleus accumbens core, caudate putamen or caudal VTA CTAP significantly attenuated cocaine-induced hyperactivity.  

Results - The uptake indices in the blepharospasm group were significantly reduced by 11.7% in the caudate (P < 0.005), 11.6% in the anterior putamen (P < 0.0001), and 10.3% in the posterior putamen (P < 0.005) relative to the control group.  

3 mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate significantly reduced the activity of both MAO-A and -B in the caudate putamen.  

NBQX markedly attenuated cue-elicited cocaine-seeking behavior relative to vehicle pretreatment in the No Extinction group and also decreased cue-elicited Fos protein expression in a region-specific manner in the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices, basolateral amygdala, nucleus accumbens core, and dorsal caudate-putamen, suggesting involvement of AMPA glutamate systems in specific subregions of the neuronal circuitry activated by cocaine cues..  

However, no significant differences in the expression of these three subunits were detected in the caudate putamen at all time points.  

In this autopsied brain study, our major objective was to establish by radioimmunoassay whether levels of dynorphin and other neuropeptides (e.g., metenkephalin, neurotensin and substance P) are increased in the dopamine-rich caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens of human chronic cocaine users (n=12) vs. Changes were limited to markedly increased dynorphin immunoreactivity in caudate (+92%), decreased caudate neurotensin (-49%), and a trend for increased dynorphin (+75%) in putamen.  

Here we report two patients with bilateral fetal nigral grafts in the caudate and putamen subjected to deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN).  

At the neural level, children with ADHD showed less activation than the controls in frontal (middle and superior frontal gyrus), parietal (inferior parietal lobe, precuneus) and putamen regions.  

The following thirteen regions were identified by the stepwise discriminant analysis of the z-scores as significantly contributing to the differences between the sham and OBX: amygdala, cingulate cortex, caudate putamen at the level of globus pallidus, caudate putamen-lateral part, dorsal subiculum, dorsal thalamus, hypothalamus, median raphe, somatosensory cortex, substantia nigra, ventral hippocampus, ventral tegmental area and the ventral thalamus.  

Biodistribution of AAV2-hAADC was assessed over a wide range of vector dose in 12 monkeys with parkinsonian syndrome, 6 months after intraputamenal infusion. Within these tissues, the distribution varied widely between the putamen (PT) and the globus pallidus, and this was attributed to differences in vector transport.  

The catheter was surgically implanted into the right putamen and connected to the pump via flexible polyurethane tubing, phMRI scans were taken at both 6 and 18 weeks while they received 22.5 microg of GDNF per day. The primary finding of this study was that APO-evoked activations in the DA denervated putamen were attenuated by the chronic intraputamenal infusion of GDNF accompanied by improvements of parkinsonian features, movement speed, and APO-induced rotation compared to data collected before the chronic GDNF treatment.  

The neurorestorative effects of exogenous neurturin (NTN) delivered directly into the putamen via multiport catheters were studied in 10 MPTP-lesioned rhesus monkeys expressing stable parkinsonism. No significant changes in DA function were seen in the putamen. Volumetric analysis of putamenal NTN labeling showed between-subject variation, with tissue distribution ranging from 214 to 744 mm3, approximately equivalent to 27-93% of area coverage.  

Clusters of 3-10 dysplastic cells similar to reactive astrocytes were observed in the amygdala, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus in cases 1 and 2.  

During the completion of a unilateral motor task with either hand, each putamen nucleus demonstrated strong coactivation with structures in both hemispheres. The putamen in the noncontrolling hemisphere (ipsilateral to the movement) coactivated more strongly with the controlling motor cortex than with the noncontrolling cortex.  

We examined the effects of chronic morphine treatment and withdrawal on the expression of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)1, mGlu5, and mGlu2/3 receptors in the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen. mGlu1 and mGlu5 expression in the nucleus accumbens and in the caudate putamen was not affected by any of the experimental manipulations. In contrast, mGlu2/3 receptors in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the caudate putamen, increased at day 1, 3, and 14 of withdrawal.  

All of the serum samples were assayed for antibodies against human postmortem caudate, putamen, and prefrontal cortex; commercially prepared antigens; and complex sugars.  

Oral air pulse stimulation, covert swallowing and overt swallowing all produced activation in the primary motor cortex, cingulate cortex, putamen and insula.  

In the process of a DTI study, a series of diffusion-weighted images (DWI) is collected, and while not normally considered as a major dependent variable in research studies, they are used clinically and they reveal striking conspicuity of the globus pallidus and putamen caused by signal loss in these structures, presumably due to iron accumulation with age. The present study used legacy DTI data collected in 10 younger (22-37 years) and 10 older (65-79 years) men and women at 3.0T and fast spin-echo (FSE) data collected at 1.5T and 3.0T to derive an estimate of the field-dependent relaxation rate increase (the "FDRI estimate") in the putamen, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus, and a frontal white matter sample comparison region. In contrast to lower anisotropy and higher diffusivity typical in white matter of older relative to younger adults observed with DTI, both anisotropy and diffusivity were higher in the older than younger group in the caudate nucleus and putamen; the thalamus showed little effect of age on anisotropy or diffusivity. Signal intensity measured with DWI was lower in the putamen of elderly than young adults, whereas the opposite was observed for the white matter region and thalamus. Nonetheless, the differential effects of age on DTI metrics in subcortical gray matter structures compared with white matter tracts appears to be related, at least in part, to local iron content, which in the elderly of the present study was prominent in the FDRI estimate of the putamen and visibly striking in the diffusion-weighted image of the basal ganglia structures..  

However, compared with older adults, young subjects showed significantly greater activity in the contralateral putamen and caudate, which could not be accounted for by increased age-associated shrinkage in these regions.  

Measurements in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus yielded globally different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values between drug treated patients with TD and control subjects but the magnetization transfer ratios showed no significant variations.  

In the butorphanol/7-NI coadministration group, the number of cells labeled for nNOS was significantly lower in the various brain regions (including the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus) than in the butorphanol group.  

Subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) have an increased density of synapses characteristic of corticostriatal or thalamostriatal glutamatergic inputs in the caudate matrix and putamen patches.  

Direct comparison of functional MRI signals obtained during 3:2 or 2:3 and on-the-beat rhythms indicated activation differences bilaterally in the supplementary motor area, ipsilaterally in the supramarginal gyrus and caudate-putamen and contralaterally in the cerebellum.  

We found behavioral evidence of outcome-specific transfer effects in our subjects, as well as differential blood oxygenation level-dependent activity in a region of ventrolateral putamen when subjects chose, respectively, actions consistent and inconsistent with the pavlovian-predicted outcome.  

Spike activity related to the problem of alternative choice of behavioral actions was recorded in the putamen of the monkey brain. The data obtained show that the putamen units control different directions of actions by a multilevel address coding, mainly through reorganizing the neuronal compositions with patterns of different level activity..  

Smaller additional activations were observed in the bilateral precuneus, left thalamus, and part of right putamen.  

Although D(1) receptor density did not relate to frontostriatal cognition, K(i) decreases in the putamen predicted performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in PD only.  

Simvastatin (1 mg/kg/day) increased [ (3)H]pirenzepine binding, predominantly in the prefrontal cortex (171%, P<0.001), primary motor cortex (153%, P=0.001), cingulate cortex (109%, P<0.001), hippocampus (138%, P<0.001), caudate putamen (122%, P=0.002) and nucleus accumbens (170%, P<0.001) compared with controls; while lower but still significant increases of [ (3)H]pirenzepine binding were observed in the examined regions following simvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) treatment.  

The second factor (insomnia) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right insula, right putamen, and right inferior parietal lobule, and positively correlated with rCBF in left fusiform gyrus and bilateral cerebellar tonsils.  

Interictal FDG-PET revealed abnormal cerebral glucose metabolism; all patients showed low glucose metabolism in the frontal lobes with some laterality, and three had low glucose metabolism in the ipsilateral putamen.  

Re-exposure to the environment previously associated with cocaine self-administration following 22 h or 15 days of abstinence produced a significant increase in zif/268 and arc, but not c-fos mRNA, in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens.  

Neurochemical evaluation demonstrated a reduction in dopamine levels in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens core and shell as well as an enhanced utilization ratio in the caudate-putamen after both withdrawal periods.  

Using SPECT or PET, rapid, high, and selective accumulation of PE2I was found in the caudate nucleus and putamen in monkeys, whereas rapid wash out from the cerebellum was observed.  

As expected, both good and poor imagers activated the inferior and superior parietal lobules, as well as motor-related regions including the lateral and medial premotor cortex, the cerebellum and putamen.  

RESULTS: DLB patients with impaired CDT performance showed significantly lower cerebral blood flow in the bilateral frontal eye fields, supplementary eye fields, right posterior putamen and the right ventrolateral part of the thalamus relative to the normal CDT subgroup.  

RESULTS: Seventeen patients out of 25 (68%) exhibited T(1)-weighted hypointense/T(2)-weighted hyperintense signal abnormalities in the putamen and globus pallidus on MR images. CONCLUSIONS: T(1)-hypointense/T(2)-hyperintense signal abnormalities are common findings in the putamen and globus pallidus of DYT1 patients but do not contraindicate DBS.  

The levels of Glu in putamen and caudate nucleus of electrodes side at 1 week, 1, 8 and 12 months were increased significantly. The levels of GABA in putamen and caudate nucleus of electrodes side at 1 week, 1 month increased significantly compared with before turning on the pulse generator while decreased at 8, 12 months. The level of Tau in putamen and caudate nucleus increased significantly. CONCLUSION: Long-term STN HFS can increase the level of glutamate and taurine, while decrease the level of GABA in putamen and caudate nucleus of electrodes side.  

RESULTS: Our results confirmed that there was no significant difference in whole normalized grey matter volume between CIS and controls while VBM showed significant areas of bilateral thalamic, hypothalamic, putamen, and caudate atrophy. Voxel-wise correlations with clinical measures showed that cerebellar volumes correlated with clinical cerebellar function, nine-hole peg test scores, and MSFC, and the MSFC was also correlated with putamen volume.  

The rate of drug uptake in putamen was measured using positron emission tomography neuroimaging.  

We found that the putamen responds to efficiency, whereas the insula encodes inequity, and the caudate/septal subgenual region encodes a unified measure of efficiency and inequity (utility).  

Zinedin is primarily expressed in neurons of the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb and caudate putamen nucleus.  

The signal intensities of the putamen in Types 1 and 3 were more hypointense on 3T images than on 1.5T images.  

Extraversion was positively correlated with metabolism in the right putamen.  

Binding potential was calculated in the midbrain, substantia nigra, caudate, and putamen. RESULTS: Patients had a reduced binding potential in the substantia nigra and midbrain (p = 0.009 and 0.007), and normal values in the caudate and putamen.  

We have studied alterations in gene expression in the substantia nigra, the caudate nucleus and putamen of four PD patients and four matched controls using custom designed Agilent microarrays. We identified changes in the expression of 287 transcripts in the substantia nigra, 16 transcripts in the caudate nucleus and four transcripts in the putamen.  

Specifically, during the perinatal state, striosomal FOXP2 expression was detected in both the caudate nucleus and the putamen, although expression was more prominent in the caudate nucleus than in the putamen. Striosomal FOXP2 expression declined during the postnatal period, first in the putamen and later in the caudate nucleus.  

Compared to a control (color-estimation) task, which was matched in terms of difficulty, sustained attention, and motor preparation requirements, we found selective activation of the left putamen for the storage ("encoding") of stimulus duration into working memory (WM). Moreover, increased putamen activity was linked to enhanced timing performance, suggesting that the level of putamen activity may modulate the depth of temporal encoding.  

In addition, regions-of-interest were defined and a significant change in water content with disease grade was found in the frontal and occipital white matter, the globus pallidus, the anterior limb of the internal capsule and the putamen.  

In healthy controls we report Dice overlap measures of 0.81, 0.83, 0.74, 0.86 and 0.75 for the right caudate nucleus, putamen, pallidum, thalamus and hippocampus respectively. We also find statistically significant improvement of accuracy in FS+LDDMM over FreeSurfer for the caudate nucleus and putamen of Huntington's disease and Tourette's syndrome subjects, and the right hippocampus of Schizophrenia subjects..  

In addition the aMCI subjects displayed several regions of increased homogeneity, typically in right inferior parietal lobule, right fusiform gyrus and bilateral putamen.  

globus pallidus, caudate putamen, thalamus and substantia nigra.  

By contrast, neuroferritinopathy had consistent involvement of the dentate nuclei, globus pallidus, and putamen, with confluent areas of hyperintensity due to probable cavitation, involving the pallida and putamen in 52%, and a subset having lesions in caudate nuclei and thalami.  

A T1-weighted image of brain MRI, performed on the 4th day after hospitalization, detected abnormal high intensity areas in the bilateral putamens. The abnormal area in the left putamen was more prominent.  

Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed increased density in the putamen, with decreased density and size of the caudate and lentiform nuclei.  

OBJECTIVE: The striatum, including the putamen and caudate, plays an important role in executive and emotional processing and may be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. The putamen and caudate volumes were traced manually by a blinded rater, and the patient and control groups were compared using analysis of covariance adjusting for age, sex, intelligence quotient, and total brain volumes. Age was inversely correlated with left and right putamen volumes in MDD patients but not in the healthy subjects.  

Although the alterations induced by KET were not significant in most areas we studied, MA showed a significant increase in the ventral tegmental area but a marked decrease in caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens.  

Contrast 3) revealed stronger activation during FILLING in the bilateral frontal and prefrontal areas, the right anterior cingulated gyrus, and the right putamen (q(FDR)< or =0.05).  

Neurohistopathological evaluation revealed a significantly greater proportion of ischemically damaged neurons in the caudate nucleus and putamen in pigs subjected to 8 mins of cardiac arrest. Performance worsens with increasing ischemia time and is structurally associated with alterations in the caudate nucleus and the putamen..  


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