In the brainstem we observed activity in the dorsal rostral pons (representing the K├Âlliker-Fuse/parabrachial (KF/PB) nuclei and locus coeruleus), the inferior ventral pons and the dorsal and lateral medulla. Our results also reveal functional participation of the anteroventral (AV), ventral posterolateral (VPL) ventrolateral thalamic nuclei, and the posterior putamen in the response to CO(2) stimulation, suggesting that these centres may play a role in gating respiratory information to the cortex.  

Labeled brain cells were localized within known gustatory regions, including the rostral central subdivision (RC) of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), the principal site where geniculate axons synapse, and the site containing most of the cells that project to the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of the pons.  

The myocyte response to oxidative stress involves the progression of cellular changes primarily targeting mitochondria.  

Imaging revealed ventral pontine hypoplasia and mild cerebellar vermian hypoplasia, in addition to an unusual rounded to beaklike "bump" on the dorsal surface of the pons, extending into the fourth ventricle.  

Secondary end points included measures of FVC, changes in response on St.  

Secondary ICH (about 20%) is often associated with vascular abnormalities, tumors, and anticoagulant therapy or coagulation disorders, more frequently located in cerebral lobes or subtentorial (cerebellum or pons).  

Since the announcement by Fleischmann and pons that the excess enthalpy generated in the negatively polarized Pd-D-D(2)O system was attributable to nuclear reactions occurring inside the Pd lattice, there have been reports of other manifestations of nuclear activities in this system.  

It has been speculated that the anatomical lesion responsible for the pathological laughing is located in the pontine base, prefrontal cortex, and cerebellum. In cranial MRI, there was a lesion on central pons which was hypointense in T1 images with contrast enhancement and hyperintense in T2 and flair images.  

Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed T2- and FLAIR-weighted hyperintensities in the right temporal lobe, left and right frontal lobes, and pons.  

In this study, we examined oxidative stress after a swimming session, the responses of the antioxidant defences, and the influence of gender on these responses.  

The sphenopalatine ganglia (SPG) receive their preganglionic innervation from the ventro-lateral reticular formation and nuclei of the caudal pons, and are involved in parasympathetic control of cranial glandular and vascular components including the blood supply to specific brain areas.  

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed hospital records for all adult patients with symptomatic lesions of the pons and/or cerebellar peduncle who underwent an awake transcerebellar stereotactic biopsy at our institution over a 7-year period.  

Computed tomography revealed a hematoma and perifocal edema on the left side of the pons, and T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hemosiderin rim around the lesion with venous malformation.  

Eight lesions were located within pons Varolii and medulla oblongata, six within the cerebellar hemispheres and three in the cerebellopontine angle.  

This long-term event is mainly due to regrowth of microfragments that have been left in the operative field along the course of the facial nerve or at the surface of the pons.  

T1-weighted volumetric MRI pulse sequences (3DT1) show a contrast-enhanced signal that is useful for both the pons interface delineation in Koos III cases, and the canal ending. The 3DT2 pulse sequences with contrast injection, show improved distinction between the pons and the nerves due to signal differences within the schwannomas.  

To delineate the brainstem pyramidal tract, tractography was performed using two ROIs, ie, a seed ROI at the cerebral peduncle (ROI-1) and a target ROI at the lower pons (ROI-2).  

The T2-weighted MR image of the brain revealed multiple hyperintense signal lesions in the central pons as well as in the extrapontine sites of the bilateral cortical and subcortical areas in the frontal and parietal lobes. A T2-star (T2*)-weighted MR image showed focal hemorrhagic lesions in the lower pons.  

At P20, Fe concentrations in 4 brain regions (cortex, cerebellum, medulla/pons, and hypothalamus) generally were higher in all groups than in Cu-S pups.  

In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the mu(1) opioid receptor subtype is present in the parabrachial nucleus of the pons and that these receptors serve to modulate feeding in rats..  

Its role in important brain structures such as the midbrain, the lateral septal complex, the hypothalamus, the olfactory bulb, the pons, the choroid plexus, the nucleus pallidus, the striatum and the amygdala, the nucleus accumbens and the anterior cingulated gyrus candidate it as a promising target for genetic association studies.  

Cross-reactivity studies of nuts at the T cell level are difficult to interpret because of the inability to determine which cellular responses are from a true sensitization and which are due to cross-reactivity. Cellular responses were studied via splenocyte proliferation assay and measurement of secreted cytokines. In cellular assays, splenocytes from the monosensitized mice proliferated and produced IL-4 and IL-5 in response to cashew, walnut and peanut.  

We used measures of V(T)/f(P) and estimates of nondisplaceable volume of distribution and found 25%-200% higher values in smokers than in nonsmokers for the volume of distribution for the specific binding compartment in the frontal cortex, midbrain, putamen, pons, cerebellum, and corpus callosum.  

Adult En1(cre/+); Otx2(flox/flox) mice showed increased serotonin (5-HT) levels in the pons, ventral midbrain, hippocampus (CA3 subfield), and cerebral cortex, as indicated by HPLC and immunohistochemistry. These results clearly show that increased brain 5-HT levels are responsible for seizure resistance in En1(cre/+); Otx2(flox/flox) mice and confirm the important role of 5-HT in the control of seizure spread..  

Temporo-parietal coherence in the alpha band was significantly correlated with diffusivity in predominantly posterior white matter tracts including posterior corpus callosum, parietal, temporal and occipital lobe white matter, thalamus, midbrain, pons, and cerebellum, both in MCI subjects and controls (P < 0.05). In MCI subjects, frontal coherence in the alpha band was significantly correlated with a predominately frontal pattern of diffusivity including fiber tracts of the anterior corpus callosum, frontal lobe white matter, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum (P < 0.05).  

PURPOSE: To design and evaluate liposomal constructs capable of inducing a potent systemic and airway humoral response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa METHODS: Liposomes contained a peptide derived from P. No IgA response was observed in the airways upon injection of candidate vaccines by i.p.  

These vasomotor responses are largely dependent on the neurogenic release of CGRP from sensory afferents.  

Of them, the number of lateral olivocochlear (LOC) neurons was 1 738 (69.0%), mainly located in the middle of the pons, predominantly projected ipsilaterally. The total of medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons was 780 (31%), mainly located in dorsomedial periolivary nucleus, medial nucleus of the trapezoid body and ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, mainly distributed in the rostral extent of the pons, predominantly projected contralaterally. While the projection of MOC neurons is predominantly contralateral, the distribution of MOC neurons is more adjacent to the rostral extent of the pons than LOC neurons..  

The inflammasomes are macromolecular cytosolic complexes involved in the production of IL-1beta and IL-18 in response to several pathogen-derived stimuli.  

The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is a heterogeneous brainstem nucleus located in the midbrain and pons.  

MRI revealed a huge suprasellar cyst causing severe compression of the midbrain and pons.  

Expression of the APP transgene was found in ChAT-positive neurons of motor nuclei accompanied by robust intracellular Abeta accumulation, whereas no APP expressing neurons and thus no intracellular Abeta accumulation were found in neither the forebrain or pons complexes, nor in the caudate putamen.  

Although many LC neurons eventually reached the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum in DCC(-/-) embryos at late embryonic stages, a substantial number of LC neurons were abnormally distributed in the rostral pons and cerebellum.  

To test the hypothesis that CSD mothers would be less responsive to own baby-cry stimuli than VD mothers in the immediate postpartum period, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging, 2-4 weeks after delivery, of the brains of six mothers who delivered vaginally and six who had an elective CSD. VD mothers' brains were significantly more responsive than CSD mothers' brains to their own baby-cry in the superior and middle temporal gyri, superior frontal gyrus, medial fusiform gyrus, superior parietal lobe, as well as regions of the caudate, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and pons. These include correlations between own baby-cry responses in the left and right lenticular nuclei and parental preoccupations (r = .64, p < .05 and .67, p < .05 respectively), as well as in the superior frontal cortex and Beck depression inventory (r = .78, p < .01). Second, independent of mode of delivery, parental worries and mood are related to specific brain activations in response to own baby-cry..  

Brain MRI showed a small focal lesion in the right dorsal tegmentum of the caudal pons with signal characteristics consistent with a primary demyelinating central nervous system disease. Clinicoanatomic correlation in this patient suggests that a lesion of the superior vestibular nucleus and its efferent crossing ventral tegmental tract could be responsible for the PPUN.  

We show that simulations help to disassemble the mechanisms responsible for the onset of instability and evolution of patterns, and we demonstrate that some of the results are remarkably consistent with experiments.  

According to literature, brain stem cavernous angiomas occur most frequently in the pons (60%), and equally in the mesencephalon (20%) and in medulla oblongata.  

We focused on regions of the pons and the medulla oblongata directly involved in the regulation of autonomic functions.  

This 2-3 mm area, considered synonymous with the Obersteiner-Redlich zone, is a transition zone (TZ) between central and peripheral axonal myelination that is situated at the nerve's detachment from the pons.  

Brain diffusion-weighted image showed hyperintensities on the left dorsolateral portion of upper medulla and adjacent inferomedial tegmentum of the lower pons. Left posterior inferior cerebellar artery might supply the inferolateral tegmentum of the lower pons, which is usually supplied from anterior inferior cerebellar artery. The peripheral type facial palsy in our patient may have resulted from facial infranuclear involvement of the caudal pons extended from dorsolateral upper medullary lesion in ascending pathway of corticobulbar tract fibers..  

The sites were, medulla in three patients, pons-medulla in four, pons in 16, pons-midbrain in four and midbrain in three.  

AIMS: The aim of this study is to evaluate if mismatch repair (MMR) defective colorectal cancer has a different response to adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy in a cohort of patients prospectively followed during 5 years.  

T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging taken on postoperative day 19 revealed hyperintense areas in the pons, external capsule, bilateral thalami, and basal nuclei, which had not been recognized before, suggesting osmotic demyelination syndrome causing central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis.  

CT on hospital day 2 revealed a low density area in the right paramedian pons, but CT angiography showed no dissection or occlusion of the vertebrobasilar artery.  

We report a 36-year-old man who admitted due to brain infarctions of the pons and cerebellum.  

When patients with small artery disease (small acute infarctions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, corona radiata, and pons) were excluded, sensitivity increased to 92.3%.  

We measured hcrtR1 and hcrtR2 expression in the frontal cortex and pons using the RT-PCR method in murine models (8-week-old and 27-week-old orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic (TG) hypocretin cell ablated mice and wild-type mice from the same litter, 10 mice for each group), in canine models (8 genetically narcoleptic Dobermans with null mutations in the hcrtR2, 9 control Dobermans, 3 sporadic ligand-deficient narcoleptics, and 4 small breed controls), and in humans (5 narcolepsy-cataplexy patients with hypocretin deficiency (average age 77.0 years) and 5 control subjects (72.6 years).  

Relative to asymptomatic controls, symptomatic OSA patients showed damage in the bilateral hippocampus and caudate nuclei, anterior corpus callosum, right anterior thalamus, and medial pons.  

Bilateral stimulation led to increased signal on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, especially in the pons.  

The current study showed that alloxan-induced diabetic animals revealed hyperglycemia and was associated with an increase in the content of 5-HT, PKC-alpha expression and PKC activity (P < 0.05) simultaneously in striatum (ST), midbrain (MB), pons medulla (PM), cerebellum (CB), and cerebral cortex (CCX) from 7 days to 60 days.  

Pontocerebellar hypoplasias (PCH) represent a group of neurodegenerative autosomal recessive disorders with prenatal onset, atrophy or hypoplasia of the cerebellum, hypoplasia of the ventral pons, microcephaly, variable neocortical atrophy and severe mental and motor impairments.  

Findings include hypermetabolism in the middle frontal gyrus and Broca regions, and hypometabolism in the pons among depressed compared with non-depressed women..  

The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing must ultimately encompass all the various neuronal elements physiologically identified in brainstem respiratory circuits and their apparent aggregation into "compartments" within the medulla and pons.  

Since 3OC12-HSL can be degraded by paraoxonase (PON) family members, we hypothesized that pons regulate P. We chose Drosophila melanogaster as our model organism because it has been shown to be a tractable model for investigating host-pathogen interactions and lacks pons. Our findings show that PON1 can interfere with quorum sensing in vivo and provide insight into what we believe is a novel role for PON1 in the innate immune response to quorum-sensing-dependent pathogens.  

METHODS: In 16 patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis, we graded CTA-SI parenchymal hypoattenuation in the medulla, pons, midbrain, thalamus, cerebellum, occipital lobe, inferior parietal lobe, and medial temporal lobe. Independent outcome predictors measured as modified Rankin score at 3 months were CTA-SI pons and midbrain scores(cumulative r=0.81, P<0.001). For outcome dichotomized into death versus survival, the CTA-SI pons score (P=0.0037) was the only independent predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoattenuation in the pons and midbrain on pretreatment CTA-SI correlates highly with clinical outcome in patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis..  

For cholinesterase activity in the cerebellum, medulla-pons, forebrain, and hindbrain, and serum, inhibition in the CPS-oil groups was similar and inhibition in the CPS-DMSO groups was similar.  

Most trigeminal neuralgia is attributable to vascular compression of the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve at the pons.  

0.2%) in the pons. The results suggest that the main premotor sympathetic drive of the fear response comes from hypothalamic (PeF and Pa) and A5 neurons that project directly to the thoracic cord and bypass medullary presympathetic groups, and that the vasopressor premotor sympathetic neurons of the RVLM are unlikely to mediate the hypertensive pressure response of contextual fear..  

MRI of brain revealed symmetrical T-2 weighted hyperintensities in bilateral putaminal and caudate region along with pons and midbrain suggesting demyelination due to a metabolic insult.  

We examined the retrochiasmatic space between the superior border of the pons and posterior edge of the optic chiasm in six randomly selected adult fresh brain specimens.  

For DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured bilaterally at the level of the precentral gyrus, corona radiata, internal capsule, cerebral peduncles, pons, and pyramid.  

Rats in both age groups that received paired training showed significant increases in eyeblink conditioned responses across training relative to the unpaired groups. The findings suggest that developmental changes in the CN projections to the pons, inferior colliculus, or medial auditory thalamus may be a neural mechanism underlying the ontogeny of auditory eyeblink conditioning.  

The authors describe a novel approach to stereotactic biopsy of lesions of the lateral pons and medial cerebellar peduncle, and its diagnostic success without morbidity.  

Hence, extended reach passive optical networks (ER-pons) have been proposed.  

We and others have shown that a gene expressed specifically by subcortical projection neurons, Fezf2, is required for the formation of axonal projections to the spinal cord, tectum, and pons.  

Echolucent areas correlated with the site of the internal capsule and the myelinated posterior pons.  

He underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the day before that revealed "a 5-mm enhancing mass with surrounding edema in the pons anterior to the fourth ventricle most likely compatible with pontine glioma." CT angiography of the brain was negative.  

It results from an involvement of the ascending sensory tracts above the pons.  

The bilateral compression of the trigeminal nerve-pons junction in our patient suggests that the external pressure probably adds to the internal defects in central myelin formation, structure or maintenance.  

The aim of the study was to determine the effects of an antioxidant supplementation, which includes coenzyme Q(10), on plasma and neutrophil oxidative stress and the antioxidant response after a soccer match. Antioxidant diet supplementation prevented plasma oxidative damage but did not influence the neutrophil response to a football match..  

Moreover, the locus coeruleus (LC) projects from the pons through the rat sensorimotor cortex, and injury axotomizes LC fibers, depressing NA function. This was tested by measuring lipid peroxidation (LP) in the pons after sensorimotor cortex injury. Depression of function in the pons would be expected to alter areas receiving pontine efferents. We performed measures of NA and LP in both sides of the pons and cerebellum. We found a decrease of NA in the pons and the cerebellum, and a concomitant increase in the motor deficit and LP in the pons of injured animals. These observations suggest that the mechanism of remote inhibition after BI involves lipid peroxidation, and that the NA decrease found in the cerebellum of injured animals is mediated by a noradrenergic depression in the pons, or in areas receiving NA projections from the pons..  

CONCLUSIONS: White matter is extensively affected in OSA patients; the alterations include axons linking major structures within the limbic system, pons, frontal, temporal and parietal cortices, and projections to and from the cerebellum..  

In the pons, Barrington's nucleus and the norepinephrine (NE) nucleus, locus coeruleus (LC), are integral to a circuit that links the pelvic viscera with the forebrain and coordinates pelvic visceral activity with arousal and behavior.  

Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a high-intensity lesion in the central pons consistent with CPM. Severe hypoglycaemia has the potential to cause white matter lesions in the pons.  

This experiment tested the prediction that the neural activity produced by sapid sucrose reaches reward systems via projections from the pons through the limbic system. Thus ventral forebrain areas associated with affective responses appear to be activated directly by PBN gustatory neurons rather than via the thalamocortical taste system..  

We hypothesized that schizophrenia patients with substance use disorder (SCZ-SUD) would display increased cerebral activations in response to socioemotional stimuli, relative to patients with no SUD (SCZ). Loci of activation were identified in the right mPFC (BA 10) and the right supramarginal gyrus (BA 40) in SCZ-SUD patients, and in the left pons in SCZ patients.  

Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides, present in bacterial DNA, are recognized in vertebrates via the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and are known to act as anticancer agent by stimulating immune cells to induce a proinflammatory response.  

We assessed their clinical features according to the level involved (pons or medulla oblongata) and determined etiological mechanisms that may cause infarction in this region.  

Twenty percent of the patients have associated brain abnormalities such as cerebral atrophy, hypothalamic dysfunction, small cerebrum, micropolygyria, hypoplasia of pons, hypoplasia of cerebellar hemispheres, hypoplasia of medulla oblongata, agenesis or hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis and corpus callosum abnormalities.  

Two points each are subtracted for EIC in midbrain or pons and 1 point each for EIC in left or right thalamus, cerebellum or PCA-territory, respectively.  

In the brainstem, high binding was detected around the cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain and within the dorsal pons, in a volume comprising locus coeruleus.  

Within the bundles running between the midbrain and pons, a mean of 18% fewer fibers per unit volume were tracked in alcohol-dependent men than in healthy controls.  

The increase in [ (11)C]flumazenil-BP(ND) was not accounted for by differences in the plasma-free fraction (f(P); paired t-test p=0.24) or changes in the nonspecific binding (pons V(T), p=0.73).  

Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that strong expression of the HERV-W env gene was detected in the cerebral cortex and pons of the human brain..  

OBJECTIVE: To determine the normal mean reference normal value for metabolic ratios in the pons of healthy adult Chinese subjects by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS). The pons of every subject was scanned on single-voxel 1HMRS by using the point-resolved proton spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) with echo time (TE)=144 ms and repetition time (TR)=1500 ms. CONCLUSIONS: The ratios of NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho or Cho/Cr in the pons did not correlate with the age or gender of healthy subjects..  

The dorsolateral (DL) pons modulates the respiratory pattern.  

Osmotic demyelinating syndromes consisting of central pontine and extra-pontine demyelination are very uncommon disorders characterized by non-inflammatory lesions involving the pons and sometimes spreading to other areas.  

Due to suspected CPM, emergency magnetic resonance imaging was requested, observing a hypertense lesion in central, bilateral and symmetric T2 of the pons. Furthermore, this response opens questions on a possible dysimmune mechanism in this disease..  

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter produced by a small number of neurons in the midbrain, pons and medulla.  

Previous studies have shown that alpha(1)-adrenoceptor inactivation prevents these responses, suggesting that noradrenergic neurons are involved. We first tested the hypothesis that the pons (which includes noradrenergic neurons from the locus coeruleus; LC) plays a role in the lung burst frequency response to central hypoxia by comparing the effects of brainstem transection at the LC level between pre-metamorphic tadpoles and adults. Data show that brainstem transection prevents the lung burst frequency response in both stage groups. Inactivation of NKCC1 with bumetanide bath application reversed the lung burst response to hypoxia in tadpoles. Bumetanide inhibited the response in adults. These data indicate that a structure within the pons (potentially the LC) is necessary to the central hypoxic chemoreflex and demonstrate that NKCC1 plays a role in central O(2) chemosensitivity and its maturation in this species..  

In vivo biodistribution studies with trans-[ (18)F]1 and trans-[ (18)F]2 showed significant initial uptake into mouse brain and gradual washout, with heterogeneous regional brain distributions and higher retention in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum and lower retention in the striatum and pons-medulla.  

We review data suggesting that (a) breathing and respiratory chemosensitivity is blunted in PACAP-deficient mice; (b) PACAP plays an important role in protecting neonatal breathing during thermal stress; and (c) PACAP-signaling occurs in a number of loci important for respiratory control including the carotid bodies (the main peripheral respiratory chemoreceptors) and nuclei in the hypothalamus, pons and medulla, as well as pathways involved in setting sympathetic-parasympathetic tone.  

Parametric images were computed by calculating the region-to-cerebellum and region-to-pons ratio in each voxel over 60-90 min. The results were essentially similar when the uptake was expressed as region-to-pons ratios.  

Concentrations of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolites were measured in discrete regions of the brain including the pons, hypothalamus, and cortex by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The concentration of 5-HIAA and the 5-HIAA:5-HT-ratio were significantly decreased in pons after feeding contaminated grains. In the pons, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.52, P < 0.05) was observed between the concentration of 5-HT and BW gain after feeding contaminated diets. It was concluded that consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins adversely altered the pons serotonergic system of turkeys.  

NPR-C immunoreactivity was detected in several regions, including the periaqueductal gray, oculomotor nucleus, red nucleus and trochlear nucleus of the midbrain; the pontine nucleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus, vestibular nucleus, locus coeruleus, trigeminal motor nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, abducens nucleus and facial nucleus of the pons; and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, hypoglossal nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, nucleus ambiguus and inferior olivary nucleus of the medulla oblongata.  

However, MPTP did not affect the coenzyme Q content in the cerebellum, cortex and pons.  

CONCLUSIONS: Intense exercise increases lipid peroxidation, decreases Bcl-2 expression and induces an antioxidant response in lymphocytes.  

We found functional magnetic resonance imaging signal changes in the orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and pons and [ 11C]diprenorphine positron emission tomography signal changes in the orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, insula, thalamus, and anterior cingulate cortex.  

The chemokine CXCL12 and the receptor CXCR4 play pivotal roles in normal vascular and neuronal development, in inflammatory responses, and in infectious diseases and cancer. As we screened chemical libraries to find inhibitors of the interaction between CXCL12 and the receptor CXCR4, we identified synthetic compounds from the family of chalcones that reduce binding of CXCL12 to CXCR4, inhibit calcium responses mediated by the receptor, and prevent CXCR4 internalization in response to CXCL12.  

Image analysis based on the evaluation of Spatial Gray Level Dependence Matrices (SGLDM) enabled us to monitor biofilm structure development in response to external disturbances (i.e., periodic increases of wall shear stress) at a large scale (i.e., >1 mm).  

The clinical responses were judged by neuropsychiatric findings, revised Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-R), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at 24 weeks. Nor did the atrophy in midbrain, pons and medulla on brain MRI scans show significant progression.  

Few studies have dealt with the response properties of MNTB neurons to sound stimulation using in vivo preparations. In order to have a better understanding of the functional significance of the MNTB in auditory processing we report the basic temporal and spectral response properties of its principal cells using single-unit extracellular recordings to acoustic stimulation with pure tones and amplitude-modulated stimuli in the rat. Ninety-seven per cent of units showed V-shaped frequency response areas. Exploration of the relationship between the temporal and spectral properties and the location of the units in the MNTB yielded characteristic frequency (CF)-dependent response properties (latency, Q(10) and cut-off frequency) following a medio-lateral gradient, and CF-independent response features (maximum firing rate) following a dorso-ventral gradient..  

In situ hybridization demonstrated sense transcripts of the three genes in cerebrum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, pons/midbrain, and thalamus of 3-month-old pigs, and CRSP2 sense transcripts additionally in tractus opticus. The sense transcripts of alpha CGRP and CALCB (beta CGRP) were detected in cerebrum, hippocampus, and pons/midbrain of newborn mice, and to a lesser extent in pons/midbrain of 8-week-old mice.  

Basilar pons, cerebral crus and cerebellum hemisphere were more susceptible than pontine tegmentum, vermis, midbrain tegmentum and tectum. CONCLUSIONS: When the basilar artery is occluded, basilar pons, cerebral crus and cerebellum hemisphere were most susceptible.  

Experimental results verify considerable performance improvement on WDM-pons with 10-Gbps and 1.25-Gbps data rates for the downstream and upstream transmission, respectively..  

The compounds responsible for this deterioration in red wine flavor have not previously been identified.  

Preclinical drug development for visceral pain has largely relied on quantifying pseudoaffective responses to colorectal distension (CRD) in restrained rodents. However, the predictive value of changes in simple reflex responses in rodents for the complex human pain experience is not known. Significant decreases in rCBF were seen in the thalamus, parabrachial nucleus, periaqueductal gray, hypothalamus and pons. This suggests that functional brain imaging captures more extensive responses of the central nervous system to noxious visceral distension than those identified by traditional measures..  

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary form of small vessel disease in which the pons may show lacunar infarcts and leukoaraiosis.  

These symptoms-tinnitus, ataxia, and hearing loss-secondary to eighth nerve dysfunction, as well as symptoms arising from damage to adjacent structures such as the facial nerve, trigeminal nerve, or pons, can be caused by tumor growth or treatment.  

We determined the location of the CSTs by using two regions of interest (ROI) at expected areas of the pons and expected areas of the lateral half of the PLIC, in the left hemisphere of the brain. Finally, we defined each fiber tract of the CSTs between the pons and each ROI in the PCG by using two ROIs methods.  

Three-dimensional reconstructions of the fiber tracts were obtained using the fMRI activation as the seed region of interest and the CST area of the anterior pons as the target region of interest.  

Eyeblink-conditioned responses established with pontine stimulation in 12-day-old rats were reversibly abolished by an infusion of muscimol into the cerebellar interpositus nucleus.  

According to region of interest analysis, regional cerebral blood flow of the periaqueductal grey and pons was significantly increased at FDV as opposed to REST.  

The authors report a rare complication of hemorrhage and subsequent venous infarcts of the pons and cerebellum after transvenous embolization.  

Compared with findings during horizontal positioning, blood flow to the cerebrum, cerebellum, and cranial portion of the brainstem decreased significantly by approximately 20% during head-down positioning; blood flows within the pons and medulla were mildly but not significantly decreased.  

When he eventually developed severe respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support, brain MRI revealed new high signal intensity regions on T2-weighted images of the medulla oblongata and pons.  

A MEB phenotype with frontal cortical dysplasia and pons abnormalities was found in two patients with POMT1 and in one with POMT2 mutations, while a WWS phenotype was only found in a case with mutations in POMT1. Mutations causing frameshifts and stop codons were responsible for the more severe phenotypes.  

Computerised axial tomography and MRI of the head revealed extensive, diffuse and bilateral involvement of the white matter, basal nuclei, mesencephalon and pons, with no mass effect or contrast enhancement.  

There was a demyelinating lesion in the pons seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)..  

It enveloped a cylinder of fluid within the ventral pons extending to the mesencephalon and the lower brainstem. Considering the maturity of the remaining parts of the pons, the onset of structural decline is likely to be close to the time of birth.  

We tested the hypothesis that glutamate, acting via NMDA-type receptors (NMDAr) in the Parabrachial/K├Âlliker fuse (PBrKF) nucleus of the pons, is involved both directly and indirectly (via changes in cortical activation state) in modulating breathing and ventilatory responses to hypoxia. Systemic injection of MK-801 delayed and reduced the response to hypoxia while microinjection of MK-801 into the PBrKF did not reduce the HVR but sustained the hypoxic increase in tidal volume well into the post-hypoxic recovery period. Thus, while NMDAr in the PBrKF complex of the pons play a role in modulating sleep/wake-like states as well as changes in breathing pattern associated with changes in cortical activation state, they are neither involved in the hypoxic ventilatory response nor in the change in hypoxic sensitivity associated with the changes in cortical activation state..  

RESULTS From the early-stage, MSA-C patients exhibited reduced FA and white matter atrophy in the middle cerebellar peduncle, the inferior cerebellar peduncle, and the ventral pons.  

RESULTS: In embryonic mouse brain, CCM3 mRNA is seen in the ventricular, subventricular, and intermediate zones, the cortical plate, the developing septum, striatum, midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and medulla.  

In the comparing with real EA versus shallow EA, there was right-side activation over the SI, S II, motor cortex, ACC, insula, thalamus, hippocampus, occipital cortex, and cerebellum; also activation over bilateral prefrontal gyrus, caudate and pons.  

CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the presence of systemic inflammation in COPD, shows that maximal inspiratory loading does not increase the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8) in COPD patients or controls, but suggests that the former may be unable to mount an appropriate systemic anti-inflammatory response to exercise..  

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