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Internal Capsule


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the asymmetry of fibers in the posterior limb of the internal capsule with diffusion tensor imaging. The parameters including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)ìfractional anisotropy (FA) and eigenvalue lambd 1blambd 2blambd 3 were acquired from the posterior limb of the internal capsule in both hemisphere of brainìand paired t-test was used for statistical differences between the hemisphere. RESULT: No differences of ADC and lambd 1were found among the right-handersìbut FA in the internal capsule of left hemisphere was larger than that in the right (0.72+/-0.03 compared with 0.70 +/-0.04ìP=0.001), and lambd 2ìlambd 3 in the left was lower than that in the right [ (4.39+/-0.32 compared with 4.50+/-0.33)x10(-3) mm(2)/s, P=0.016 and (2.19 +/-0.34 compared with 2.29 +/-0.40)x10(-3) mm(2)/s, P=0.024, respectively]. Conclusion: The fibers in the posterior limb of the internal capsule of left hemisphere might be well sheathed with myelin among right-handers..  

Only ADC of the posterior limb of the internal capsule correlated with age.  

Here we show that the class 5 semaphorin, Semaphorin 5B, is expressed in regions of the cortex and subcortex flanking the projection of and avoided by descending cortical axons, suggesting a role as a repulsive guidance cue in the formation of the internal capsule. In organotypic slices, ectopic Semaphorin 5B expression along the presumptive internal capsule was sufficient to cause cortical axons to avoid their normal trajectory, resulting in either stalling at the boundary of Semaphorin 5B or turning into inappropriate areas of the cortex.  

Early MRI showed cerebral ischemia in the left parietal cortical area extending to the subcortical white matter, sparing the basal ganglion and the internal capsule.  

Brain injury emerged in anxious OSA versus nonanxious controls in bilateral insular cortices, caudate nuclei, anterior fornix, anterior thalamus, internal capsule, mid-hippocampus, dorsotemporal, dorsofrontal, ventral medial prefrontal, and parietal cortices.  

Regions of interest (ROIs) included mesencephalon, corpus callosum and left and right superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP), thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidus, posterior limb of internal capsule, frontal and parietal white matter.  

OBJECTIVE: Surgical treatment of cavernomas arising in the insula is especially challenging because of the proximity to the internal capsule and lenticulostriate arteries.  

Only in the early imaging group, the infants with poor outcome had significantly lowered ADC values in several brain areas, with the posterior limb of the internal capsule being the most predictive (Wald score = 5.7; P = .017).  

CT scan of brain showed acute cerebral infarction of left corona radiata, posterior limb of left internal capsule combined with left hemispheric brain swelling. An old cerebral infarction at the posterior limb of right internal capsule was also noted Clinical signs of aortic regurgitation and difference in blood pressures and amplitude of pulses on both arms were associated.  

The cortex and subcortical regions were involved in all cases with ipsilateral basal ganglia/internal capsule extension in 4 cases. The latter 2 infants had involvement of the posterior limb internal capsule, with basal ganglia and hemispheric involvement.  

SUMMARY: We report a case of diffuse arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in basal ganglia and an internal capsule associated with venous aneurysms. The patient was treated by embolization guided by CT angiography to target the basal ganglionic portion of the AVM while sparing the internal capsule.  

Computed tomogram of brain showed infarction of left internal capsule and basal ganglia.  

T2- and diffusion-weighted brain MRI showed a high-signal intensity lesion in the left internal capsule.  

All together, it emerges that the TUBA1A related lissencephaly spectrum ranges from perisylvian pachygyria, in the less severe form, to posteriorly predominant pachygyria in the most severe, associated with dysgenesis of the anterior limb of the internal capsule and mild to severe cerebellar hypoplasia.  

We describe a stroke patient, RD, who suffered an acute infarction to the left internal capsule, basal ganglia and frontal corona radiata.  

Injury appeared in symptomatic vs asymptomatic OSA subjects in the mid- and anterior cingulate, anterior insular, medial pre-frontal, parietal, and left ventrolateral temporal cortices, left caudate nucleus, and internal capsule.  

For DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured bilaterally at the level of the precentral gyrus, corona radiata, internal capsule, cerebral peduncles, pons, and pyramid.  

T1-weighted MR imaging after administration of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid detected enhanced lesions in the cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemisphere, and left posterior limb of the internal capsule 9 years after the initial treatment, although no abnormal findings were observed on initial and follow-up MR imaging. The patient received gamma knife irradiation for the remnant lesion in the cerebellar vermis, and the lesions in the cerebellar hemisphere and left posterior limb of the internal capsule, and chemotherapy with temozolomide.  

FA values and the axial eigenvalue (lambda(1)) showed a characteristic distribution, with the highest values for the splenium, followed by the genu, the right, and the left posterior limb of the internal capsule.  

RESULTS: Analysis of data on 14 cases and 15 controls demonstrated significant differences in the unadjusted odds of dysphagia for the following ROIs: (1) primary somatosensory, motor, and motor supplementary areas (PSSM; OR=10, P=0.009); (2) orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; OR=6.5, P=0.04); (3) putamen, caudate, basal ganglia (PCBG; OR=5.33, P=0.047); and (4) internal capsule (IC; OR=26; P=0.005).  

In addition, regions of interest were positioned in the central white matter at the level of the centrum semiovale, frontal and occipital white matter, splenium of the corpus callosum, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and the thalamus.  

Echolucent areas correlated with the site of the internal capsule and the myelinated posterior pons.  

Voxel-based analysis of the DT-MRI data showed that pianists had higher fractional anisotropy (FA) (indicating higher WMI) in the right posterior limb of the internal capsule.  

Some of the biggest white matter changes were in the forceps minor, forceps major, and internal capsule.  

The lesion involved the basal ganglia, basal forebrain nuclei, internal capsule and striatum (just 1-2% of total brain volume).  

The hypothalamus, thalamus, internal capsule, brainstem, and cerebellum were unaffected.  

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Multiple regions of lower FA appeared within white matter in the OSA group, and included fibers of the anterior corpus callosum, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and cingulum bundle, right column of the fornix, portions of the frontal, ventral prefrontal, parietal and insular cortices, bilateral internal capsule, left cerebral peduncle, middle cerebellar peduncle and corticospinal tract, and deep cerebellar nuclei.  

MRI findings showed a lack of myelination in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, whereas rCBF showed reduction in the associated gray matter.  

The technique involves macrostimulation with threshold identification of the optic tract and internal capsule. There was no injury to the internal capsule or optic tract throughout the series.  

Cingulate, subcaudate, BA25/CgWM, amygdala, posterior hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, anterior limb of the internal capsule and dorsomedial thalamus were studied.  

Urgent computerized tomography scan of the brain revealed diffuse hypodensity in the cerebral white matter bilaterally, and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter bilaterally, right internal capsule and external capsule on fluid attenuated inversion recovery and T2 sequences (hypointense on T1 sequence).  

High-frequency stimulation has recently been applied to patients with TS in open studies using the centromedian-parafascicular complex (CM-Pf) of the thalamus, the internal globus pallidus (GPi), or the anterior limb of the internal capsule as the principal target.  

Of all brain structure T1-weighted SI comparisons, that of the posterior limb of the internal capsule versus the posterolateral putamen scored best for outcome prediction. If the SI in the posterolateral putamen is less than the SI in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, favorable outcome is very likely, whereas if the SI in the posterolateral putamen is equal to or greater than the SI in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, adverse outcome is very likely.  

These dramatic effects of glutamate on ICMS-evoked genioglossus activity contrast with its weak effects only on right genioglossus activity evoked from the internal capsule or hypoglossal nucleus.  

Cortical abnormalities occurred in 51% of infants; 30% had white matter hemorrhage, 40% basal ganglia/thalamic lesions, and 11% an abnormal posterior limb of the internal capsule. Twenty-three infants (65%) demonstrated impairments at 18 months, which were related to the severity of white matter injury and involvement of the posterior limb of the internal capsule.  

Fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule increased in the myelomeningocele group (p = 0.02), suggesting elimination of some divergent fascicles; in contrast, the FA in several white matter structures (such as the corpus callosum genu [ p < 0.001] and arcuate fasciculus) was reduced, suggesting disruption of myelination.  

In addition, changes were also found in regions that appear to be normal in conventional MRI, such as the brain stem, internal capsule, cingulum and subcortical white matter including superior longitudinal fascicle and inferior longitudinal fascicle.  

White matter correlating with storage was in the temporal lobe-particularly lateral to the hippocampus and in the anterior temporal stem-, in the thalamic region and in the anterior limb of the internal capsule, all on the left hemisphere, and also in the right anterior temporal stem.  

In the MCI patients, FA values were significantly decreased in the hippocampus, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the splenium of corpus callosum, and in the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus compared to the control group. MD values were significantly increased in the hippocampus, the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsules, the splenium of the corpus callosum, the right frontal lobe, and in the superior and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus.  

The aim of this study was to compare the age-related changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) quantified from cerebral white matter (splenium and genu of the corpus callosum and posterior limb of the internal capsule) and cerebellar white matter (middle cerebellar peduncles, superior cerebellar peduncles, and inferior cerebellar peduncles) regions in healthy children ranging in age from birth to 132 months.  

Other cerebral infarctions were identified in the junction between the left posterior internal capsule and thalamus, in the left posterior corpus callosum, and in the posterior base of the left temporal lobe due to the occlusion of the posterolateral thalamoperforating, posterior pericallosal, and posterior temporal arteries, respectively.  

Thereafter, the patient had two clinical relapses: one was due to a lesion in the dorsal part of the medulla oblongata associated with a disturbance of deep sensation in both hands, and the other was due to a lesion involving the right internal capsule, the globus pallidus, and the caudate nucleus associated with left facial nerve palsy.  

Voxel-based morphometry of the FFD-normalized magnetic resonance images from PFBT survivors and sibling controls detected reduced gray matter density in the thalamus and entorhinal cortex and reduced white matter density in the internal capsule, hypothalamus, corpus callosum, and cuneus of the occipital lobe in the PFBT survivors.  

OBJECTIVE: We have used diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) for the evaluation of the somatotopic organization of corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and cerebral peduncle (CP).  

Localization of the corticofugal tract was assessed on axial magnetic resonance imaging slices using a corticofugal mask defining involvement of the motor cortex, corona radiata or internal capsule and combinations of these structures, adjusted for lesion volume. RESULTS: Longitudinal involvement of all 3 levels of the corticofugal tract and partial involvement of the internal capsule were associated with a significant probability of poor motor hand function recovery. The probability of regaining hand function ranged from 54% if the corticofugal tract was only partly affected to 13% if both motor cortex and internal capsule were affected. CONCLUSION: At one year post-stroke, lesions of the internal capsule were associated with a significantly lower probability of return of isolated hand motor function than lesions of the cortex, subcortex and corona radiata.  

Pilot clinical studies with encouraging results have been performed with DBS of the ventral anterior internal capsule (VAIC) and subgenual cingulate white matter (Cg25WM) for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression.  

The most frequent localization of ICH was multilobar (38%), internal capsule/basal ganglia region (36%) and lobar (17%). The best outcome was for the patients with cerebellar hemorrhage (63%), while only 40% of the patients with hemorrhage in internal capsule/basal ganglia region had Rankin scale 2 or less. ICHs are mainly localized in lobar and internal capsule/basal ganglia regions.  

They have major anomalies of major tracts, particularly absence of anterior commissure and of all components of the internal capsule.  

Psychiatric neurosurgery teams in the United States and Europe have studied deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum (VC/VS) for severe and highly treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

Tracts such as the anterior commissure and internal capsule are defective in mice with null mutation of Celsr3. Inactivation in telencephalon, ventral forebrain, or cortex demonstrated essential roles for Celsr3 in neurons that project axons to the anterior commissure and subcerebral targets, as well as in cells that guide axons through the internal capsule.  

The measured fractional anisotropy (FA), a scalar measure of diffusion anisotropy, along the region encompassing corticospinal tracts (CST) indicates significant differences between control and injured groups in the 3 to 4 mm area posterior to bregma that correspond to internal capsule and cerebral peduncle. Both the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle demonstrated an increase in GFAP-immunoreactivity compared to control animals. GAP-43 expression also indicates plasticity in the internal capsule.  

Dual microelectrodes were used to record and stimulate in the region of the anterior limb of the internal capsule and ventral striatum.  

We attempted to elucidate the corticospinal tract location at the posterior limb of the internal capsule in the human brain.  

METHODS: We evaluated FA values in the internal capsule, corona radiate and whole pyramidal tract using visualized tractography of 65 subjects (20 probable MSA patients, 28 age-matched ALS patients, and 17 age-matched healthy controls) using a 3.0T magnetic resonance system. RESULTS: The FA values in the internal capsule, corona radiate, and whole pyramidal tract were significantly lower in MSA patients than in controls and were at a level similar to those of ALS patients.  

In addition, regions-of-interest were defined and a significant change in water content with disease grade was found in the frontal and occipital white matter, the globus pallidus, the anterior limb of the internal capsule and the putamen. No association of water content and HE grade was established for the occipital visual and frontal cortices, the thalamus, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the caudate nucleus and the coronal white matter.  

Pure motor stroke (MS) correlated significantly with the presence of the responsible lacune in the internal capsule (P = 0.000147) and with the stroke severity (P = 0.00724).  

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Age-related white matter disease (leukoaraiosis) clusters in bands in the centrum semiovale, about the occipital and frontal horns of the lateral ventricles, in the corpus callosum, and internal capsule.  

The internal capsule was abnormal in 93% of infants with patterns I and II, and 86% of those infants died or developed cerebral palsy.  

Brain MRI revealed a fresh lacunar infarction in the genu of the right internal capsule. Our findings demonstrated that lacunar infarction in the genu of the right internal capsule caused severe and persistent amnesia..  

Brain MRI revealed a left peduncle abscess which descended deep into the brain reaching the internal capsule.  

But, there is little integration of these neurons into the existing circuitry, as seen by Fluorogold retrograde tracing from the internal capsule..  

RESULTS: Patients with HE showed increased MD in the cortical gray and white matter and the internal capsule.  

Using double labeling studies, we observed here colocalization of both proteins in fiber tracts including the corpus callosum, the adjacent subcortical white matter, the internal capsule and the anterior commissure.  

The fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the posterior limb of left internal capsule and of the bilateral thalami of the patient group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P = 0.01 or P = 0.00). TMT was positively correlated with the MD in the posterior limb of right internal capsule (r = 0.65, P = 0.02) and posterior limb of left internal capsule (r = 0.59, P = 0.03).  

After controlling for the effect of age, significant correlation was found between diffusion indices of the anterior limb of the left internal capsule and Chinese reading score (p=0.05), and of the corona radiata and English reading score (p=0.026 and p=0.029 for left and right, respectively).These DTI indices likely reflect the multiple biological processes that occur during brain development which provide the neural substrate for ongoing functional connectivity including for reading development..  

Significantly decreased FA and increased CS were observed in the anterior limb (ALIC) and posterior limb (PLIC) of the internal capsule and frontal white matter (P<0.05) in patients with different grades (1-4) of ACLF when compared with healthy controls.  

Human motor pathways with seed points from the internal capsule, motor cortex, and pons were studied respectively.  

MR imaging was performed on a 3T unit, and FA maps were analyzed independently by 2 observers using ROIs positioned in the corpus callosum, internal capsules, corticospinal tracts, and right thalamus. RESULTS: In the right internal capsule genu (FA = 702/728; b = 1000/700 s/mm(2)) and the left anterior limb of the internal capsule (AIC; FA = 617/745; b = 1000/700 s/mm(2)), the FA values were significantly different between the 2 b-values (P = .02 and .05, respectively).  

Myelination appropriate for the age was visible in posterior limb of internal capsule, in striatum, thalamus and in brain stem structures but diffuse destruction of myelin sheets was seen with severe marked astroglial reaction with signs of destruction of the cells and their processes.  

Thalami, internal capsule, cerebellum and posterior fossa were other less frequently calcified regions of the brain.  

Older subjects showed significantly decreased P-gp function in internal capsule and corona radiata white matter and in orbitofrontal regions.  

In the present study we used in situ hybridization to quantify transcript expression of these four genes, as well as for the myelin-related transcripts encoding quaking, EDG2, claudin-11, transferrin, CNP, and MAG in caudate, putamen, internal capsule, and NAc in postmortem brain from cocaine abusers and matched comparison subjects. However, expression of the transcript encoding PLP1 was significantly decreased in ventral and dorsal regions of the caudate, putamen, and in the internal capsule. Additionally, expression of claudin-11 and transferrin was decreased in the caudate and internal capsule, respectively.  

Postnatally, KO TCAs showed multiple pathfinding errors near intermediate targets, and were abnormally fasciculated within the internal capsule (IC).  

Resting and active MT showed an inverse linear relationship with regional FA values in large bihemispheric clusters, including the white matter underlying primary motor, premotor and posterior prefrontal cortices, as well as the genu of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncles and corpus callosum. The posterior limb of the internal capsule, where fast-conducting corticospinal fibres from M1(Hand) pass through, showed only a weak linear relationship between FA and MT.  

Mean FA and MD values were computed for midbrain, pons, medulla, posterior limb of internal capsule, and corona radiata.  

This report describes the long-term follow-up of chronic stimulation of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC) adjacent to the sensory thalamus in an elderly patient who suffered pain and spasticity in the left leg due to stroke.  

Abnormal signal intensity in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and diffuse cortical grey matter damage were associated with adverse outcome.  

At rostral TMN level, a lateral column of cells was located at the lateral tip of the ventrolateral TMN just medial to the internal capsule, while the medial column was close to the protruded region along the ventral, pial border.  

PVI criteria included unilateral injury with at least four of the following conditions: (1) focal periventricular encephalomalacia, (2) internal capsule T2 prolongation, (3) cortical and (4) relative basal ganglia sparing, and (5) remote hemorrhage.  

As compared with the reference standard, T1-weighted imaging performed best in both groups (infants imaged < or = 4 days and those imaged > 4 days after birth) for lesions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and posterior limb of the internal capsule (ICC, 0.93), as well as for punctate white matter lesions (ICC, 0.88).  

Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed abnormal signal intensity in the right basal ganglia, internal capsule, and corona radiata without mass formation and enhancement effect. The MET-PET study showed increased tracer uptake in the areas of abnormal signal intensity on the MR images, and the MRI-PET co-registered images exhibited the highest tracer uptake in the anterior limb of the internal capsule.  

Twelve regions were smaller in AIS, including right-sided descending white matter tracts (anterior and posterior limbs of the right internal capsule and the cerebral peduncle) and deep nucleus (caudate), bilateral perirhinal cortices, left hippocampus and amygdala, bilateral precuneus gyri, and left middle and inferior occipital gyri.  

The cortical point at which perpendicular puncture provides the best trajectory for ventricular access, traversing the least brain tissue and avoiding important brain structures, such as the head of the caudate nucleus, anterior limb of the internal capsule, and Broca's cortex in the dominant hemisphere, was measured.  

Immunohistochemically, macrophages and activated astrocytes were distributed more widely over the limbic system, namely internal capsule, thalamus, caudate nucleus and substantia nigra.  

Herein, we investigated the differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and average diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the bilateral anterior limb of internal capsules between neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients and appropriately matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, the neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients showed significantly reduced FA in the bilateral anterior limb of the internal capsule. CONCLUSIONS: FA of the bilateral anterior limb of the internal capsule was reduced in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients, indicating that the integrity of the white matter of the bilateral thalamus-frontal connection or the bilateral thalamus-anterior cingulate gyrus connection was destroyed..  

RESULTS: Stimulation in the region of the caudal internal capsule resulted in pathological crying but no other features of pseudobulbar palsy. CONCLUSIONS: At least 1 of the pathways controlling crying passes through the region of the caudal internal capsule, and this pathway is distinct from those involved with laughter and nonemotional facial movements.  

PAG608 expression was markedly induced in fibers and neuronal cells of the lateral globus pallidus and reticular thalamic nucleus adjacent to internal capsule, specifically in the parkinsonian side of L-DOPA-treated models.  

Mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in the following white matter (WM) regions: centra semiovale, the genu and the splenium of the corpus callosum and the posterior limb of the internal capsule.  

5-CT presynaptically suppressed both internal capsule stimulation-induced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and striatal stimulation-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs).  

Increased MD was observed in the superior cerebellar peduncles, deep cerebellar WM, posterior limbs of the internal capsule and retrolenticular area, bilaterally, and in the WM underlying the left central sulcus.  

RESULTS: FA values at the ipsilateral medulla and the proximal portion of the pyramidal tract, including centrum semiovale, internal capsule and cerebral peduncle, significantly decreased progressively from week 1 to week 12 (p < 0.01).  

The anterior commissure is absent in Trio-null embryos, and netrin-1/DCC-dependent axonal projections that form the internal capsule and the corpus callosum are defective in the mutants.  

To validate the DDF-based tractography method, we studied the somatotopic organization of the pyramidal tract in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC).  

Our case strongly suggests that the anterior arm of the internal capsule is part of the corticonuclear tract that is involved in emotional facial motility..  

We describe the presentation, course and radiological findings of a 34-year-old man who developed acute trismus and MRI findings consistent with the combination of an old and fresh infarction in the genu of the internal capsule.  

P2X7-positive glial-like small cells were also observed in nerve fiber tracts such as the anterior commissure, corpus callosum (CC), optic tract, and internal capsule.  

OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: To demonstrate the pattern of activation associated with electrical stimulation through bilateral deep brain stimulation electrodes placed within the anterior limb of the internal capsule to the level of the ventral striatum for treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. CONCLUSION: High-frequency stimulation via a lead placed in the anterior limb of the internal capsule induced widespread hemodynamic changes at both the cortical and subcortical levels including areas typically associated with the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder..  

METHODS: The left internal capsule was lesioned by a local injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1; 200 pmol) in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. RESULTS: ET-1 application induced a small, localized lesion within the internal capsule. CONCLUSIONS: ET-1-induced internal capsule ischemia in spontaneously hypertensive rats represents a good model of lacunar infarct with small lesion size, minimal adverse effects, and a measurable motor deficit.  

Fractional anisotropy (FA) and the mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in the ventral, central, and dorsal pons, middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) and internal capsule to evaluate corticopontocerebellar projection. RESULTS: FA values were significantly lower in the ventral and central portions of the pons, MCP, and internal capsules than in these areas in control subjects (P < 0.05) with the lower FA values correlating with poorer ICARS (r > -0.57, P < 0.05). In the five patients who underwent the follow-up study, there were significant decreases between the initial study and the follow-up DTI study for FA in the MCP and internal capsule (P < 0.05).  

A high MRI score, abnormal signal in the internal capsule, white matter or basal ganglia abnormalities with diffusion imaging were associated with unfavourable outcome.  

Signal intensity, noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), contrast to noise (CNR), contrast ratio (CR), and ADC values of bilateral posterior limb of internal capsule, frontal white matter, parietal gray matter, pons, thalamus, splenium of corpus callosum were measured on b1000 and b3000 DW images. The CNR and CR values at the posterior limb of internal capsule and pons were significantly increased on b3000 images (p<0.001) and decreased in the other regions measured.  

Makarenko et al (the area of destruction in the rat brain was 0.15-0.2 mm3 in the internal capsule (c.i.) of both hemispheres) in 105 noninbred white male and female mice (body mass 18-22 g) and 20 Wistar rats (body mass 200-220 g).  

At follow-up DTI, fractional anisotropy in patients had increased in the internal capsule and in centrum semiovale (P

DTI showed right-sided decrease of fractional anisotropy in the genu of the internal capsule and bilateral increase of overall water diffusivity in the white matter along the corticobulbar/corticospinal tract in 20 spasmodic dysphonia patients compared to 20 healthy subjects. These brain changes were substantiated with focal histopathological abnormalities presented as a loss of axonal density and myelin content in the right genu of the internal capsule and clusters of mineral depositions, containing calcium, phosphorus and iron, in the parenchyma and vessel walls of the posterior limb of the internal capsule, putamen, globus pallidus and cerebellum in the postmortem brain tissue from one patient compared to three controls.  

The intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) protocol consists of semimicroelectrode recording (for subthalamic nuclei), whereas accelerotransducers and spectral analysis allow assessment of tremor, finger tapping (FT), diadochokinesis (DDK), and determination of the distance between DBS electrodes and internal capsule (IC).  

The MCA reached to deep structures of the brain, including the internal capsule, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, insular cortex, and thalamus with a high-extent probability.  

Despite trials of more than 40 medications, her symptoms improved significantly only after placement of bilateral deep brain stimulators in the anterior inferior internal capsule. She underwent removal of the internal capsule electrodes and placement of centromedian nucleus thalamic stimulators with significantly improved tic control. CONCLUSION: Whereas the anterior internal capsule site had also produced psychiatric side effects such as altered mood and impulse control, the thalamic site has not done so to date.  

Adolescent smoking was also associated with increased FA of regions of the internal capsule that contain auditory thalamocortical and corticofugal fibers. FA of the posterior limb of the left internal capsule was positively correlated with reaction time during performance of an auditory attention task in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Development of anterior cortical and internal capsule fibers may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in cholinergic signaling induced by nicotine in tobacco smoke.  

WM loss was concentrated in the brainstem, internal capsule, temporal and frontal regions and the major fasciculi.  

In healthy controls, regions of interest were placed on the corpus callosum, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and periventricular and subcortical WM. However decreased FA and CL values were observed in the cavity compared with the corpus callosum, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and periventricular WM.  

The FA was significantly reduced within the thalamus, parietal white matter, and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, indicating significant involvement of corticothalamic and thalamocortical radiations.  

RESULTS: The protocol had a 91.4% success rate in induction of internal capsule infarction 286+/-153 mm(3) (mean+/-SD). Motor-evoked potentials revealed the presence of penumbral tissue in the internal capsule after 6 to 15 minutes anterior choroidal artery occlusion. Histology revealed that the internal capsule lesion expands gradually from acute to chronic phases.  

Elevating tensor rank increased SE, generally more significantly than GA, in: anterior limb of internal capsule, corpus callosum, deep frontal and subcortical white matter, along superior longitudinal fasciculus and cingulum.  

Volumes of cortical gray matter (cGM; beta = 0.41, p = 0.003), the lateral fronto-orbital gyrus (beta = 0.38, p = 0.01), superior frontal gyrus (beta = 0.29, p = 0.04), lateral ventricle (beta = -0.30, p = 0.04), and posterior limb of the internal capsule (beta = 0.43, p = 0.002) predicted MDRS I/P performance independent of WML volume.  

These studies identified moderate to severe bilateral axonal degeneration within white matter regions of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal cord and in the white matter of the cerebral internal capsule and peduncle, in the roof of the fourth ventricle and inferior cerebellar peduncle, and in the external arcuate and pyramidal fibres of the medulla.  

2.6226 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second, P < 0.04) at the posterior limb of the internal capsule compared to the control subjects. CONCLUSION: Abnormal diffusivity was found at the posterior limb of the internal capsule in AFALS(+SOD1) subjects, hitherto unreported.  

The ramipril treatment group showed significant protection from development of white matter lesions in the optic tract, the anterior commissure, the corpus callosum, the internal capsule and the caudoputamen.  

However, the 200-microm vibratome-cut sections and confocal microscopy proved excellent for demonstrating virus distribution in neurites and for in-depth analysis of the extent of tract infection in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres such as selective infection of the internal capsule and anterior commissure.  

In chronic progressive NB, similar histopathological changes were noted in pons, cerebellum, medulla, internal capsule, and midbrain, although the degree of mononuclear cell infiltration was modest.  

Region of interest analysis of the T(2) maps revealed significant T(2) increase in the areas of white matter (corpus callosum, internal capsule and midbrain), with minor changes, if any, in gray matter.  

MRI revealed a lacunar infarction in the left internal capsule.  

A 63-year-old man presented with hypoglycemia-induced hemiparesis manifesting as diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging changes in the splenium of the corpus callosum and internal capsule which disappeared after glucose administration.  

Regional DTI tractography of the internal capsule showed refinement in regional tract architecture with maturation. DTI tractography of the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule showed reproducibly coherent fiber tracts corresponding to known corticospinal and corticobulbar tract anatomy.  

Imaging manifested intratumoral cystic components represented 76.9% of all lesions, calcification represented 30.8%, ipsilateral cerebral and brain stem hemiatrophy represented 46.2%, cerebral white matter invasion through internal capsule or corpus callosum represented 30.8%.  

FA was measured in different regions of interest (ROIs) including the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, posterior limb and anterior limb of the internal capsule, centrum semiovale, frontal white matter, thalamus and head of the caudate nucleus. The values in the posterior limb and anterior limb of the internal capsule also decreased significantly with age as shown by comparison between the elderly and young groups (P<0.05).  

One case was followed-up at 3 month of age, he developed normally, but delayed myelination was found on posterior limb of internal capsule and optic radiation without occipital and parietal cerebral atrophy.  

In the present study, seven ALS patients were evaluated by ALSFRS and immediately submitted to DTI, getting FA values in the following regions: cerebral peduncle (PC), internal capsule (CI) and the white matter under the primary motor cortex (M1), secondary motor cortex (M2) and somesthetic cortex (SI).  

The regional analysis showed that the anterior corpus callosum, the bilateral anterior and posterior internal capsule, and the posterior periventricular regions had the most significant age-related FA decrease.  

RESULTS: In patients, FA values significantly lower than those in healthy controls were located in the left fronto-occipital fasciculus, left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, white matter adjacent to right precuneus, splenium of corpus callosum, right posterior limb of internal capsule, white matter adjacent to right substantia nigra, and left cerebral peduncle.  

Fourteen (87.5%) out of the 16 cases with basal ganglia and thalamic or internal capsule injury and 9 (81.8%) out of the 11 cases with cytotoxic brain edema diagnosed by diffusion weighted imaging had poor outcomes.  

The risk of motor complications was significantly greater in the internal capsule than in the corona radiata for the 20- and 25-Gy volumes in generalized Wilcoxon tests (p = 0.031), although no significant difference was observed for the maximal dose. The internal capsule was more sensitive to high-dose irradiation over a wide area of the PT, probably owing to the dense concentration of motor fibers..  

Subjects with the risk-associated TT genotype had reduced white matter density in the anterior limb of the internal capsule and evidence of reduced structural connectivity in the same region using DTI.  

This single centre, retrospective study was conducted with the following objectives: a) to describe the aetiological, clinical and prognostic characteristics of patients with thalamic haemorrhage as compared with that of patients with internal capsule-basal ganglia haemorrhage, and b) to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with thalamic haemorrhage.  

Compared to controls, mSOD mice had significant reductions in the volumes of total brain, substantia nigra, striatum, hippocampus, and internal capsule, with decreased cortical thickness in primary motor and somatosensory cortices.  

RESULTS: A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01).  

RESULTS: FA values were significantly reduced in the TBI group in genu of corpus callosum (CC), posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFO), and centrum semiovale (CS).  

In addition, Phr1 plays essential roles in the formation of major CNS axon tracts including those of the internal capsule, in part via cell-nonautonomous mechanisms, and these results reveal a choice point for cortical axons at the corticostriatal boundary.  

The anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, the external capsule, and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum were assessed.  

Analysis of ROIs showed mild TBI subjects to have significantly lower mean trace in the left anterior internal capsule (0.536 vs.  

Neural substrate of apathy is known to include the dorsolateral, medial and orbital frontal cortices, and subcortical structures such as the basal ganglia, thalamus and internal capsule.  

The pattern of atrophy included thinning of the gray matter (GM) in the insula, inferior frontal gyrus, caudate, lentiform nucleus, and thalamus, bilaterally, in the left middle frontal, middle occipital, and middle temporal gyri, and of periventricular, subinsular, right temporal lobe, and left internal capsule white matter.  

Fibre crossings in the pons, the internal capsule and the corona radiata are shown.  

Neonatal microstructural development in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule (PLIC) was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fractional anisotropy (FA) in 24 very-low-birthweight preterm infants at 37 weeks' gestational age and compared with the children's gait and motor deficits at 4 years of age.  

MR images demonstrated no abnormal signal-intensity changes in CST in the internal capsule or the brain stem in the ALSD group.  

We investigated whether proliferation and migration of endogenous NPCs are increased after a collagenase-induced small intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) near the internal capsule in rats.  

Patient 2 presented motor deficit associated with subcortical infarct in the internal capsule 8 months before admission.  

Performance Developmental Index score correlated with FA on the scan taken at the 30th week and inversely with the change of FA between scans in internal capsule and occipital white matter.  

METHODS: Ten patients with unilateral infarction of the posterior internal capsule were investigated using oxygen-15-water positron emission tomography during passive extension of the index finger. CONCLUSION: Recovery from internal capsule infarction is accompanied by substantial changes in activity of proprioceptive systems of the paretic and non-paretic limb.  

White matter deficits were observed adjacent to the left superior temporal gyrus, in the right internal capsule and inferior longitudinal fasciculus.  

In all patient CT revealed nonenhancing discrete dense lesions, simmetrically distribuited in the posterior limb of the internal capsule and posterior thalami and focal hypodensities of the midcerebellar peduncles and dentate nuclei, with mild cerebral atrophy.  

Magnetic resonance imaging in the intermediate form showed myelination in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, in contrast to the classic form of the disease.  

The tracts visualized included the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, uncinate fasciculus superior and inferior longitudinal fascicules, inferior occipito-frontal fasciculus, internal capsule and corona radiate.  

Computed tomographic head scan revealed 1 hyperdense hematoma measuring about 3.9 x 2.2 x 2.6 cm (about 15 mL in volume) located in the left putamen, compressing the posterior limb of left internal capsule.  

SETTING: A professional pianist sustained a lacunar infarction in the posterior limb of his right internal capsule, which resulted in left hemiparesis with immobilized left-hand and -finger movements persisting for 13 weeks.  

RESULTS: There was marked variability in white matter injury pattern in patients with PVL, with the most frequent injury to the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, posterior thalamic radiation, superior corona radiata, and commissural fibers.  

A typically mammalian dorsal striatopallidal complex was transected by a strongly coalesced internal capsule passing through to the pons and forming clearly identifiable but somewhat flattened (in a dorsoventral plane) pyramidal tracts.  

Acute CT showed extensive bilateral basal ganglia and left thalamic calcification; DWI showed a left internal capsule lacunar infarct; and MRA and CTA showed a 50% stenosis of the proximal left MCA..  

RESULTS: Compared with controls, the drug-naïve OCD patients showed significant increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum, the internal capsule and white matter in the area superolateral to the right caudate.  

RESULTS: The lesion density maps revealed damages in the posterior putamen, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and posterior half of the corona radiata in the distal group (n = 19), whereas lesions in the proximal group (n = 15) uniformly encompassed the middle part of the corona radiata, usually sparing the posterior half of the posterior limb of the internal capsule.  

Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in three deep WM structures (posterior limb of internal capsule, genu, and splenium of corpus callosum) and two peripheral WM regions (associational WM underlying prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex) with a standard region of interest (44 +/- 4 cm2).  

CONCLUSIONS: Given that stimulation of frontal eye field cortical regions produces similar contralateral conjugate eye deviation, these results are best explained by electrical current spread to nearby frontal eye field axons coursing lateral to the STN within the internal capsule. Thus, placement of the implanted electrode in a more medial, posterior, and inferior position may bring resolution of these symptoms by reducing the amount of current spread to internal capsule ax-.  

We encountered an instructive case of repetitive reversible severe neurological deficit due to ischemia of the internal capsule after mild head injury. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed acute infarction in the left internal capsule and corona radiata on diffusion-weighted imaging, and no microbleeding on susceptibility-weighted imaging. This tiny lesion of the internal capsule and corona radiata may have represented a small infarction caused by mechanical vasospasm of the perforating vessels branching from the middle cerebral artery after minor injury. Even mild head injuries may cause infarction of the internal capsule, although minor head injuries are common accidents in childhood and usually do not result in severe complications..  

Germinomas more rarely occur in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and internal capsule, causing sometimes cerebral hemiatrophy and hemiparesis.  

internal capsule FA correlated positively with symptom duration, and cerebral peduncle ADC positively with the Ashworth spasticity score.  

Elevated activity in white matter was most pronounced in the center of large white matter tracts, especially the frontal parts of the brain and the internal capsule.  

RESULTS: All 37 patients with cerebral palsy had periventricular lesions with T1 hyperintensity or cysts in the corona radiata above the posterior limb of the internal capsule on coronal sections. All of the 17 infants with T1 hyperintensity findings sparing the corona radiata above the posterior limb of the internal capsule showed normal motor development, irrespective of findings of ventriculomegaly. There was a tendency for the presence of widespread lesions in corona radiata above the posterior limb of the internal capsule to be correlated with the severity of motor handicap. CONCLUSIONS: Lesions in the corona radiata above the posterior limb of the internal capsule on a coronal view by term MRI were useful for predicting motor prognosis in preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia..  

Focussing the analysis on the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the size as well as two DTI parameters (mean diffusion and fractional anisotropy) was determined.  

Infarctions were larger and located more frequently on the internal capsule, putamen, thalamus and brainstem in group B.  

We assessed relative anisotropy in stereotaxically located regions of interest in the internal capsule, corpus callosum, anterior thalamic radiations, frontal anterior fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, temporal lobe white matter, cingulum bundle, frontal inferior longitudinal fasciculus, frontal superior longitudinal fasciculus, and optic radiations. Areas with anisotropy increasing with age included the anterior limb of the internal capsule, superior levels of the frontal superior longitudinal fasciculus and the inferior portion of the temporal white matter. Areas with anisotropy decreasing with age included the posterior limb of the internal capsule, anterior thalamic radiations, fronto-occipital fasciculus, anterior portion of the frontal anterior fasciculus, inferior portion of the frontal superior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum bundle and superior portion of the temporal axis. Sex differences were found in the majority of areas but were most marked in the cingulum bundle and internal capsule.  

While atrophy of the caudate nucleus was related to a higher number of CAG triplets and higher UHDRS-motor score, atrophy in other parts of the brain covaried with the two parameters differently: higher genetic load was associated with greater loss of cortical somatosensory projections and the worse UHDRS-motor score was accompanied by increased atrophy of the internal capsule, lower brainstem, hippocampus, and visual cortex.  

BACKGROUND: The anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), connecting cortical and subcortical structures, is involved in functional important circuits.  

Autoradiographic studies performed in brain samples of both groups using [ (125)I]HPP-[ des-Arg(10)]-Hoe-140 (150pM, 90min, 25 degrees C) showed a significant increase in density of B(1) receptor binding sites in the ventral hippocampal commissure (1.23+/-0.07fmol/mg), fimbria (1.31+/-0.05fmol/mg), CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas (1.05+/-0.03 and 1.24+/-0.02fmol/mg, respectively), habenular nuclei (1.30+/-0.04fmol/mg), optical tract (1.30+/-0.05fmol/mg) and internal capsule (1.26+/-0.05fmol/mg) in Abeta group. For B(2) receptors ([ (125)I]HPP-Hoe-140, 200pM, 90min, 25 degrees C), a significant increase in density of binding sites was observed in optical tract (2.04+/-0.08fmol/mg), basal nucleus of Meynert (1.84+/-0.18fmol/mg), lateral septal nucleus - dorsal and intermediary portions (1.66+/-0.29fmol/mg), internal capsule (1.74+/-0.19fmol/mg) and habenular nuclei (1.68+/-0.11fmol/mg).  

RESULTS: When smaller isotropic voxels were used, the FA was greater in areas with crossing fibers, including the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the thalamus, and the red nucleus; the FA was not significantly different in areas without crossing fibers, such as the corpus callosum, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and the corticospinal tract at the level of the centrum semiovale (P>.05).  

A single lesion was identified in 26 PATIENTS: pons (n = 8), internal capsule (n = 6), corona radiata (n = 2), distended internal capsule from corona radiate (n = 7), frontal subcortical area (n = 1) and precentral with or without postcentral gyrus (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS: AH is mainly caused by pontine or internal capsule/corona radiata lesions.  

We show here that GABA neurons in the VTA, midbrain, hypothalamus, and thalamus of rats express connexin-36 (Cx36) gap junctions (GJs) and couple electrically upon DA application or by stimulation of the internal capsule (IC), which also supports self-stimulation.  

White matter showed significant linear increases in internal capsule, arcuate fasciculus, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and cingulate fasciculus..  

DTI scans were analyzed using regions of interest placed in normal-appearing white matter to measure fractional anisotropy and diffusivity in the white matter of the frontal lobe, the genu of the corpus callosum, and the internal capsule. RESULTS: Greater anterior white matter lesion volumes were associated with higher diffusivity and lower anisotropy in the white matter of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and with higher diffusivity of the internal capsule and white matter lateral to the anterior cingulate cortex. Gray matter lesion volumes were associated with higher diffusivity in the genu of the corpus callosum and the internal capsule.  

In normal mice, thalamic and cortical axons meet in the internal capsule between embryonic day (E) 13.5 and E14.5 and fasciculate with each other as they extend to their targets, the cortex and thalamus, respectively. In Fezl-deficient mice, most of the thalamic and cortical axons stop in the internal capsule and at the pallial-subpallial boundary at E14.5, respectively.  

This was also true for the corpus callosum, cingulum and anterior limb of the internal capsule, where increasing tensor rank resulted in patterns that, although mono-modal, were more anisotropic.  


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